Arginine Derivatives in Cerebrovascular Diseases: Mechanisms and Clinical Implications.
ABSTRACT: The amino acid L-arginine serves as substrate for the nitric oxide synthase which is crucial in vascular function and disease. Derivatives of arginine, such as asymmetric (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), are regarded as markers of endothelial dysfunction and have been implicated in vascular disorders. While there is a variety of studies consolidating ADMA as biomarker of cerebrovascular risk, morbidity and mortality, SDMA is currently emerging as an interesting metabolite with distinct characteristics in ischemic stroke. In contrast to dimethylarginines, homoarginine is inversely associated with adverse events and mortality in cerebrovascular diseases and might constitute a modifiable protective risk factor. This review aims to provide an overview of the current evidence for the pathophysiological role of arginine derivatives in cerebrovascular ischemic diseases. We discuss the complex mechanisms of arginine metabolism in health and disease and its potential clinical implications in diverse aspects of ischemic stroke.
Project description:Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, is known as mediator of endothelial cell dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Circulating ADMA levels are correlated with cardiovascular risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperhomocysteinemia, age and smoking. Accordingly, clinical studies found evidence that increased ADMA levels are associated with a higher risk of cerebrovascular events. After the acute event of ischemic stroke, levels of ADMA and its analog symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) are elevated through augmentation of protein methylation and oxidative stress. Furthermore, cleavage of ADMA through dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolases (DDAHs) is reduced. This increase of dimethylarginines might be predictive for adverse clinical outcome. However, the definite role of ADMA after acute ischemic stroke still needs to be clarified. On the one hand, ADMA might contribute to brain injury by reduction of cerebral blood flow. On the other hand, ADMA might be involved in NOS-induced oxidative stress and excitotoxic neuronal death. In the present review, we highlight the current knowledge from clinical and experimental studies on ADMA and its role for stroke risk and ischemic brain injury in the hyperacute stage after stroke. Finally, further studies are warranted to unravel the relevance of the close association of dimethylarginines with stroke.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Dimethylarginines (DMA) interfere with nitric oxide formation by inhibiting nitric oxide synthase (asymmetrical DMA [ADMA]) and l-arginine uptake into the cell (ADMA and symmetrical DMA [SDMA]). In prospective clinical studies, ADMA has been characterized as a cardiovascular risk marker, whereas SDMA is a novel marker for renal function and associated with all-cause mortality after ischemic stroke. The aim of the current study was to characterize the environmental and genetic contributions to interindividual variability of these biomarkers. METHODS AND RESULTS:This study comprised a genome-wide association analysis of 3 well-characterized population-based cohorts (Framingham Heart Study [FHS; n=2992], Gutenberg Health Study [GHS; n=4354], and Multinational Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease Study [MONICA]/Cooperative Health Research in the Augsburg Area, Augsburg, Bavaria, Germany [KORA] F3 [n=581]) and identified replicated loci (DDAH1, MED23, Arg1, and AGXT2) associated with the interindividual variability in ADMA, l-arginine, and SDMA. Experimental in silico and in vitro studies confirmed functional significance of the identified AGXT2 variants. Clinical outcome analysis in 384 patients of the Leeds stroke study demonstrated an association between increased plasma levels of SDMA, AGXT2 variants, and various cardiometabolic risk factors. AGXT2 variants were not associated with poststroke survival in the Leeds study or were they associated with incident stroke in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium. CONCLUSIONS:These genome-wide association study support the importance of DDAH1 and MED23/Arg1 in regulating ADMA and l-arginine metabolism, respectively, and identify a novel regulatory renal pathway for SDMA by AGXT2. AGXT2 variants might explain part of the pathogenic link between SDMA, renal function, and outcome. An association between AGXT2 variants and stroke is unclear and warrants further investigation.
Project description:Dimethylarginines are inhibitors of NO synthesis and are involved in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. In this study, we ask the question if asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) levels change during fatal and reversible acute rejection, and contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic vasculopathy.The Dark Agouti to Lewis rat strain combination was used to investigate fatal acute rejection. Fischer 344 kidneys were transplanted to Lewis rats to study reversible acute rejection episode and the process of chronic rejection. Isograft recipients and untreated Lewis rats were used as controls. l-arginine derivatives were determined by HPLC, and ADMA-metabolizing enzymes were studied by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting.Renal transplantation transiently increased dimethylarginine levels independent of acute rejection. ADMA plasma levels did not importantly differ between recipients undergoing fatal or reversible acute rejection, whereas SDMA was even lower in recipients of Fisher 344 grafts. In comparison to isograft recipients, ADMA and SDMA levels were slightly elevated during reversible, but not during the process of chronic rejection. Increased dimethylarginine levels, however, did not block NO synthesis. Interestingly, protein methylation, but not ADMA degradation, was increased in allografts.Our data do not support the concept that renal allografts are protected from fatal rejection by dimethylarginines. Dimethylarginines may play a role in triggering chronic rejection, but a contribution to vascular remodelling itself is improbable. In contrast, differential arginine methylation of yet unknown proteins by PRMT1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic rejection.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate the blood concentrations of L-arginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), and L-homoarginine, which are regulators of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, in single, twin, and triplet pregnancies in ewes undergoing either a dietary energy restriction or receiving 100% of their energy requirements. From day 24 to 100 of pregnancy, the ewes were fed ryegrass hay and two different iso-proteic concentrates fulfilling either 100% of ewes' energy requirements (control group; n = 30, 14 singleton pregnancies, 12 twin pregnancies, and 4 triplet pregnancies) or only 45% (feed-restricted group; n = 29; 11 singleton pregnancies, 15 twin pregnancies, and 3 triplet pregnancies). Blood samples were collected monthly to measure, by capillary electrophoresis, the circulating concentrations of arginine, ADMA, homoarginine, SDMA, and of other amino acids not involved in NO synthesis to rule out possible direct effects of diet restriction on their concentrations. No differences between groups were observed in the circulating concentrations of most of the amino acids investigated. L-homoarginine increased markedly in both groups during pregnancy (p < 0.001). SDMA (p < 0.01), L-arginine, and ADMA concentrations were higher in feed-restricted ewes than in controls. The L-arginine/ADMA ratio, an indicator of NO production by NOS, decreased towards term without differences between groups. The ADMA/SDMA ratio, an index of the ADMA degrading enzyme activity, was higher in controls than in feed-restricted ewes (p < 0.001). Obtained results show that circulating concentrations of L-arginine, of its metabolites, and the ratio between NO synthesis boosters and inhibitors are altered in energy-restricted ewes, and that these alterations are more marked in ewes carrying multiple fetuses.
Project description:Protein arginine methylation is emerging as a significant post-translational modification involved in various cell processes and human diseases. As the major arginine methylation enzyme, protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) strictly generates monomethylarginine and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), but not symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA). The two types of dimethylarginines can lead to distinct biological outputs, as highlighted in the PRMT-dependent epigenetic control of transcription. However, it remains unclear how PRMT1 product specificity is regulated. We discovered that a single amino acid mutation (Met-48 to Phe) in the PRMT1 active site enables PRMT1 to generate both ADMA and SDMA. Due to the limited amount of SDMA formed, we carried out quantum mechanical calculations to determine the free energies of activation of ADMA and SDMA synthesis. Our results indicate that the higher energy barrier of SDMA formation (ΔΔG(‡) = 3.2 kcal/mol as compared with ADMA) may explain the small amount of SDMA generated by M48F-PRMT1. Our study reveals unique energetic challenges for SDMA-forming methyltransferases and highlights the exquisite control of product formation by active site residues in the PRMTs.
Project description:Objective:The status of metabolites of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway in patients with chronic wounds in the course of cardiometabolic diseases is largely unknown. Yet arginine supplementation and citrulline supplementation as novel therapeutic modalities aimed at increasing NO are tested. Material and Methods:Targeted metabolomics approach (LC-MS/MS) was applied to determine the concentrations of L-arginine, L-citrulline, asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginines (ADMA and SDMA), and arginine/ADMA and arginine/SDMA ratios as surrogate markers of NO and arginine availability in ulnar and femoral veins, representing systemic and local levels of metabolites, in patients with chronic wounds in the course of cardiometabolic diseases (n = 59) as compared to patients without chronic wounds but with similar cardiometabolic burden (n = 55) and healthy individuals (n = 88). Results:Patients with chronic wounds had significantly lower systemic L-citrulline and higher ADMA and SDMA concentrations and lower L-arginine/ADMA and L-arginine/SDMA as compared to healthy controls. The presence of chronic wounds in patients with cardiometabolic diseases was associated with decreased L-arginine but with increased L-citrulline, ADMA, and SDMA concentrations and decreased L-arginine/ADMA and L-arginine/SDMA. Serum obtained from the ulnar and femoral veins of patients with chronic wounds differed by L-arginine concentrations and L-arginine/SDMA ratio, both lower in the femoral vein. Wound etiology affected L-citrulline and SDMA concentrations, lower and higher, respectively, in patients with venous stasis, and the L-arginine/SDMA ratio-lower in venous stasis. The wound type affected L-arginine/ADMA and citrulline-lower in patients with ulcerations or gangrene. IL-6 was an independent predictor of L-arginine/ADMA, VEGF-A of ADMA, G-CSF of L-arginine/SDMA, and GM-CSF of L-citrulline and SDMA. Conclusion:Chronic wounds in the course of cardiometabolic diseases are associated with reduced NO and arginine availability due to ADMA and SDMA accumulation rather than arginine deficiency, not supporting its supplementation. Wound character seems to affect NO bioavailability and wound etiology-arginine bioavailability. Arginine concentration and its availability are more markedly reduced at the local level than the systemic level.
Project description:A relevant part of embolic strokes of undetermined source (ESUS) is assumed to be due to non-detected atrial fibrillation (AF). In this study, we aimed to investigate if markers of endothelial dysfunction and damage may indicate AF risk in embolic stroke. Eighty-eight patients with ischemic stroke confirmed by imaging were assigned to one of three groups: ESUS, AF, or micro-/macroangiopathy. ESUS patients underwent prolonged Holter electrocardiography scheduled for three days. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), the CHA₂DS₂VASC score, and the carotid intima⁻media thickness (CIMT) were obtained. Markers of endothelial (dys)function (L-arginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA)) were measured at day seven after stroke. ESUS patients were younger and had fewer cardiovascular risk factors than patients with determined stroke etiology. Compared with AF patients, ESUS patients showed significantly lower values of SDMA (p = 0.004) and higher values of L-arginine (p = 0.031), L-arginine/ADMA ratio (p = 0.006), L-arginine/SDMA ratio (p = 0.002), and ADMA/SDMA ratio (p = 0.013). Concordant differences could be observed comparing ESUS patients with those with newly diagnosed AF (p = 0.026; p = 0.03; p = 0.009; p = 0.004; and p = 0.046, respectively). CIMT was significantly larger in AF than in ESUS patients (p < 0.001), and was identified as an AF risk factor independent from CHA₂DS₂VASC in the regression analysis (p = 0.014). These findings may support future stratification for AF risk in patients who have suffered embolic stroke.
Project description:Elevated plasma concentrations of the uremic toxin asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) and low plasma concentrations of L-homoarginine are independently associated with cardiovascular events and total mortality. Enzymes degrading ADMA [dimethylaminohydrolase 1 (DDAH1)] and synthesizing L-homoarginine [L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT)] are expressed in human proximal tubule cells. So far, it is not known which transport protein in the basolateral membrane of proximal tubule cells is mediating the uptake of ADMA into the cells for subsequent degradation or the export of intracellularly synthesized L-homoarginine. One study suggested that the uptake transporter OATP4C1 (gene symbol SLCO4C1) may be involved in the transport of ADMA and other uremic toxins. OATP4C1 is a member of the SLCO/SLC21 family of solute carriers, localized in the basolateral membrane of human proximal tubule cells. By using stably-transfected HEK cells overexpressing human OATP4C1, we demonstrate that ADMA and L-homoarginine are substrates of OATP4C1 with Km values of 232.1 ?M and 49.9 ?M, respectively. ADMA and the structurally related uremic toxin SDMA (100 ?M) inhibited OATP4C1-mediated L-homoarginine uptake (P < 0.01), whereas other tested uremic toxins such as urea and p-cresyl sulfate have no effect on OATP4C1-mediated transport. Preloading experiments (300 ?M for 60 min) with subsequent efflux studies revealed that OATP4C1 also facilitates efflux e.g. of L-homoarginine. Both ADMA and L-homoarginine are substrates of human OATP4C1. Because proximal tubule cells are one site of ADMA metabolism and L-homoarginine synthesis, we postulate a protective role of OATP4C1 by mediating uptake of ADMA from and export of L-homoarginine into the systemic circulation.
Project description:Asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginines (ADMA and SDMA) impair nitric oxide bioavailability and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 (AGXT2) is the only enzyme capable of metabolizing both of the dimethylarginines. We hypothesized that two functional AGXT2 missense variants (rs37369, V140I; rs16899974, V498L) are associated with AF and its cardioembolic complications. Association analyses were conducted using 1,834 individulas with AF and 7,159 unaffected individuals from two coronary angiography cohorts and a cohort comprising patients undergoing clinical exercise testing. In coronary angiography patients without structural heart disease, the minor A allele of rs16899974 was associated with any AF (OR?=?2.07, 95% CI 1.59-2.68), and with paroxysmal AF (OR?=?1.98, 95% CI 1.44-2.74) and chronic AF (OR?=?2.03, 95% CI 1.35-3.06) separately. We could not replicate the association with AF in the other two cohorts. However, the A allele of rs16899974 was nominally associated with ischemic stroke risk in the meta-analysis of WTCCC2 ischemic stroke cohorts (3,548 cases, 5,972 controls) and with earlier onset of first-ever ischemic stroke (360 cases) in the cohort of clinical exercise test patients. In conclusion, AGXT2 variations may be involved in the pathogenesis of AF and its age-related thromboembolic complications.
Project description:L-Arginine/NO pathway is altered in Alzheimer disease (AD). Its clinical relevance and pathway status in vascular dementia (VaD) are unknown. Using targeted metabolomics (a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) we assessed L-arginine, L-citrulline, dimethylamine (DMA), asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) in AD (n?=?48), mixed-type dementia (MD; n?=?34), VaD (n?=?40) and non-demented individuals (n?=?140) and determined their clinical relevance (the association with dementia pathology, cognitive impairment, and structural brain damage). L-Arginine, ADMA, L-arginine/ADMA, and L-citrulline levels were decreased in dementia and L-arginine, L-citrulline, age and sex were its independent predictors correctly classifying 91% of cases. L-Arginine and L-arginine/ADMA were differentiating between VaD and AD with moderate accuracy. L-Arginine, L-arginine/ADMA, SDMA, and DMA reflected structural brain changes. DMA and L-citrulline were elevated in patients with strategic infarcts and SDMA, L-arginine/ADMA, and DMA were independent predictors of Hachinski ischemic score. ADMA and SDMA accumulation reflected severity of cognitive impairment. In summary, L-Arginine/NO pathway is altered in neurodegenerative and vascular dementia in association with neurodegenerative and vascular markers of brain damage and severity of cognitive impairment.