Dynamic Recrystallization Behavior and Processing Map of the 6082 Aluminum Alloy.
ABSTRACT: Multiple hot-compression tests were carried out on the 6082 aluminum (Al) alloy using a Gleeble-1500 thermal simulation testing machine. Data on flow stresses of the 6082 Al alloy at deformation temperatures of 623 to 773 K and strain rates from 0.01 to 5 s-1 were attained. Utilizing electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM), the dynamic recrystallization behaviors of the 6082 Al alloy during hot compression in isothermal conditions were explored. With the test data, a hot-working processing map for the 6082 Al alloy (based on dynamic material modeling (DMM)) was drawn. Using the work-hardening rate, the initial critical strain causing dynamic recrystallization was determined, and an equation for the critical strain was constructed. A dynamic model for the dynamic recrystallization of the 6082 Al alloy was established using analyses and test results from the EBSD. The results showed that the safe processing zone (with a high efficiency of power dissipation) mainly corresponded to a zone with deformation temperatures of 703 to 763 K and strain rates of 0.1 to 0.3 s-1. The alloy was mainly subjected to continuous dynamic recrystallization in the formation of the zone. According to the hot-working processing map and an analysis of the microstructures, it is advised that the following technological parameters be selected for the 6082 Al alloy during hot-forming: a range of temperatures between 713 and 753 K and strain rates between 0.1 and 0.2 s-1.
Project description:The hot deformation behavior and microstructural evolution of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu (7150) alloy was studied during hot compression at various temperatures (300 to 450 °C) and strain rates (0.001 to 10 s-1). A decline ratio map of flow stresses was proposed and divided into five deformation domains, in which the flow stress behavior was correlated with different microstructures and dynamic softening mechanisms. The results reveal that the dynamic recovery is the sole softening mechanism at temperatures of 300 to 400 °C with various strain rates and at temperatures of 400 to 450 °C with strain rates between 1 and 10 s-1. The level of dynamic recovery increases with increasing temperature and with decreasing strain rate. At the high deformation temperature of 450 °C with strain rates of 0.001 to 0.1 s-1, a partially recrystallized microstructure was observed, and the dynamic recrystallization (DRX) provided an alternative softening mechanism. Two kinds of DRX might operate at the high temperature, in which discontinuous dynamic recrystallization was involved at higher strain rates and continuous dynamic recrystallization was implied at lower strain rates.
Project description:Hot deformation behavior of Fe-30Mn-0.11C steel was investigated. Hot compression tests were carried out at various temperatures ranging from 800 °C to 1200 °C and at different strain rates of 0.01 s-1 to 10 s-1. The constitutive equation based on peak stress was established. Hot processing maps at different strains and recrystallization diagrams were also established and analyzed. The results show that dynamic recrystallization easily occur at high deformation temperatures and low strain rates. Safe and unstable zones are determined at the true strain of 0.6 and 0.7, and the hot deformation process parameters of partial dynamic recrystallization of the tested steel are also obtained.
Project description:The Cu-1.7Ni-1.4Co-0.65Si (wt%) alloy is hot compressed by a Gleeble-1500D machine under a temperature range of 760 to 970 °C and a strain rate range of 0.01 to 10 s-1. The flow stress increases with the extension of strain rate and decreases with the rising of deformation temperature. The dynamic recrystallization behavior happens during the hot compression deformation process. The hot deformation activation energy of the alloy can be calculated as 468.5 kJ/mol, and the high temperature deformation constitutive equation is confirmed. The hot processing map of the alloy is established on the basis of hot deformation behavior and hot working characteristics. With the optimal thermal deformation conditions of 940 to 970 °C and 0.01 to 10 s-1, the fine equiaxed grain and no holes are found in the matrix, which can provide significant guidance for hot deformation processing technology of Cu-Ni-Co-Si alloy.
Project description:Twin roll cast Al-Mn- and Al-Mn-Zr-based alloys were subjected to four passes of equal channel angular pressing. The resulting grain size of 400 nm contributes to a significant strengthening at room temperature. This microstructure is not fully stable at elevated temperatures and recrystallization and vast grain growth occur at temperatures between 350 and 450 °C. The onset of these microstructure changes depends on chemical and phase composition. Better stability is observed in the Al-Mn-Zr-based alloy. High temperature tensile tests reveal that equal channel angular pressing results in a softening of all studied materials at high temperatures. This can be explained by an active role of grain boundaries in the deformation process. The maximum values of ductility and strain rate sensitivity parameter m found in the Al-Mn-Zr-based alloy are below the bottom limit of superplasticity (155%, m = 0.25). However, some features typical for superplastic behavior were observed-the strain rate dependence of the parameter m, the strengthening with increasing grain size, and the fracture by diffuse necking. Grain boundary sliding is believed to contribute partially to the overall strain in specimens where the grain size remained in the microcrystalline range.
Project description:Mg-Gd-Y-Zn-Zr Mg alloys show excellent performance in high-end manufacturing due to its strength, hardness and corrosion resistance. However, the hot deformation and dynamic recrystallization (DRX) behaviors of Mg-13.5Gd-3.2Y-2.3Zn-0.5Zr were not studied. For this article, hot compression behavior of homogenized high rare-earth (RE) content Mg-13.5Gd-3.2Y-2.3Zn-0.5Zr (wt%) alloy was investigated by using the Gleeble-3500D thermo-simulation test machine under the temperature of 350?500 °C and the strain rate of 0.001?1 s-1. It was found that the high flow stress corresponded to the low temperature and high strain rate, which showed DRX steady state curve during the hot compression. The hot deformation average activation was 263.17 kJ/mol, which was obtained by the analysis of the hyperbolic constitutive equation and the Zener-Hollomon parameter. From observation of the microstructure, it was found that kink deformation of long period stacking ordered (LPSO) phase was one of the important coordination mechanisms of hot deformation at low temperature. The processing map with the strain of 0.5 was established under the basis of dynamic material model (DMM); it described two high power dissipation domains: one appearing in the temperature range of 370?440 °C and the strain rate range of 0.001?0.006 s-1, the other appearing in the temperature range of 465?500 °C and strain rate range of 0.001?0.05 s-1, in which dynamic recrystallization (DRX) mainly ocurred. The highest degree of DRX was 18% from the observation of the metallographic.
Project description:In the present work, the microstructure, texture, mechanical properties as well as hot deformation behavior of a Mg-2Zn-1Al-0.3Ca sheet manufactured by twin roll casting were investigated. The twin roll cast state reveals a dendritic microstructure with intermetallic compounds predominantly located in the interdendritic areas. The twin roll cast samples were annealed at 420 °C for 2 h followed by plane strain compression tests in order to study the hardening and softening behavior. Annealing treatment leads to the formation of a grain structure, consisting of equiaxed grains with an average diameter of approximately 19 µm. The twin roll cast state reveals a typical basal texture and the annealed state shows a weakened texture, by spreading basal poles along the transverse direction. The twin roll cast Mg-2Zn-1Al-0.3Ca alloy offers a good ultimate tensile strength of 240 MPa. The course of the flow curves indicate that dynamic recrystallization occurs during hot deformation. For the validity range from 250 °C to 450 °C as well as equivalent logarithmic strain rates from 0.01 s-1 to 10 s-1 calculated model coefficients are shown. The average activation energy for plastic flow of the twin roll cast and annealed Mg-2Zn-1Al-0.3Ca alloy amounts to 180.5 kJ/mol. The processing map reveals one domain with flow instability at temperatures above 370 °C and strain rates ranging from 3 s-1 to 10 s-1. Under these forming conditions, intergranular cracks arose and grew along the grain boundaries.
Project description:Titanium nitride (TiN) was deposited on the surface of a cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy by a hot-wall type chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor at 850 °C, and the coating characteristics were compared with those of a physical vapor deposition (PVD) TiN coating deposited on the same alloy at 450 °C. Neither coating showed any reactions at the interface. The face-centered cubic (fcc) structure of the alloy was changed into a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) phase, and recrystallization occurred over at 10 ?m of depth from the surface after CVD coating. Characteristic precipitates were also generated incrementally depending on the depth, unlike the precipitates in the matrix of the as-cast alloy. On the other hand, the microstructure and phase of the PVD-coated alloy did not change. Depth-dependent nano-hardness measurements showed a greater increase in hardness in the recrystallization zone of the CVD-coated alloy than in the bulk center of the alloy. The CVD coating showed superior adhesion to the PVD coating in the progressive scratch test. The as-cast, PVD-coated, and CVD-coated alloys all showed negative cytotoxicity. Within the limitations of this study, CVD TiN coating to biomedical Co-Cr alloy may be considered a promising alternative to PVD technique.
Project description:To elucidate the hot deformation characteristics of TiAl alloys, flow stress prediction, microstructural evolution and deformation mechanisms were investigated in Ti-44Al-5Nb-1Mo-2V-0.2B alloy by isothermal compression tests. A constitutive relationship using the Arrhenius model involving strain compensation and back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) model were developed. A comparison of two models suggested that the BP-ANN model had excellent capabilities and was more accurate in predicting flow stress. Based on the microstructural analysis, bending and elongation of colonies, ? and B2 grains were the main microstructural constituents at low temperature and high strain rate. Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) of ? and dynamic recovery (DRY) of ?/B2 were the main deformation mechanisms. With the increase of temperature and decrease of strain rate, phase transformation played an important role. The flake-like ? precipitates in B2 grains, and a coarsening of ? lamellae via ? lath dissolution during compression were observed. Additionally, the flow softening process commenced with dislocation pile-up and formation of sub-grain boundaries, followed by grain refinement, twins and nano-lamellar nucleation. Continuous DRX and phase transformation promoted the formability of Ti-44Al-5Nb-1Mo-2V-0.2B alloy.
Project description:Hot-rolled AZ31 (Mg-2.57Al-0.84Zn-0.32Mn, in mass percentage) magnesium alloy is subjected to friction stir processing in air (normal friction stir processing, NFSP) and under water (submerged friction stir processing, SFSP). Thermal history of the two FSP procedures is measured, and its effect on microstructures and mechanical properties of the experimental materials is investigated. Compared with NFSP, the peak temperature during SFSP is lower and the duration time at a high temperature is shorter due to the enhanced cooling effect of water. Consequently, SFSP results in further grain refinement, and the average grain size of the NFSP and SFSP specimens in the stir zone (SZ) are 2.9 μm and 1.3 μm, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examinations confirm that grain refinement is attributed to continuous dynamic recrystallization both for NFSP and SFSP. The average Vickers hardness in the SZ of the NFSP and SFSP AZ31 magnesium alloy are 76 HV and 87 HV. Furthermore, the ultimate tensile strength and the elongation of the SFSP specimen increase from 191 MPa and 31.3% in the NFSP specimen to 210 MPa and 50.5%, respectively. Both the NFSP and SFSP alloys fail through ductile fracture, but the dimples are much more obvious in the SFSP alloy.
Project description:In this study, the effects of heat treatment and sensitized corrosion on the 5383-H116 Al-Mg alloy were investigated for temperatures ranging from 100 to 450 °C. The results show that the heat treatment temperature is the main factor that causes changes to the microstructure and mechanical strength of the 5383-H116 Al-Mg alloy, inducing β-phase (Al₃Mg₂) precipitation in the form of a continuous layer along the grain boundaries. Intergranular corrosion was caused by the β-phase of the grain boundary precipitation, and the corrosion susceptibility of the recrystallized structure was significantly higher than the corrosion susceptibility of the recovered structure. According to the conductivity values detected, β-phase precipitation can enhance the 5383-H116 Al-Mg alloy conductivity, with the response due to structural dislocation density being higher than that due to the recrystallized structure. As such, the β-phase precipitation after sensitization is more significant than the β-phase precipitation prior to the sensitization, such that after sensitization, the conductivity rises to a significantly higher level than that exhibited by the recrystallization structure.