Effect of Berberine on Atherosclerosis and Gut Microbiota Modulation and Their Correlation in High-Fat Diet-Fed ApoE-/- Mice.
ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis and its associated cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are serious threats to human health and have been reported to be associated with the gut microbiota. Recently, the role of berberine (BBR) in atherosclerosis and gut microbiota has begun to be appreciated. The purposes of this study were to observe the effects of high or low doses of BBR on atherosclerosis and gut microbiota modulation, and to explore their correlation in ApoE-/- mice fed a high-fat diet. A significant decrease in atherosclerotic lesions was observed after treatment with BBR, with the effect of the high dose being more obvious. Both BBR treatments significantly reduced total cholesterol, APOB100, and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels but levels of high/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lipoprotein (a) were only reduced by high-dose BBR. Decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6 and increased anti-inflammatory IL-10 and adiponectin levels were observed in the high-dose BBR group, but no decrease in IL-6 or increase in IL-10 was evident using the low-dose of BBR. 16S rRNA sequencing showed that BBR significantly altered the community compositional structure of gut microbiota. Specifically, BBR enriched the abundance of Roseburia, Blautia, Allobaculum, Alistipes, and Turicibacter, and changed the abundance of Bilophila. These microbiota displayed good anti-inflammatory effects related to the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and were related to glucolipid metabolism. Alistipes and Roseburia were significantly enriched in high-dose BBR group while Blautia and Allobaculum were more enriched in low-dose, and Turicibacter was enriched in both BBR doses. Metagenomic analysis further showed an elevated potential for lipid and glycan metabolism and synthesis of SCFAs, as well as reduced potential of TMAO production after BBR treatment. The findings demonstrate that both high and low-dose BBR can improve serum lipid and systemic inflammation levels, and alleviate atherosclerosis induced by high-fat diet in ApoE-/- mice. The effects are more pronounced for the high dose. This anti-atherosclerotic effect of BBR may be partly attributed to changes in composition and functions of gut microbiota which may be associated with anti-inflammatory and metabolism of glucose and lipid. Notably, gut microbiota alterations showed different sensitivity to BBR dose.
Project description:Background:Accumulative evidence showed that gut microbiota was important in regulating the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Hugan Qingzhi tablet (HQT), a lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory medicinal formula, has been used to prevent and treat NAFLD. However, its mechanism of action is unknown. The aim of this study was to confirm whether HQT reversed the gut microbiota dysbiosis in NAFLD rats. Methods:We established an NAFLD model of rats fed with a high-fat diet (HFD), which was given different interventions, and measured the level of liver biochemical indices and inflammatory factors. Liver tissues were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and oil red O. Changes in the gut microbiota composition were analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing. Results:The hepatic histology and biochemical data displayed that HQT exhibited protective effects on HFD-induced rats. Moreover, HQT also reduced the abundance of the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in HFD-fed rats and modified the gut microbial species at the genus level, increasing the abundances of gut microbiota which were reported to have an effect on relieving NAFLD, such as Ruminococcaceae, Bacteroidales_S24-7_group, Bifidobacteria, Alistipes, and Anaeroplasma, and significantly inhibiting the relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae, Streptococcus, Holdemanella, Allobaculum, and Blautia, which were reported to be potentially related to NAFLD. Spearman's correlation analysis found that [Ruminococcus]_gauvreauii_group, Lachnoclostridium, Blautia, Allobaculum, and Holdemanella exhibited significant (p < 0.001) positive correlations with triglyceride, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, interleukin-6, interleukin-1?, tumor necrosis factor-?, and body weight and negative correlations with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.001). The norank_f__Bacteroidales_S24-7_group and Alistipes showed an opposite trend. Moreover, the HQT could promote flavonoid biosynthesis compared with the HFD group. Conclusion:In summary, the HQT has potential applications in the prevention and treatment of NAFLD, which may be closely related to its modulatory effect on the gut microbiota.
Project description:Berberine (BBR) has been reported that it has effects on inhibiting colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of BBR on CRC also remains largely unknown. Herein, we investigated the therapeutic effects of BBR on CRC from the perspective of gut microbiota and metabolic alterations, which can provide a holistic view to understand the effects of BBR on CRC. First, azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) mouse was used as CRC animal model, then the degree of colorectal carcinogenesis in AOM/DSS mice with or without BBR administration was measured. The composition and abundance of gut microbiota was investigated by using 16S rRNA. Meanwhile, feces samples were analyzed with 1H NMR spectroscopy to investigate the metabolic alterations. As a result, BBR significantly reduced intestinal tumor development with lower macroscopic polyps and ki-67 expression of intestinal tissue, and better colonic morphology in mice. Moreover, BBR altered the composition of gut microbiota in AOM/DSS mice obviously, which were characterized by a decrease of Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia significantly at the phylum level. At the genus level, it was able to suppress pathogenic species, such as f_Erysipelotrichaceae, Alistipes, and elevate some short-chain fatty acids (SCFA)-producing bacteria, including Alloprevotella, Flavonifractor, and Oscillibacter. Metabolic data further revealed that BBR induced metabolic changes in feces focus on regulating glycometabolism, SCFA metabolism and amino acid metabolism, which also provides evidence for alteration of the microbiota because these feces metabolites are the products of interactions between the host and the microbial community. This study showed that BBR induced alterations in microbiota and metabolic in AOM/DSS mice, which might providing new insight into the inhibition effects of BBR on CRC.
Project description:Effects of marine microalga Chlorella pyrenoidosa 55% ethanol extract (CPE55) on lipid metabolism, gut microbiota and regulation mechanism in high fat diet-fed induced hyperlipidaemia rats were investigated. Structure characterizations of major compounds in CPE55 were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS). The compositions of gut microbiota in rats were analyzed by high-throughput next-generation 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Oral administration with CPE55 markedly alleviated dyslipidemia through improving adverse blood lipid profile and inhibiting hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis. CPE55 has downregulated the gene expression levels of acetyl CoA carboxylase, sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase and upregulated adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase-?. It has also improved the abundance of bacteria Alistipes, Prevotella, Alloprevotella, and Ruminococcus1 and decreased the abundances of Turicibacter and Lachnospira. Turicibacter and Lachnospira were both positive correlations of metabolic phenotypes. The findings above illustrated that CPE55 might be developed as food ingredients to ameliorate lipid metabolic disorders and hyperlipidaemia.
Project description:Berberine (BBR), an isoquinoline alkaloid, is a major pharmacological component of the Chinese herb Coptis chinensis, which has been listed in the Chinese Fisheries Pharmacopeia as a common drug for the control of bacterial fish diseases. However, BBR is poorly absorbed into the systemic circulation but is significantly accumulated in the intestine. It is difficult to explain the mechanism of clinical effects of BBR based on systemic genes and pathways; it has been proved that the function of BBR in mammals is associated with the host metabolic phenotypes mediated by the structural modulation of gut microbiota. The mechanism of pharmacological effects of BBR in fish remains unclear. Here, we fed grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) a diet supplemented with BBR at a dose of 30 mg/Kg body weight daily and compared them with grass carp fed a regular fish feed diet. Biochemical analysis revealed that fish fed BBR had significantly reduced serum glucose, total cholesterol (TC), and triglyceride (TG) levels, and increased TC (p < 0.05) and TG (p < 0.01) levels in the liver. Deep amplicon sequencing of the V4 region of 16S rRNA genes of the gut microbiota revealed: (i) the composition of gut microbiota after BBR feeding was more diverse than that in the control group; (ii)before fish were fed BBR, the enriched operational taxonomic units (OTUs) mainly belonged to Firmicutes while most enriched OTUs came from Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes during BBR feeding and after BBR feeding stopped; (iii) the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in fish fed BBR. Spearman's rank correlation showed that 32 berberine-OTUs were significantly negative correlated with glucose (p < 0.05). It indicates that BBR may affect the levels of serum glucose by the structural modulation of gut microbiota. Our results provide insight into the effect of BBR on fish metabolism and gut microbiomes, which would be beneficial for the fish welfare.
Project description:Mitochondrial dysfunction is prevalent in the aging gastrointestinal tract. We investigated whether mitochondrial function in aging colonic crypts and exercise influences microbial gut communities in mice. Twelve PolgAmut/mut mice were randomly divided into a sedentary and exercise group at 4 months. Seven-aged matched PolgA+/+ mice remained sedentary throughout. Stool samples were collected at 4, 7, and 11 months, and bacterial profiling was achieved through 16S rRNA sequencing profiling. Mitochondrial enzyme activity was assessed in colonic epithelial crypts at 11 months for PolgAmut/mut and PolgA+/+ mice. Sedentary and exercised PolgAmut/mut mice had significantly higher levels of mitochondrial dysfunction than PolgA+/+ mice (78%, 77%, and 1% of crypts, respectively). Bacterial profiles of sedentary PolgAmut/mut mice were significantly different from the sedentary PolgA+/+ mice, with increases in Lactobacillus and Mycoplasma, and decreases in Alistipes, Odoribacter, Anaeroplasma, Rikenella, Parabacteroides, and Allobaculum in the PolgAmut/mut mice. Exercise did not have any impact upon gut mitochondrial dysfunction; however, exercise did increase gut microbiota diversity and significantly increased bacterial genera Mucispirillum and Desulfovibrio. Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with changes in the gut microbiota. Endurance exercise moderated some of these changes, establishing that environmental factors can influence gut microbiota, despite mitochondrial dysfunction.
Project description:The gut microbiota is important in the pathogenesis of energy-metabolism related diseases. We focused on the interaction between intestinal bacteria and orally administered chemical drugs. Oral administration of berberine (BBR) effectively treats patients with metabolic disorders. However, because BBR exhibits poor solubility, its absorption mechanism remains unknown. Here, we show that the gut microbiota converts BBR into its absorbable form of dihydroberberine (dhBBR), which has an intestinal absorption rate 5-fold that of BBR in animals. The reduction of BBR to dhBBR was performed by nitroreductases of the gut microbiota. DhBBR was unstable in solution and reverted to BBR in intestine tissues via oxidization. Heat inactivation of intestinal homogenate did not inhibit dhBBR oxidization, suggesting the process a non-enzymatic reaction. The diminution of intestinal bacteria via orally treating KK-Ay mice with antibiotics decreased the BBR-to-dhBBR conversion and blood BBR; accordingly, the lipid- and glucose-lowering efficacy of BBR was reduced. Conclusively, the gut microbiota reduces BBR into its absorbable form of dhBBR, which then oxidizes back to BBR after absorption in intestine tissues and enters the blood. Thus, interaction(s) between the gut microbiota and orally administrated drugs may modify the structure and function of chemicals and be important in drug investigation.
Project description:Effects of green macroalgae 55% ethanolic extract Enteromorpha prolifera through an ultrafiltration membrane of 3 kDa (EPE3k) on antidiabetic activity, gut microbiota, and regulation mechanism were investigated in high-fat/high-sucrose diet and streptozocin-induced diabetic mice. The structural characterizations of its major compounds in EPE3k were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time of flight mass spectrometry. Furthermore, the intestinal microflora modulation in diabetic mice was also investigated with high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The proposed presence of polyphenols in EPE3k was confirmed. EPE3k could significantly decrease the fasting blood glucose and improve fasting glucose tolerance. The hypoglycemic effect of EPE3k was via activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and suppression of c-Jun N-terminal kinase in liver. EPE3k treatment significantly increased the relative abundance of Akkermansia and decreased the proportion of Alistipes and Turicibacter. The above results indicated that EPE3k could be provided as a new potential therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetic mellitus.
Project description:The intestinal microbial communities play critical roles in various aspects of body function of the host. Prebiotics, such as dietary fiber, can affect health of the host by altering the composition of intestinal microbiota. Although brown seaweed Laminaria japonica is rich in dietary fiber, studies on its prebiotic potential are quite rare. In this study, basal diet (control), basal diet supplemented with dried L. japonica (DLJ), heat-treated dried L. japonica (HLJ), or heated dried L. japonica with added fructooligosaccharide (FHLJ) was fed to rats for 16?weeks. Serum concentrations of IgG, triglyceride, and cholesterol were measured. In addition, the intestinal microbiota composition was analyzed by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. As compared to the control group, DLJ, HLJ, and FHLJ groups showed significantly higher serum IgG concentration, but had lower weight gain and serum triglyceride concentration. Moreover, DLJ, HLJ, and FHLJ groups showed lower Fimicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio when compared with the control group. As compared with the control group, obesity-associated bacterial genera (Allobaculum, Turicibacter, Coprobacillus, Mollicute, and Oscilibacter), and the genera with pathogenic potentials (Mollicute, Bacteroides, Clostridium, Escherichia, and Prevotella) decreased while leanness-associated genera (Alistipes, Bacteroides, and Prevotella), and lactic acid bacterial genera (Subdoligranulum, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, and Bifidobacterium) increased in all treatment groups. On the contrary, butyric acid producing genera including Subdoligranulum, Roseburia, Eubacterium, Butyrivibrio, and Anaerotruncus increased significantly only in FHLJ group. The overall results support multiple prebiotic effects of seaweed L. japonica on rats as determined by body weight reduction, enhanced immune response, and desirable changes in intestinal microbiota composition, suggesting the great potential of L. japonica as an effective prebiotic for promotion of host metabolism and reduction of obesity in humans.
Project description:Background: Berberine (BBR) has been extensively reported to inhibit colorectal cancer (CRC) development, though its bioavailability is poor. Nowadays, an increasing number of studies have shown that BBR significantly accumulates in the intestines and could regulate gut microbiota in obesity. The purpose of this study was to further explore the effects of BBR on gut microbiota in Apc min/+ mice receiving a high fat diet (HFD). Methods: Apc min/+ mice received either HFD alone or HFD and BBR for 12 weeks. The intestinal tissues were collected to evaluate the efficiency of BBR on neoplasm development by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Meanwhile, immunohistochemistry was conducted to investigate the effects of BBR on cyclin D1 and ?-catenin in colon tissues. Fecal samples were subjected to 16S rRNA sequencing. Results: BBR significantly reduced intestinal tumor development and altered the structure of gut microbiota in Apc min/+ mice fed with an HFD. At the phylum level, it was able to significantly inhibit the increase in Verrucomicrobia. At the genus level, it was able to suppress Akkermansia and elevate some short chain fat acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria. Conclusions: BBR significantly alleviated the development of CRC in Apc min/+ mice fed with HFD and restored the enteric microbiome community.
Project description:Berberine (BBR) has the beneficial effects of anti-inflammation, anti-bacteria, and anti-diabetes. The clinical application of BBR has been hindered by its poor gastrointestinal absorption. Stachyose (Sta), a prebiotic agent, improves the composition of gut microbiota and benefits for diabetes. We therefore investigated whether Sta improves the anti-diabetic actions of BBR using KKAy mice. Here, we find that the combination of BBR and Sta is more effective than BBR alone in blood glucose control, improvement of insulin resistance and islet functions, inflammatory mediators decrease, and maintenance of intestinal barrier integrity. Gut microbiota analysis demonstrates that both BBR and combined administration enhance the abundance of Bacteroidaceae and Akkermansiaceae and decrease Lachnospiraceae levels, whereas Akkermansiaceae elevation due to the administration of BBR with Sta is more significant than BBR alone. Interestingly, the proportion of Lactobacillaceae increases with combination treatment, but is diminished by BBR. Additionally, BBR with Sta significantly reduces the concentrations of fecal short-chain fatty acids compared to BBR. Collectively, these results indicate that the combination of BBR and Sta imparts better effects on the maintenance of glycemia and intestinal homeostasis than BBR alone by modulating gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids, thereby providing a novel approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.