Examining the blood amino acid status in pretherapeutic patients with hyperphenylalaninemia.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Hyperphenylalaninemia is the most common genetic metabolic disease. Early treatment prevents brain injury effectively. The present study aimed to detect the exact amino acid status of patients with hyperphenylalaninemia before treatment. METHODS:Data of 116 newborn patients from our Newborn Screening Center and 161 older patients from our clinic before treatment were collected. The content of 17 amino acids in their blood was determined by tandem mass spectrometry and compared with normal controls. Relationship between phenylalanine and other amino acids in patients was analyzed using the smoothing curve fitting and threshold effect analysis. RESULTS:Most amino acids in the blood of patients were within the normal range; however, they were different significantly from those of the normal children. Newborn patients showed higher phenylalanine (346.30 vs 45.90 µmol/L), valine (121.50 vs 110.30 µmol/L), citrulline, ornithine and lower tyrosine (52.97 vs 66.12 µmol/L), threonine (68.68 vs 78.21 µmol/L), glutamine levels than observed in normal newborns. Older patients showed significantly higher phenylalanine (844.00 vs 51.82 µmol/L), valine (117.60 vs 110.90 µmol/L), histidine, serine and lower tyrosine (55.97 vs 67.31 µmol/L), threonine (35.94 vs 51.89 µmol/L), alanine, asparagine, glutamic acid, methionine, arginine, glycine, ornithine, glutamine content than found in matched normal children. Tyrosine, valine, ornithine, and threonine in newborn patients and tyrosine, glycine, glutamine, and threonine in older patients had a nonlinear correlation with phenylalanine levels with obvious threshold effect and clear inflection points. CONCLUSION:Significant difference was observed in the amino acid status between pretherapeutic hyperphenylalaninemia patients and normal children. Some amino acids showed notable threshold effect with phenylalanine level in a nonlinear pattern.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder accompanied with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease; despite being a common condition, the pathogenesis of PCOS remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate the potential metabolic profiles for different phenotypes of PCOS, as well as for the early prognosis of complications.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 217 women with PCOS and 48 healthy women as normal controls were studied. Plasma samples of subjects were tested using two different analytical platforms of metabolomics: 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS).<h4>Results</h4>Our results showed that carbohydrate, lipid and amino acid metabolisms were influenced in PCOS. The levels of lactate, long-chain fatty acids, triglyceride and very low-density lipoprotein were elevated, while glucose, phosphatidylcholine and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations were reduced in PCOS patients as compared with controls. Additionally, the levels of alanine, valine, serine, threonine, ornithine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan were generally increased, whereas the levels of glycine and proline were significantly reduced in PCOS samples compared to controls. Furthermore, the ratio of branched-chain amino acid to aromatic amino acid concentrations (BCAA/AAA) in PCOS plasma was significantly reduced in PCOS patients and was insusceptible to obesity and insulin sensitivity.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results suggested that the enhanced glycolysis and inhibited tricarboxylic acid cycle (TAC) in women with PCOS. Decrease of BCAA/AAA ratio was directly correlated with the development of PCOS. Ovulatory dysfunction of PCOS patients was associated with raised production of serine, threonine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and ornithine. Elevated levels of valine and leucine, and decreased concentrations of glycine in PCOS plasma could contribute to insulin sensitivity and could be considered as the potential biomarkers for long-term risk assessment of diabetes mellitus.
Project description:1. The pH optima for the incorporation of (14)C-labelled amino acids into gramicidin S by an 11000g cell-free extract from Bacillus brevis have been determined. The pH optima for leucine, proline, phenylalanine, ornithine and valine were 7.5-7.7, 7.5-7.7, 7.7-7.9, 7.7-7.9 and 8.0-8.2 respectively. Hence the greatest difference in pH optima existed between leucine and valine, where it was 0.5pH unit. 2. The 11000g cell-free extract incorporated into gramicidin S only the l-isomers of valine, proline and ornithine. However, both isomers of leucine are utilized and the experiments indicate that a leucine racemase exists in the 11000g cell-free extract. With phenylalanine the l-isomer is utilized much more effectively than the d-isomer. This is noteworthy since it is the d-isomer that occurs in gramicidin S. The experiments indicate that conversion of the l-isomer into the d-form takes place at a stage beyond that of the free amino acid.
Project description:A prolonged elevation in the concentrations of circulating phenylalanine was maintained in newborn mice by daily injections of phenylalanine and a phenylalanine hydroxylase inhibitor, alpha-methylphenylalanine. The result of this chronic hyperphenylalaninaemia was an accumulation of vacant or inactive monoribosomes that persisted for 18 h of each day. An elongation assay in vitro with brain postmitochondrial supernatants demonstrated that, in addition, there was an equally prolonged decrease in the rates of polypeptide-chain elongation by the remaining brain polyribosomes. Analyses of the free amino acid composition in the brains of hyperphenylalaninaemic mice showed a loss of several amino acids from the brain, particularly the large, neutral amino acids, which are co- or counter-transported across plasma membranes with phenylalanine. When a mixture of these amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, valine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, methionine) was injected into hyperphenylalaninaemic mice, there was an immediate cessation of monoribosome accumulation in the brain and there was no inhibition of the rates of polypeptide-chain elongation. Although the concentrations of the large, neutral amino acids in the brain were partially preserved by treatment of hyperphenylalaninaemic mice with the amino acid mixture, the elevated concentrations of phenylalanine remained unaltered. The amino acid mixture had no detectable effect on brain protein synthesis in the absence of the hyperphenylalaninaemic condition.
Project description:The effects of acute administration of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (cachectin) (TNF-alpha) or of malignant tumour growth (Walker-256 carcinosarcoma) on hepatic availability and uptake of individual amino acids were compared. The results show that, in spite of lowering the hepatic availability of alanine, aspartate, serine, glycine and proline, the cytokine increased both the total amino acid hepatic uptake and the individual uptakes of alanine, glutamate, serine, threonine, proline, lysine and arginine, while decreasing those of leucine, isoleucine and phenylalanine. Tumour burden resulted in an increase in the hepatic availability of glutamine, threonine, glycine, lysine, leucine, isoleucine, valine and phenylalanine. Total liver amino acid uptake was unaffected, whereas the individual uptakes of alanine, threonine and proline were increased and those of glutamate, glutamine, serine and leucine were decreased. When effects of the cytokine are compared with those induced by tumour growth, there are similar increases in net utilization for alanine, proline and leucine, and a 3-fold difference in the increase observed for threonine. Unmatched effects are seen for glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, glycine, lysine, arginine, valine, phenylalanine and serine.
Project description:Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that strictly depend on host metabolites, such as nucleotides, lipids, and amino acids. Depletion of amino acids in cell culture media results in abnormal chlamydial development in vitro. Surprisingly, enrichment of certain amino acids also retards chlamydial growth. Our experiments revealed that the antichlamydial effects are largely independent of changes in the host cell transcriptome or proteome and in the major signal transduction pathway modulated by amino acids, the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway. Furthermore, the chlamydial growth inhibition induced by leucine, isoleucine, methionine, or phenylalanine was completely reversed by concomitant addition of valine. In contrast, the growth inhibition induced by serine, glycine, or threonine was not reversed by valine addition. Functional characterization of the only predicted chlamydial transporter for branched-chain amino acids, BrnQ, revealed that it can be blocked by leucine, isoleucine, methionine, or phenylalanine but not by serine, glycine, or threonine. This chlamydial transporter is the only known BrnQ homolog possessing specificity for methionine, suggesting a unique strategy for methionine uptake among gram-negative bacteria. The antichlamydial effects of leucine, isoleucine, methionine, and phenylalanine could be explained as competitive inhibition of the BrnQ transporter and subsequent valine starvation.
Project description:Bee pollen is a natural product that has valuable nutritional and medicinal characteristics and has recently garnered increasing attention in the food industry due to its nutritive value. Here, we harvested pollen loads from the Al-Ahsa oasis in eastern Saudi Arabia during spring, summer, autumn, and winter in 2018/2019 to compare the nutritional value of bee pollen protein with the amino acid requirements of honeybees and adult humans. Based on the nutritional value of bee pollen protein, the optimal season for harvesting bee pollen was determined. The composition of the bee pollen showed the highest contents of crude protein, total amino acids, leucine, glutamic acid, valine, isoleucine, threonine, and glycine in samples collected in spring. The highest contents of lysine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, arginine, tyrosine, and cysteine were observed in samples collected in winter. The highest contents of histidine, methionine, and serine were in samples collected in autumn. Moreover, the highest levels of aspartic acid, proline, and alanine were in samples collected in summer. Leucine, valine, lysine, histidine, threonine, and phenylalanine (except in autumn bee pollen) contents in pollen from all four seasons were above the requirements of honeybees. Leucine, valine, histidine, isoleucine (except in autumn bee pollen), lysine (except in spring and summer bee pollen), and threonine (except in winter and spring bee pollen) in all tested samples were above the requirements of adult humans. In comparison with the minimal amino acid requirements of adult humans and honeybees, the 1st limiting amino acid in bee pollen collected during the different seasons was methionine. Bee pollen collected during spring (March-May) and winter (December-February) can be considered a nutritive food source for adult humans and honeybees.
Project description:1. Uptake rates for 23 amino acids were measured for both normal (high-GSH) and GSH-deficient (low-GSH) erythrocytes from Finnish Landrace sheep. 2. Compared with high-GSH cells, low-GSH cells had a markedly diminished permeability to D-alanine, L-alanine, alpha-amino-n-butyrate, valine, cysteine, serine, threonine, asparagine, lysine and ornithine. Smaller differences were observed for glycine and proline, whereas uptake of the other amino acids was not significantly different in the two cell types.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Research is limited in evaluating the mechanisms responsible for infant growth in response to different protein-rich foods; Methods: Targeted and untargeted metabolomics analysis were conducted on serum samples collected from an infant controlled-feeding trial that participants consumed a meat- vs. dairy-based complementary diet from 5 to 12 months of age, and followed up at 24 months.<h4>Results</h4>Isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine increased and threonine decreased over time among all participants; Although none of the individual essential amino acids had a significant impact on changes in growth Z scores from 5 to 12 months, principal component heavily weighted by BCAAs (leucine, isoleucine, valine) and phenylalanine had a positive association with changes in length-for-age Z score from 5 to 12 months. Concentrations of acylcarnitine-C4, acylcarnitine-C5 and acylcarnitine-C5:1 significantly increased over time with the dietary intervention, but none of the acylcarnitines were associated with infant growth Z scores. Quantitative trimethylamine N-oxide increased in the meat group from 5 to 12 months; Conclusions: Our findings suggest that increasing total protein intake by providing protein-rich complementary foods was associated with increased concentrations of certain essential amino acids and short-chain acyl-carnitines. The sources of protein-rich foods (e.g., meat vs. dairy) did not appear to differentially impact serum metabolites, and comprehensive mechanistic investigations are needed to identify other contributors or mediators of the diet-induced infant growth trajectories.
Project description:Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a rare autosomal recessive condition affecting about 1 in 10,000 people in the Europe, with a higher rate in some countries, like Ireland and Italy. In Italy, newborn screening (NBS) by MS/MS allows the diagnostic suspicion of PKU and its variants (Hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA), Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) synthesis deficiency, and Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) recycling deficiency) through the quantification of Phenylalanine (Phe) and the Phenylalanine/Tyrosine (Phe/Tyr) ratio in dried blood Spot (DBS) samples. Here, we report a case of an HPA whose suspicion was possible with expanded NBS, even if the normal-weight newborn was in total parenteral nutrition (TPN). It is known that TPN may present metabolic alterations, mainly for amino acids at NBS in MS/MS, frequently causing false positives. Actually, TPN is considered a special protocol in NBS, requiring several sample collections. In particular, a DBS sample is required before TPN, at basal time point (48 h after birth) and 72 h after the end of the procedure. In the case we report, even if the first DBS sample (before TPN) resulted negative, the repeated NBS tests revealed increased levels of Phe and dramatically high Phe/Tyr ratio. Thus, the newborn was recalled, and the NBS test was repeated several times before that HPA suspicion was confirmed by other specific biochemical tests. This case highlights the importance of Phe/Tyr ratio, only detectable by MS/MS analysis, in supporting the diagnostic suspicion during amino acids administration in the neonatal period.
Project description:In gut, Akkermansia muciniphila (A. muciniphila) probably exerts its probiotic activities by the positive modulation of mucus thickness and gut barrier integrity. However, the potential mechanisms between A. muciniphila and mucin balance have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we cultured the bacterium in a BHI medium containing 0% to 0.5% mucin, and transcriptome and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses were performed. We found that 0.5% (m/v) mucin in a BHI medium induced 1191 microbial genes to be differentially expressed, and 49 metabolites to be changed. The metabolites of sorbose, mannose, 2,7-anhydro-β-sedoheptulose, fructose, phenylalanine, threonine, lysine, ornithine, asparagine, alanine and glutamic acid were decreased by 0.5% mucin, while the metabolites of leucine, valine and N-acetylneuraminic acid were increased. The association analysis between transcriptome and metabolome revealed that A. muciniphila gave strong responses to energy metabolism, amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism, and galactose metabolism pathways to adapt to high mucin in the medium. This finding showed that only when mucin reached a certain concentration in a BHI medium, A. muciniphila could respond to the culture environment significantly at the level of genes and metabolites, and changed its metabolic characteristics by altering the effect on carbohydrates and amino acids.