Analysis of the Microbiome of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Exposed to the Pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum 10094.
ABSTRACT: Rainbow trout that were resistant or susceptible to Flavobacterium psychrophilum infection were compared with respect to their microbial composition by using 16S rRNA V3-V4 sequencing. The differences occurred in gills, where resistant fish displayed a greater abundance of the phylum Proteobacteria and a smaller proportion of Firmicutes relative to those of susceptible fish.
Project description:A GeXP multiplex, RT-PCR assay was developed and optimized that simultaneously measures expression of a suite of immune-relevant genes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), concentrating on tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 ligand/receptor systems and acute phase response genes. The dataset includes expression values for drpt, il11a, il1b1, il1b2, il1b3, il1r-like-1(e3-5), il1r-like-1(e9-11), il1r1-like-a, il1r1-like-b, il1r2, saa, tnfa1, tnfa2, tnfa3, tnfrsf1a, tnfrsf1a-like-a, tnfrsf1a-like-b, tnfrsf5, and tnfrsf9. Gene expression was measured at four time-points post-challenge in both a resistant line (ARS-Fp-R) and a susceptible line (ARS-Fp-S) of rainbow trout. In addition, fish body weight, spleen index and the Flavobacterium psychrophilum load are reported. These data are an extension of information presented and discussed in "Proinflammatory cytokine and cytokine receptor gene expression kinetics following challenge with Flavobacterium psychrophilum in resistant and susceptible lines of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)" (Kutyrev et al., 2016) .
Project description:Rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) is a disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium psychrophilum, responsible for significant economic losses in salmonid aquaculture worldwide. The diversity of F. psychrophilum isolates and the inherent difficulties in vaccinating juvenile fish has hampered the development of a vaccine for RTFS. Disease episodes tend to occur between 10-14 °C with necrotic lesions often seen on the skin surrounding the dorsal fin and tail. At present no commercial vaccines are available for RTFS in the UK, leaving antibiotics as the only course of action to control disease outbreaks. The current work was performed as a pilot study to assess the efficacy of a polyvalent, whole cell vaccine containing formalin-inactivated F. psychrophilum, to induce protective immunity in rainbow trout fry. Duplicate groups of 30 trout (5 g) were immersed in 1 L of the vaccine for 30 s. Samples were taken 4 h, day 2 and 7 post-vaccination (pv) of skin mucus, tissues for histology and gene expression analysis; serum and histology samples were taken 6 weeks pv. A booster vaccination was given at 315 degree days (dd) also by immersion. Challenge was by immersion with a heterologous isolate of F. psychrophilum 630 dd post primary vaccination. The vaccine provided significant protection to the trout fry with a RPS of 84% (p < 0.0001). Detection of increased numbers of IgT positive cells in systemic organs, up-regulation of IgT expression in hind-gut and an increase in total IgT in serum was observed in vaccinated fish; however a functional role of IgT in the observed protection remains to be demonstrated.
Project description:Flavobacterium psychrophilum, a member of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group, is an important pathogen of salmonid fish. Previous attempts to develop genetic techniques for this fastidious, psychrotrophic bacterium have met with failure. Here we describe the development of techniques for the genetic manipulation of F. psychrophilum and the identification of plasmids, selectable markers, a reporter system, and a transposon that function in several isolates of this fish pathogen. The antibiotic resistance genes ermF, cfxA, and tetQ function in F. psychrophilum. Cloning vectors based on the F. psychrophilum cryptic plasmid pCP1 which carried these selectable markers were introduced by conjugation from E. coli, resulting in antibiotic-resistant colonies of F. psychrophilum. Conjugative transfer of DNA into F. psychrophilum was strain dependent. Efficient transfer was observed for two of the seven strains tested (THC02-90 and THC04-90). E. coli lacZY functioned in F. psychrophilum when expressed from a pCP1 promoter, allowing its development as a reporter for studies of gene expression. Plasmids isolated from F. psychrophilum were efficiently introduced into F. psychrophilum by electroporation, but plasmids isolated from E. coli were not suitable for transfer by this route, suggesting the presence of a restriction barrier. DNA isolated from F. psychrophilum was resistant to digestion by Sau3AI and BamHI, indicating that a Sau3AI-like restriction modification system may constitute part of this barrier. Tn4351 was introduced into F. psychrophilum from E. coli and transposed with apparent randomness, resulting in erythromycin-resistant colonies. The techniques developed in this study allow for genetic manipulation and analysis of this important fish pathogen.
Project description:Flavobacterium psychrophilum is a bacterial species that represents one of the most important pathogens for aquaculture worldwide, especially for salmonids. To gain insights into the genetic basis of the natural resistance to F. psychrophilum, we selected homozygous clones of rainbow trout with contrasted susceptibility to the infection. We compared the transcriptional response to the bacteria in the pronephros of a susceptible and a resistant line by micro-array analysis five days after infection. While the basal transcriptome of healthy fish was significantly different in the resistant and susceptible lines, the transcriptome modifications induced by the bacteria involved essentially the same genes and pathways. The response to F. psychrophilum involved antimicrobial peptides, complement, and a number of enzymes and chemokines. The matrix metalloproteases mmp9 and mmp13 were among the most highly induced genes in both genetic backgrounds. Key genes of both pro- and anti-inflammatory response such as IL1 and IL10, were up-regulated with a greater magnitude in susceptible animals where the bacterial load was also much higher. While higher resistance to F. psychrophilum does not seem to be based on extensive differences in the orientation of the immune response, several genes including complement C3 showed stronger induction in the resistant fish. They may be important for the variation of susceptibility to the infection.
Project description:Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of the fish diseases called bacterial cold-water disease and rainbow trout fry syndrome. It has been reported that some isolates of F. psychrophilum are resistant to quinolones; however, the mechanism of this quinolone resistance has been unexplained. In this study, we examined the quinolone susceptibility patterns of 27 F. psychrophilum strains isolated in Japan and the United States. Out of 27 isolates, 14 were resistant to both nalidixic acid (NA) and oxolinic acid (OXA), and the others were susceptible to NA and OXA. When amino acid sequences deduced from gyrA nucleotide sequences of all isolates tested were analyzed, two amino acid substitutions (a threonine residue replaced by an alanine or isoleucine residue in position 83 of GyrA [Escherichia coli numbering] and an aspartic acid residue replaced by a tyrosine residue in position 87) were observed in the 14 quinolone-resistant isolates. These results strongly suggest that, as in other gram-negative bacteria, DNA gyrase is an important target for quinolones in F. psychrophilum.
Project description:Flavobacterium psychrophilum causes bacterial cold-water disease in ayu inhabiting clear rivers in Japan. In this study, we report the draft genome sequences of six F. psychrophilum strains isolated from the gills and skin of dead juvenile ayu near the mouth of the Nahari River.
Project description:Investigations of the surface characteristics of Flavobacterium psychrophilum, an important pathogen of fish, assisted us in identifying a surface protein termed P18. In the current study, we developed a simple and efficient procedure for the purification of this protein by a two-step method. First, P18 was selectively released from flavobacteria by a heat-HEPES treatment of the cells and then subjected to anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography. De novo sequencing was used to generate a fragmented peptide spectrum from purified P18. Comparison of two obtained peptide sequences with a partial genome sequence of F. psychrophilum (INRA, Jouy-en-Josas, France) identified one gene encoding a 166-amino-acid OmpH-like protein that mostly likely undergoes N-terminal cleavage of the 23-residue signal peptide. The susceptibility of the OmpH-like protein to proteinase K treatment and the bacteriostatic/bactericidal activities of anti-OmpH-like protein antibodies indicated that this protein is actually exposed on the surface of F. psychrophilum. Vaccination trials showed that the OmpH-like protein can induce a high titer of anti-OmpH-like protein antibodies which are protective. Taken together, these results suggest that this surface protein produced by F. psychrophilum could be used in future vaccine development as a promising candidate antigen.
Project description:Phenotypes of myeloid-lineage cells remain poorly understood in the rainbow trout, and were the focus of this study, including effects of in vivo challenge to Flavobacterium psychrophilum (Fp), the cause of Bacterial Cold Water Disease (BCWD). A genetic line was used that is highly resistant to BCWD (R-line) as well as a susceptible control line (S-line). Using flow cytometry, we describe two Pax5-negative, myeloid-lineage populations: Population 1 consisted of small cells with high SSC and strong staining for Q4E, MPO, Pu1, EBF, and IL- 1?, which we named "neutrophil-like" cell. Population 2 had high Q4E, but weaker MPO, Pu1, EBF, and IL-1? staining. Five days after Fp-challenge, both genetic lines had a reduced abundance of neutrophil-like cells in anterior kidney, PBL, and spleen. Pop. 2 abundance was reduced in anterior kidney, and increased in spleen. S-line fish responded more strongly to Fp-challenge compared to R-line fish. Challenged fish with a higher abundance of neutrophil-like cells had significantly lower Fp-loads after challenge, suggesting that these cells aid in the resistance to BCWD.
Project description:Flavobacterium psychrophilum is a fish pathogen in salmonid aquaculture worldwide that causes cold water disease (CWD) and rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS). Comparative genome analyses of 11 F. psychrophilum isolates representing temporally and geographically distant populations were used to describe the F. psychrophilum pan-genome and to examine virulence factors, prophages, CRISPR arrays, and genomic islands present in the genomes. Analysis of the genomic DNA sequences were complemented with selected phenotypic characteristics of the strains. The pan genome analysis showed that F. psychrophilum could hold at least 3373 genes, while the core genome contained 1743 genes. On average, 67 new genes were detected for every new genome added to the analysis, indicating that F. psychrophilum possesses an open pan genome. The putative virulence factors were equally distributed among isolates, independent of geographic location, year of isolation and source of isolates. Only one prophage-related sequence was found which corresponded to the previously described prophage 6H, and appeared in 5 out of 11 isolates. CRISPR array analysis revealed two different loci with dissimilar spacer content, which only matched one sequence in the database, the temperate bacteriophage 6H. Genomic Islands (GIs) were identified in F. psychrophilum isolates 950106-1/1 and CSF 259-93, associated with toxins and antibiotic resistance. Finally, phenotypic characterization revealed a high degree of similarity among the strains with respect to biofilm formation and secretion of extracellular enzymes. Global scale dispersion of virulence factors in the genomes and the abilities for biofilm formation, hemolytic activity and secretion of extracellular enzymes among the strains suggested that F. psychrophilum isolates have a similar mode of action on adhesion, colonization and destruction of fish tissues across large spatial and temporal scales of occurrence. Overall, the genomic characterization and phenotypic properties may provide new insights to the mechanisms of pathogenicity in F. psychrophilum.
Project description:A multiplex PCR assay based on the 16S rRNA genes was developed for the simultaneous detection of three major fish pathogens, Aeromonas salmonicida, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, and Yersinia ruckeri. The assay proved to be specific and as sensitive as each single PCR assay, with detection limits in the range of 6, 0.6, and 27 CFU for A. salmonicida, F. psychrophilum, and Y. ruckeri, respectively. The assay was useful for the detection of the bacteria in artificially infected fish as well as in fish farm outbreaks. Results revealed that this multiplex PCR system permits a specific, sensitive, reproducible, and rapid method for the routine laboratory diagnosis of infections produced by these three bacteria.