Dual regulation of p53 by the ribosome maturation factor SBDS.
ABSTRACT: The Shwachman-Bodian Diamond syndrome (SBDS)-associated gene, SBDS, is involved in rRNA synthesis and ribosome maturation, but the role of SBDS in cancer is largely elusive. In this study, we found that SBDS is often overexpressed or amplified in human cancers, and high level of endogenous SBDS is significantly associated with unfavorable prognosis. Conversely, knockdown of SBDS leads to p53 stabilization and activation through the ribosomal stress-RPL5/RPL11-MDM2 pathway, resulting in the repression of cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Interestingly, ectopic SBDS in the nucleoplasm also suppresses tumor cell growth and proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, ectopically expressed SBDS triggered by, for example, ribosomal stress binds to the transactivation domain of p53 and perturbs the MDM2-p53 interaction, consequently leading to impaired p53 ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Altogether, our finding for the first time demonstrates the dual functions of SBDS in cancer development by coordinating ribosome biogenesis and p53 activity.
Project description:Several ribosomal proteins (RPs) in response to various ribosomal stressors have been shown to play a critical role in p53-dependent regulation of cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and tumor suppression. Here, we report ribosomal protein L22 (RPL22/eL22) as a novel p53 activator highly mutated (mostly deletion mutation) in various types of human cancers, but not essential for ribosomal biogenesis in normal cells. Ectopic expression of RPL22/eL22 suppressed the colony formation of cancer cells in a p53-dependent manner, whereas knockdown of RPL22/eL22 significantly compromised p53 activation by Actinomycin D, rescuing p53-induced G1/G0 cell cycle arrest. Interestingly, human tumors with RPL22/eL22 deletion appeared to sustain wild type p53. Mechanistically, RPL22/eL22 bound to MDM2 acidic domain and inhibited MDM2-mediated p53 ubiquitination and degradation, hence extending the half-life of p53. Ribosome-profiling analysis revealed that induction of ribosomal stress by Actinomycin D leads to the increase of ribosome-free RPL22/eL22 pool. Also, RPL22/eL22 formed a complex with MDM2/RPL5/uL18/RPL11/uL5 and synergized with RPL11/uL5 to activate p53. Furthermore, the N terminus of RPL22/eL22 bound to MDM2, while the C terminus interacted with RPL5/uL18/RPL11/uL5; both of these two fragments activated p53 by inhibiting MDM2. Our study indicates that RPL22/eL22 highly mutated in human cancers plays an anti-cancer role likely through regulation of the MDM2-p53 feedback loop, and also suggests that targeting the RPL22/eL22-MDM2-p53 pathway could be a potential strategy for future development of anti-cancer therapy.
Project description:Members of the ?-karyopherin family mediate nuclear import of ribosomal proteins and export of ribosomal subunits, both required for ribosome biogenesis. We report that transcription of the ?-karyopherin genes importin 7 (IPO7) and exportin 1 (XPO1), and several additional nuclear import receptors, is regulated positively by c-Myc and negatively by p53. Partial IPO7 depletion triggers p53 activation and p53-dependent growth arrest. Activation of p53 by IPO7 knockdown has distinct features of ribosomal biogenesis stress, with increased binding of Mdm2 to ribosomal proteins L5 and L11 (RPL5 and RPL11). Furthermore, p53 activation is dependent on RPL5 and RPL11. Of note, IPO7 and XPO1 are frequently overexpressed in cancer. Altogether, we propose that c-Myc and p53 counter each other in the regulation of elements within the nuclear transport machinery, thereby exerting opposing effects on the rate of ribosome biogenesis. Perturbation of this balance may play a significant role in promoting cancer.
Project description:Several proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors regulate the production of ribosomes. Ribosome biogenesis is a major consumer of cellular energy, and defects result in p53 activation via repression of mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) homolog by the ribosomal proteins RPL5 and RPL11. Here, we report that RPL5 and RPL11 regulate p53 from the context of a ribosomal subcomplex, the 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP). We provide evidence that the third component of this complex, the 5S rRNA, is critical for p53 regulation. In addition, we show that the 5S RNP is essential for the activation of p53 by p14(ARF), a protein that is activated by oncogene overexpression. Our data show that the abundance of the 5S RNP, and therefore p53 levels, is determined by factors regulating 5S complex formation and ribosome integration, including the tumor suppressor PICT1. The 5S RNP therefore emerges as the critical coordinator of signaling pathways that couple cell proliferation with ribosome production.
Project description:Mutations in the human Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome (SBDS) gene cause defective ribosome assembly and are associated with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, chronic neutropenia and skeletal defects. However, the mechanism underlying these phenotypes remains unclear. Here we show that knockdown of the zebrafish sbds ortholog fully recapitulates the spectrum of developmental abnormalities observed in the human syndrome, and further implicate impaired proliferation of ptf1a-expressing pancreatic progenitor cells as the basis for the observed pancreatic phenotype. It is thought that diseases of ribosome assembly share a p53-dependent mechanism. However, loss of p53 did not rescue the developmental defects associated with loss of zebrafish sbds. To clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying the observed organogenesis defects, we performed transcriptional profiling to identify candidate downstream mediators of the sbds phenotype. Among transcripts displaying differential expression, functional group analysis revealed marked enrichment of genes related to ribosome biogenesis, rRNA processing and translational initiation. Among these, ribosomal protein L3 (rpl3) and pescadillo (pes) were selected for additional analysis. Similar to knockdown of sbds, knockdown or mutation of either rpl3 or pes resulted in impaired expansion of pancreatic progenitor cells. The pancreatic phenotypes observed in rpl3- and pes-deficient embryos were also independent of p53. Together, these data suggest novel p53-independent roles for ribosomal biogenesis genes in zebrafish pancreas development.
Project description:Pre-ribosomal complex RPL5/RPL11/5S rRNA (5S RNP) is considered the central MDM2 inhibitory complex that control p53 stabilization during ribosome biogenesis inhibition. Despite its role is well defined, the dynamic of 5S RNP assembly still requires further characterization. In the present work, we report that MDM2 inhibition is dependent by a pre-existing population of 5S rRNA.
Project description:Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by bone marrow failure, exocrine pancreatic dysfunction, and leukemia predisposition. Mutations in the SBDS gene are identified in most patients with SDS. SBDS encodes a highly conserved protein of unknown function. Data from SBDS orthologs suggest that SBDS may play a role in ribosome biogenesis or RNA processing. Human SBDS is enriched in the nucleolus, the major cellular site of ribosome biogenesis. Here we report that SBDS nucleolar localization is dependent on active rRNA transcription. Cells from patients with SDS or Diamond-Blackfan anemia are hypersensitive to low doses of actinomycin D, an inhibitor of rRNA transcription. The addition of wild-type SBDS complements the actinomycin D hypersensitivity of SDS patient cells. SBDS migrates together with the 60S large ribosomal subunit in sucrose gradients and coprecipitates with 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Loss of SBDS is not associated with a discrete block in rRNA maturation or with decreased levels of the 60S ribosomal subunit. SBDS forms a protein complex with nucleophosmin, a multifunctional protein implicated in ribosome biogenesis and leukemogenesis. Our studies support the addition of SDS to the growing list of human bone marrow failure syndromes involving the ribosome.
Project description:Mutations in the Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond Syndrome (SBDS) gene cause Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome (SDS), a rare congenital disease characterized by bone marrow failure with neutropenia, exocrine pancreatic dysfunction and skeletal abnormalities. The SBDS protein is important for ribosome maturation and therefore SDS belongs to the ribosomopathies. It is unknown, however, if loss of SBDS functionality affects the translation of specific mRNAs and whether this could play a role in the development of the clinical features of SDS. Here, we report that translation of the C/EBP? and -? mRNAs, that are indispensible regulators of granulocytic differentiation, is altered by SBDS mutations or knockdown. We show that SBDS function is specifically required for efficient translation re-initiation into the protein isoforms C/EBP?-p30 and C/EBP?-LIP, which is controlled by a single cis-regulatory upstream open reading frame (uORF) in the 5' untranslated regions (5' UTRs) of both mRNAs. Furthermore, we show that as a consequence of the C/EBP? and -? deregulation the expression of MYC is decreased with associated reduction in proliferation, suggesting that failure of progenitor proliferation contributes to the haematological phenotype of SDS. Therefore, our study provides the first indication that disturbance of specific translation by loss of SBDS function may contribute to the development of the SDS phenotype.
Project description:The MDM2-p53 feedback loop is crucially important for restricting p53 level and activity during normal cell growth and proliferation, and is thus subjected to dynamic regulation in order for cells to activate p53 upon various stress signals. Several ribosomal proteins, such as RPL11, RPL5, RPL23, RPL26 or RPS7, have been shown to have a role in regulation of this feedback loop in response to ribosomal stress. Here, we identify another ribosomal protein S14, which is highly associated with 5q-syndrome, as a novel activator of p53 by inhibiting MDM2 activity. We found that RPS14, but not RPS19, binds to the central acidic domain of MDM2, similar to RPL5 and RPL23, and inhibits its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity toward p53. This RPS14-MDM2 binding was induced upon ribosomal stress caused by actinomycin D or mycophenolic acid. Overexpression of RPS14, but not RPS19, elevated p53 level and activity, leading to G1 or G2 arrest. Conversely, knockdown of RPS14 alleviated p53 induction by these two reagents. Interestingly, knockdown of either RPS14 or RPS19 caused a ribosomal stress that led to p53 activation, which was impaired by further knocking down the level of RPL11 or RPL5. Together, our results demonstrate that RPS14 and RPS19 have distinct roles in regulating the MDM2-p53 feedback loop in response to ribosomal stress.
Project description:Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is a rare pediatric disease characterized by various systemic disorders, including hematopoietic dysfunction. The mutation of Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome (SBDS) gene has been proposed to be a major causative reason for SDS. Although SBDS patients were reported to have shorter telomere length in granulocytes, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Here we provide data to elucidate the role of SBDS in telomere protection. We demonstrate that SBDS deficiency leads to telomere shortening. We found that overexpression of disease-associated SBDS mutants or knockdown of SBDS hampered the recruitment of telomerase onto telomeres, while the overall reverse transcriptase activity of telomerase remained unaffected. Moreover, we show that SBDS could specifically bind to TPP1 during the S phase of cell cycle, likely functioning as a stabilizer for TPP1-telomerase interaction. Our findings suggest that SBDS is a telomere-protecting protein that participates in regulating telomerase recruitment.
Project description:Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS; OMIM 260400) results from loss-of-function mutations in the Shwachman-Bodian Diamond syndrome (SBDS) gene. It is a multi-system disorder with clinical features of exocrine pancreatic dysfunction, skeletal abnormalities, bone marrow failure and predisposition to leukemic transformation. Although the cellular functions of SBDS are still unclear, its yeast ortholog has been implicated in ribosome biogenesis. Using affinity capture and mass spectrometry, we have developed an SBDS-interactome and report SBDS binding partners with diverse molecular functions, notably components of the large ribosomal subunit and proteins involved in DNA metabolism. Reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation confirmed the interaction of SBDS with the large ribosomal subunit protein RPL4 and with DNA-PK and RPA70, two proteins with critical roles in DNA repair. Function for SBDS in response to cellular stresses was implicated by demonstrating that SBDS-depleted HEK293 cells are hypersensitive to multiple types of DNA damage as well as chemically induced endoplasmic reticulum stress. Furthermore, using multiple routes to impair translation and mimic the effect of SBDS-depletion, we show that SBDS-dependent hypersensitivity of HEK293 cells to UV irradiation can be distinguished from a role of SBDS in translation. These results indicate functions of SBDS beyond ribosome biogenesis and may provide insight into the poorly understood cancer predisposition of SDS patients.