Effects of Whole-Body Electromyostimulation on Physical Fitness in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
ABSTRACT: Whole-body electromyostiulation (WB-EMS) has experienced a boom in recent years, even though its effectiveness is controversial. A sedentary lifestyle is deeply rooted in the European population, mainly in the elderly. This experimental study analyzed the impact of WB-EMS on the physical fitness of postmenopausal women. Thirty-four healthy sedentary women between 55 and 69 years followed an experimental design pre-post-test. Both groups conducted a ten-week aerobic and strength training program. The experimental group overlaid the WB-EMS during exercise. At the end of the intervention, both groups improved upper and lower body strength, lower extremity flexibility, agility, and speed levels (pBonferroni < 0.05). Significant interactions were observed at upper and lower body strength, agility, speed, and cardiovascular endurance (p < 0.05). The WB-EMS group scored better agility than the control group at the end of the intervention (pBonferroni < 0.05) and was the only group that improved cardiovascular endurance. WB-EMS shows a favorable isolate effect on the development of dynamic leg strength, agility, and cardiovascular endurance but did not in dynamic arm strength, gait speed, balance, or flexibility of postmenopausal women.
Project description:Menopause is associated with losses in strength and power along with weight and fat mass gains, which may result from menopause-related hormonal changes, aging-associated diseases, and decreased physical activity time. The objective of this study is to analyze if whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) is suitable for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal physical deterioration. Thirty-four healthy sedentary women between 55 and 69 years followed an experimental design pre-post test. Both groups conducted 10 weeks of aerobic and strength training program. The experimental group conducted the training with superimposed WB-EMS during exercise. At the end of the intervention, the experimental group obtained better power (Squat: mean difference (MD) = 38.69 W [1.75,75.62], d = 0.81; Bench press: MD = 25.64 W [17.48, 33.82], d = 2.39) and velocity (Squat: MD = 0.04 m·s-1 [0.01, 0.08], d = 0.98; Bench press: MD = 0.10 m·s-1 [0.06, 0.14], d = 1.90) score improvements than the other group (pBonferroni < 0.05). Furthermore, trivial to small effects were found in the body composition of the participants of both groups (p > 0.050). WB-EMS showed a favorable isolated effect on the development of power and velocity, but it induced negligible effects on the body composition of postmenopausal women.
Project description:Background: Age-related problems such as chronic diseases, functional limitation and dependence, reduce the quality of life in the elderly, and increase public spending in health. It has been established that physical activity plays a fundamental role in the health of the elderly. The whole body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) could be a successful methodology as high-intensity training to improve the physical fitness of older people. Methods: A minimum of 13 women between 55 and 70 years old will be randomized in two groups. The exercise with WB-EMS group (EX + WB-EMS) will conduct a resistance strength training program with superimposed WB-EMS while the exercise group (EX) will perform only resistance strength and aerobic training. Balance, strength, flexibility, agility, speed, and aerobic performance (EXERNET battery and progressive resistance test), as well as body composition, blood parameters and physical activity reporting (IPAQ-E) will be assessed to analyze the effects of whole body electromyostimulation in the physical fitness and the health in postmenopausal women. Discussion: Innovative and scientifically well-designed protocols are needed to enhance the knowledge of the body's responses within this training methodology which is being used by a big quantity of population. This trial will provide evidence on the effectiveness of whole-body electromyostimulation in physical fitness and health in elderly women. Trial Registration: ISRCTN15558857 registration data: 27/11/2019 (retrospectively registered).
Project description:This study aimed to investigate the influence of different exercise training modalities [(i) a concurrent training based on physical activity recommendation from the World Health Organization group (PAR group), (ii) a high intensity interval training group (HIIT group), and (iii) a high intensity interval training adding whole-body electromyostimulation group (WB-EMS group)] on physical fitness in sedentary middle-aged adults. A total of 89 (52.7% women) middle-aged sedentary adults (53.7 ± 5.1 years old) were enrolled in the FIT-AGING study. Cardiorespiratory fitness was determined by a maximum treadmill test using indirect calorimetry. Lower, upper, and core body muscular strength were assessed by an isokinetic strength test, by the handgrip strength test, and by several core strength endurance tests, respectively. All the exercise types induced similar increases on cardiorespiratory fitness (? VO2max ? 11%, ? maximal heart rate ? 8%, and ? total test duration ? 14%; all P ? 0.034), as well as on muscular strength (? extension and flexion peak torque ? 10%, ? total hand grip ? 3%, ? core strength endurance tests ? 20%; all P ? 0.050) compared with a control group. In conclusion, our results suggest that a 12-week structured exercise intervention improves physical fitness regardless of the training program in sedentary middle-aged adults. Despite slightly greater improvements in some physical fitness variables, the changes observed in the WB-EMS group were not superior to the other exercise programs.
Project description:The aim of this study was to compare the effects of short-term strength training with and without superimposed whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) on straight sprinting speed (SSS), change of direction speed (CODS), vertical and horizontal jumping, as well as on strength and power in physically active females. Twenty-two active female participants (<i>n</i> = 22; mean ± SD: age: 20.5 ± 2.3 years; height: 171.9 ± 5.5 cm; body mass: 64.0 ± 8.2 kg; strength training experience 5.1 ± 3.6 years) were randomly assigned to two groups: strength training (S) or strength training with superimposed WB-EMS (S+E). Both groups trained twice a week over a period of 4 weeks and differed in the application of free weights or WB-EMS during four strength (e.g., split squats, glute-ham raises) and five sprinting and jumping exercises (e.g., side and box jumps, skippings). The WB-EMS impulse intensity was adjusted to 70% of individual maximal sustainable pain. SSS was tested <i>via</i> 30-m sprinting, CODS by a T-run, vertical and horizontal jumping using four different jump tests at pre-, post-, and retests. Maximal strength (F<sub>max</sub>) and power (P<sub>max</sub>) testing procedures were conducted on the Leg Press (LP), Leg Extension (LE), and Leg Curl (LC) machine. Significant time × group interaction effects revealed significant decreases of contact time of the Drop Jump and split time of CODS (<i>p</i> ? 0.043; ? p 2 = 0.15-0.25) for S (? 11.6%) compared to S+E (? 5.7%). Significant time effects (<i>p</i> < 0.024; ? p 2 = 0.17-0.57) were observed in both groups for SSS (S+E: ?6.3%; S: ?8.0%) and CODS (S+E: ?1.8%; S: ?2.0%) at retest, for jump test performances (S+E: ?13.2%; S: ?9.2%) as well as F<sub>max</sub> and P<sub>max</sub> for LE (S+E: ?13.5%; S: ?13.3%) and LC (S+E: ?18.2%; S: ?26.7%) at post- and retests. The findings of this study indicate comparable effects of short-term strength training with and without superimposed WB-EMS on physical fitness in physically active females. Therefore, WB-EMS training could serve as a reasonable but not superior alternative to classic training regimes in female exercisers.
Project description:The aim of this study was to study the effects of a 6-session (one per week) WB-EMS training intervention on maximum oxygen uptake, aerobic and gas exchange thresholds, running economy, and muscular power in male recreational runners. Twelve men were randomized into WB-EMS intervention (n = 6; 27.0 ± 7.5 years; 70.1 ± 11.1 kg; 1.75 ± 0.5 m) or control (n = 6; 27.0 ± 6.1 years; 73.6 ± 3.4 kg; 1.77 ± 0.3 m). The WB-EMS group reduced the running training frequency to one per week and followed one WB-EMS training session per week during 6 weeks. Participants in the control group maintained their usual running endurance training. Each participant completed four assessments: physiological parameters [(i) VO2max, aerobic and gas exchange threshold values, and (ii) running economy at two intensities], muscular power (vertical jump), and anthropometric parameters both at baseline and after the intervention. Participants in the WB-EMS group improved VO2max, aerobic and gas exchange threshold values, running economy, and vertical jump (p < 0.05) compared to the control group. There, WB-EMS seems to be an effective training methodology leading to improvements in performance during endurance training volume reduction in male recreational runners.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Sarcopenia, defined as loss of muscle mass, quality, and function, is associated with reduced quality of life and adverse health outcomes including disability and mortality. Electromyostimulation (EMS) has been suggested to attenuate the loss of muscle mass and function in elderly, sedentary individuals. This study aimed to investigate the effects of EMS on muscle strength and function during 4 weeks of inpatient medical rehabilitation.<h4>Methods</h4>Patients receiving 4 weeks of inpatient medical rehabilitation diagnosed with sarcopenia using bioimpedance analysis were eligible to participate. One hundred and thirty-four patients (55.7 ± 7.9 years, 25.4% female) were randomly assigned to three groups: whole-body (WB) EMS (n = 48): stimulation of major muscle groups (pectoral muscles, latissimus, trapezius, abdominals, upper arm and leg, lower back muscles, gluteal muscles, and thighs); part-body (PB) EMS (n = 42): stimulation of leg muscles including gluteal muscles and thighs; and control group (CG, n = 44). All participants performed six 20 min training sessions including dynamic movements (squats, lunges, biceps curl, chest press, butterfly reverse, reverse lunges, standing diagonal crunches, etc.) with superimposed (WB-, PB-) EMS or without EMS (CG) in addition to the standard rehabilitation programme. Primary outcome variables included muscle function assessed by chair rise test and 6 min walking test as well as muscle strength (isometric grip strength, leg, arm, and back extension).<h4>Results</h4>Primary outcome variables chair rise test and leg extension improved significantly (P = 0.001, η<sup>2</sup> = 0.06 and P = 0.008, η<sup>2</sup> = 0.06; EMS vs. CG) in that chair rise test results increased in WB-EMS from 5 (4; 7) to 7 (5; 9), in PB-EMS from 5 (5; 7) to 7 (6; 8), and in CG from 6 (4; 7) to 7 (5; 8) repetitions. Knee extension increased in WB-EMS from 692.3 ± 248.6 to 831.7 ± 298.7 N, in PB-EMS from 682.8 ± 257.8 to 790.2 ± 270.2 N, and in CG from 638.5 ± 236.9 to 703.2 ± 218.6 N. No adverse events or side effects occurred.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We conclude that EMS might be an additional training option to improve muscle function and strength in sarcopenic patients during a 4 week rehabilitation programme. EMS provides greater functional and strength improvements compared with standard treatment with additional potential health benefits for sarcopenic cardiac and orthopaedic patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Whole-body electrical myostimulation (WB-EMS) is a relatively recent training methodology that has been extraordinarily used in recent years. However, there is a lack of consensus on the effectiveness of WB-EMS in the situations in which its use has been largely popularized. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the effects produced by WB-EMS. METHODS:A search of PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Cochrane was performed to identify all the studies that have applied electrical stimulation in lower and upper limbs simultaneously and that have clearly presented their protocols for the training and application of the stimulation. The last search was performed on September 9, 2018. Studies written in English or German were included. RESULTS:A total of 21 articles met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed following the guidelines of the Cochrane Guide for Systematic Reviews. Nineteen studies analyzed the chronic effects of WB-EMS, and 2 analyzed acute effects with a total of 505 subjects (310 men and 195 women). In total, 35% were moderately trained, and 65% were sedentary subjects. Different dependent variables were studied, such as anthropometric parameters, strength parameters, energy expenditure, psychophysiological parameters and blood parameters. There is a lack of randomized controlled studies, and the studies included exhibit a moderate to high level of risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS:Given the limited number of available studies on WB-EMS, the scarce amount of scientific evidence found does not allow definitive conclusions about its effects; therefore, future studies about WB-EMS are necessary.
Project description:Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between socioeconomic factors, anthropometric characteristics and motor abilities of male university students. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from 2000 to 2018 on 2691 male university students aged 19.98 ± 1.05 years, who were randomly selected from students attending obligatory physical education (PE) classes. The participants' body mass and height were measured, and students participated in 13 motor ability tests that assessed their speed/agility, flexibility, strength and endurance abilities. Multiple independent samples were compared with the Kruskal-Wallis test or the mean-ranks post-hoc test when significant differences were observed in the participants' motor abilities. Results: Factors such as the place of permanent residence, students' monthly budget, and mother's and father's educational background, significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the body mass, BMI and motor abilities of first-year university students. The participants' motor abilities (speed/agility, flexibility-partly, strength, strength endurance, and endurance) were most frequently and most significantly determined by their monthly budgets, and were least frequently and least significantly determined by their place of permanent residence. Conclusions: The students' body height, BMI and motor abilities generally increased with a rise in population in the place of permanent residence, monthly budget, and the parents' educational attainment.
Project description:High-intensity (resistance) exercise (HIT) and whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) are both approaches to realize time-efficient favorable changes of body composition and strength. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of WB-EMS compared with the gold standard reference HIT, for improving body composition and muscle strength in middle-aged men. Forty-eight healthy untrained men, 30-50 years old, were randomly allocated to either HIT (2 sessions/week) or a WB-EMS group (3 sessions/2 weeks) that exercised for 16 weeks. HIT was applied as "single-set-to-failure protocol," while WB-EMS was conducted with intermittent stimulation (6?s WB-EMS, 4?s rest; 85?Hz, 350?ms) over 20 minutes. The main outcome parameters were lean body mass (LBM) as determined via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and maximum dynamic leg-extensor strength (isokinetic leg-press). LBM changes of both groups (HIT 1.25 ± 1.44% versus WB-EMS 0.93 ± 1.15%) were significant (p = .001); however, no significant group differences were detected (p = .395). Leg-extensor strength also increased in both groups (HIT 12.7 ± 14.7%, p = .002, versus WB-EMS 7.3 ± 10.3%, p = .012) with no significant (p = .215) between-group difference. Corresponding changes were also determined for body fat and back-extensor strength. Conclusion. In summary, WB-EMS can be considered as a time-efficient but pricy option to HIT-resistance exercise for people aiming at the improvement of general strength and body composition.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Resistance training has a positive impact on functional capacity and muscle mass in the elderly. However, due to physical limitations or a simple aversion against regular exercise, a majority of the elderly do not reach the recommended exercise doses. This led us to evaluate the effect of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS), a novel, time-efficient, and smooth training technology on physical function, fat-free mass, strength, falls-efficacy, and social participation of the elderly.<h4>Methods</h4>The present study is a randomized, parallel group clinical trial approved by the Ethics Committee of our Institution. Sixty-six volunteers (age ? 60 years) will be recruited from the geriatric outpatient department in a tertiary hospital and primary care units and randomized into two groups: WB-EMS group or active control group (aCG). The WB-EMS or aCG protocol will consist of 16 sessions for 8 consecutive weeks, twice per week. The primary outcomes will be maximal isometric knee extension (IKE), functional lower extremity strength, fat-free mass, gait speed, and risk of falls measured before and after intervention. The secondary outcomes will be social participation and falls-efficacy assessed before and after the intervention and at three and six months of follow-up. Participant's satisfaction with and awareness of electrical stimulation therapy will also be assessed immediately after the 8-week intervention.<h4>Discussion</h4>Patients receiving WB-EMS exercises are believed to have better outcomes than those receiving conventional, more time-consuming resistance exercises. Hence, innovative, time-efficient, joint-friendly, and highly individualized exercise technologies (such as WB-EMS) may be a good choice for the elderly with time constraints, physical limitations, or little enthusiasm, who are exercising less than the recommended amounts for impact on muscle mass, strength, and function.