External Validation of a Pharmacokinetic Model of Propofol for Target-Controlled Infusion in Children under Two Years Old.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Previously, a linked pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model (the Kim model) of propofol with concurrent infusion of remifentanil was developed for children aged 2-12 years. There are few options for pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model of propofol for children under two years old. We performed an external validation of the Kim model for children under two years old to evaluate whether the model is applicable to this age group. METHODS:Twenty-four children were enrolled. After routine anesthetic induction, a continuous infusion of 2% propofol and remifentanil was commenced using the Kim model. The target effect-site concentration of propofol was set as 2, 3, 4, and 5 ?g/mL, followed by arterial blood sampling after 10 min of each equilibrium. Population estimates of four parameters-pooled bias, inaccuracy, divergence, and wobble-were used to evaluate the performance of the Kim model. RESULTS:A total of 95 plasma concentrations were used for evaluation of the Kim model. The population estimate (95% confidence interval) of bias was -0.96% (-8.45%, 6.54%) and that of inaccuracy was 21.0% (15.0%-27.0%) for the plasma concentration of propofol. CONCLUSION:The pooled bias and inaccuracy of the pharmacokinetic predictions are clinically acceptable. Therefore, our external validation of the Kim model indicated that the model can be applicable to target-controlled infusion of propofol in children younger than 2 years, with the recommended use of actual bispectral index monitoring in clinical settings that remifentanil is present. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinical Research Information Service Identifier: KCT0001752.
Project description:AIM: To examine individual patient's demographic parameters and clinical variables related to return of consciousness (ROC) and the pharmacodynamic relationship between propofol effect-site concentration (C(e)) and ROC from propofol-remifentanil anesthesia. METHODS: Ninety-four patients received propofol-remifentanil anesthesia using the effect-site target-controlled infusion (TCI) system. All clinical events were noted, and variables possibly related to propofol C(e) at ROC were examined using linear correlation analyses. Pharmacodynamic modeling incorporating covariates was performed using NONMEM (Nonlinear Mixed Effects Modeling) VII software. RESULTS: The C(e) values of propofol at loss of consciousness (LOC) and ROC were 4.4±1.1 μg/mL and 1.1±0.3 μg/mL, respectively. Age was negatively correlated with propofol C(e) at ROC (r=-0.48, P<0.01). Including age as a covariate in C(e50) (the effect-site concentration associated with 50% probability of return of consciousness) and λ (the steepness of the concentration-versus-response relationship) significantly improved the performance of the basic model based on the likelihood ratio test, with a significant decrease in the minimum value of the objective function. The C(e50) in 25-, 50-, and 75-year-old patients was predicted to be 1.38, 1.06, and 0.74 μg/mL, respectively. The λ in 25-, 50-, and 75-year-old patients was predicted to be 12.23, 8.70, and 5.18, respectively. CONCLUSION: Age significantly affects the relationship between propofol C(e) and ROC, and pharmacodynamic modeling including age could lead to better predictions of ROC during emergence from propofol-remifentanil anesthesia.
Project description:PURPOSE:We evaluated the feasibility and robustness of three methods for propofol-to-bispectral index (BIS) post-operative intensive care sedation, a manually-adapted target controlled infusion protocol (HUMAN), a computer-controlled predictive control strategy (EPSAC) and a computer-controlled Bayesian rule-based optimized control strategy (BAYES). METHODS:Thirty-six patients undergoing short lasting sedation following cardiac surgery were included to receive propofol to maintain a BIS between 40 and 60. Robustness of control for all groups was analysed using prediction error and spectrographic analysis. RESULTS:Although similar time courses of measured BIS were obtained in all groups, a higher median propofol effect-site concentration (CePROP) was required in the HUMAN group compared to the BAYES and EPSAC groups. The time course analysis of the remifentanil effect-site concentration (CeREMI) revealed a significant increase in CeREMI in the EPSAC group compared to BAYES and HUMAN during the case. Although similar bias and divergence in control was found in all groups, larger control inaccuracy was observed in HUMAN versus EPSAC and BAYES. Spectrographic analysis of the system behavior shows that BAYES covers the largest spectrum of frequencies, followed by EPSAC and HUMAN. CONCLUSIONS:Both computer-based control systems are feasible to be used during ICU sedation with overall tighter control than HUMAN and even with lower required CePROP. EPSAC control required higher CeREMI than BAYES or HUMAN to maintain stable control. Clinical trial number: NCT00735631.
Project description:Chronic thoracic pain after cardiac surgery is prevalent (11 to 56%) and may affect patients' physical and mental health status. Despite its favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, high doses of remifentanil administered during surgery are reported to cause acute postoperative pain and increased requirements for analgesics. Recently, an association between remifentanil use and the incidence of chronic thoracic pain in the long term was also reported. Our objective is to investigate the influence of the intraoperative remifentanil on chronic postoperative pain in a prospective randomized controlled trial.In this prospective, randomized, single-blind clinical trial, all patients (N = 126) between 18 and 85 years undergoing cardiac surgery via sternotomy receive a continuous infusion of propofol together with intermittent intravenous fentanyl at predetermined times perioperatively. Patients are randomized to receive either an additional continuous infusion of remifentanil (0.15 ?g(-1)kgIBW(-1) min(-1)) or additional fentanyl (200 to 500 ?g) as needed during surgery.The primary end point is the prevalence of chronic thoracic pain 12 months after surgery. Secondary end points include acute postoperative pain; postoperative analgesic use; chronic thoracic pain 3 and 6 months after surgery; quality of life (SF-12) at 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery; work productivity; and use of health care. In addition, thermal detection and pain thresholds are measured preoperatively, 3 days after surgery and 12 months after surgery using quantitative sensory testing (QST). Finally, the influence of several genetic variances on the different outcomes will be measured.Chronic thoracic pain is prevalent after cardiac surgery, and research is needed to minimize the risk of chronic persistent postoperative pain, which is an invalidating, long-term complication of surgery. The objective of this trial is to determine the influence of perioperative remifentanil on long-term pain outcomes for cardiac patients in a prospective randomized trial. The results may be used to optimize perioperative analgesia techniques and, thereby, improve quality of life after cardiac surgery.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02031016 on 13 December 2013.
Project description:We hypothesized that the addition of dexmedetomidine in a clinically relevant dose to propofol-remifentanil anesthesia regimen does not exert an adverse effect on motor-evoked potentials (MEP) and somatosensory-evoked potentials (SSEP) in adult patients undergoing thoracic spinal cord tumor resection.Seventy-one adult patients were randomized into three groups. Propofol group (n = 25): propofol-remifentanil regimenand the dosage was adjusted to maintain the bispectral index (BIS) between 40 and 50. DP adjusted group (n = 23): Dexmedetomidine (0.5 μg/kg loading dose infused over 10 min followed by a constant infusion of 0.5 μg/kg/h) was added to the propofol-remifentanil regimen and propofol was adjusted to maintain BIS between 40 and 50. DP unadjusted group (n = 23): Dexmedetomidine (administer as DP adjusted group) was added to the propofol-remifentanil regimen and propofol was not adjusted. All patients received MEP, SSEP and BIS monitoring.There were no significant changes in the amplitude and latency of MEP and SSEP among different groups (P > 0.05). The estimated propofol plasma concentration in DP adjusted group (2.7 ± 0.3 μg/ml) was significantly lower than in propofol group (3.1 ± 0.2 μg/ml) and DP unadjusted group (3.1 ± 0.2 μg/ml) (P = 0.000). BIS in DP unadjusted group (35 ± 5) was significantly lower than in propofol group (44 ± 3) (P = 0.000).The addition of dexmedetomidine to propofol-remifentanil regimen does not exert an adverse effect on MEP and SSEP monitoring in adult patients undergoing thoracic spinal cord tumor resection.The study was registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry on January 31st, 2014. The reference number was ChiCTR-TRC-14004229.
Project description:Microelectrode recording (MER) is often used to identify electrode location which is critical for the success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment of Parkinson's disease. The usage of anesthesia and its' impact on MER quality and electrode placement is controversial. We recorded neuronal activity at a single depth inside the Subthalamic Nucleus (STN) before, during, and after remifentanil infusion. The root mean square (RMS) of the 250-6000 Hz band-passed signal was used to evaluate the regional spiking activity, the power spectrum to evaluate the oscillatory activity and the coherence to evaluate synchrony between two microelectrodes. We compare those to new frequency domain (spectral) analysis of previously obtained data during propofol sedation. Results showed Remifentanil decreased the normalized RMS by 9% (P?<?0.001), a smaller decrease compared to propofol. Regarding the beta range oscillatory activity, remifentanil depressed oscillations (drop from 25 to 5% of oscillatory electrodes), while propofol did not (increase from 33.3 to 41.7% of oscillatory electrodes). In the cases of simultaneously recorded oscillatory electrodes, propofol did not change the synchronization while remifentanil depressed it. In conclusion, remifentanil interferes with the identification of the dorsolateral oscillatory region, whereas propofol interferes with RMS identification of the STN borders. Thus, both have undesired effect during the MER procedure.Trial registration: NCT00355927 and NCT00588926.
Project description:A new supraglottic device, the LMA-Supreme™, has recently become available for clinical use. Information on anaesthetic and co-adjuvant requirements for insertion of the LMA-Supreme™ is limited. The present study aimed to evaluate the optimal effect-site concentration of propofol in 50 % (EC50) of adults necessary for successful insertion of the LMA-Supreme™ and to examine remifentanil's effect on propofol requirements.Fifty-eight elective patients (aged 18-60 years; ASA (American Society Anaesthesiologists) physical status classification I and II) scheduled for day surgery were randomly assigned to one of two groups: propofol with saline or propofol with remifentanil. Anaesthesia was induced by target-controlled infusion according to predetermined effect-site concentrations of propofol and remifentanil (5 ng.mL(-1)). The EC50 was calculated using Dixon's up-and-down method. Ten minutes following drug administration, LMA-Supreme™ insertion was attempted without the use of muscle relaxant drugs.In the propofol + saline group, the EC50 of propofol required for LMA-Supreme™ insertion was 6.32 ± 0.67 ?g.mL(-1) (95 % CI, 5.69-6.94 ?g.mL(-1)). With the addition of remifentanil at an effect-site concentration of 5 ng.mL(-1), the EC50 of propofol required for LMA-Supreme™ insertion was 2.50 ± 0.80 ?g.mL(-1) (95 % CI, 1.82-3.17 ?g.mL(-1); p < 0.0001).The propofol requirement for smooth insertion of the LMA-Supreme™ was 60 % less when remifentanil (5 ng.mL(-1)) was co-administered.Identified as NCT01974648 at www.clinicaltrials.gov .
Project description:One-lung ventilation during thoracic surgery frequently disturbs normal systemic oxygenation. However, the effect of anesthetics on arterial oxygenation during one-lung ventilation has not been well established in human study. In this clinical trial, we investigated whether a difference between desflurane-remifentanil and propofol-remifentanil anesthesia can be observed with regard to oxygenation during one-lung ventilation for thoracoscopic surgery.Adult patients with lung cancer, scheduled for video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy without preoperative oxygen support, were screened and randomized to receive desflurane or propofol, with remifentanil continuous infusion in both groups. Mechanical ventilation was performed with tidal volume of 8 ml/kg and FIO2 0.5 during two-lung ventilation, and 6 ml/kg and 1.0 during one-lung ventilation, both with positive end-expiratory pressure of 5 cmH2O. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed preoperatively, during two-lung ventilation, and after 15, 30, 45, and 60 min of one-lung ventilation. The primary endpoint was PaO2 at 30 min after initiating one-lung ventilation. Statistical analyses included the independent t-test for the primary endpoint and a mixed model with a post-hoc analysis to evaluate the serial changes in values.Patients were recruited between July 9 and December 2, 2014. In total, 103 patients were analyzed (n?=?52 in desflurane group and n?=?51 in propofol group). The primary endpoint, PaO2 at 30 min of one-lung ventilation was lower in the desflurane group than the propofol group (170?±?72 vs. 202?±?82 mmHg; p?=?0.039). Serial changes in PaO2 during one-lung ventilation showed lower levels during desflurane anesthesia compared with propofol anesthesia (mean difference, 45 mmHg; 95% confidence interval, 16-75 mmHg; p?=?0.003).In conclusion, desflurane-remifentanil anesthesia resulted in decreased arterial oxygenation compared with that of propofol-remifentanil anesthesia during one-lung ventilation for thoracoscopic surgery in patients with lung cancer.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02191371 , registered on July 7, 2014.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The ?-lactam antibiotic piperacillin (in combination with tazobactam) is commonly chosen for empirical treatment of suspected bacterial infections. However, pharmacokinetic variability among patient populations and across ages leads to uncertainty when selecting a dosing regimen to achieve an appropriate pharmacodynamic target. OBJECTIVES:To guide dosing by establishing a population pharmacokinetic model for unbound piperacillin in febrile children receiving cancer chemotherapy, and to assess pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target attainment (100% fT?>?1×MIC and 50% fT?>?4×MIC) and resultant exposure, across body weights. METHODS:Forty-three children admitted for 89 febrile episodes contributed 482 samples to the pharmacokinetic analysis. The typical doses required for target attainment were compared for various dosing regimens, in particular prolonged infusions, across MICs and body weights. RESULTS:A two-compartment model with inter-fever-episode variability in CL, and body weight included through allometry, described the data. A high CL of 15.4?L/h (70?kg) combined with high glomerular filtration rate (GFR) values indicated rapid elimination and hyperfiltration. The target of 50% fT?>?4×MIC was achieved for an MIC of 4.0?mg/L in a typical patient with extended infusions of 2-3 (q6h) or 3-4 (q8h)?h, at or below the standard adult dose (75 and 100?mg/kg/dose for q6h and q8h, respectively). Higher doses or continuous infusion were needed to achieve 100% fT?>?1×MIC due to the rapid piperacillin elimination. CONCLUSIONS:The licensed dose for children with febrile neutropenia (80?mg/kg q6h as a 30?min infusion) performs poorly for attainment of fT>MIC pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic targets. Given the population pharmacokinetic profile, feasible dosing regimens with reasonable exposure are continuous infusion (100% fT?>?1×MIC) or prolonged infusions (50% fT?>?4×MIC).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Balanced anaesthesia with propofol and remifentanil, compared to sufentanil, often decreases mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and cardiac index (CI), raising concerns on tissue-oxygenation. This distinct haemodynamic suppression might be attenuated by atropine. This double blinded RCT, investigates if induction with propofol-sufentanil results in higher CI and tissue-oxygenation than with propofol-remifentanil and if atropine has more pronounced beneficial effects on CI and tissue-oxygenation in a remifentanil-based anaesthesia. METHODS:In seventy patients scheduled for coronary bypass grafting (CABG), anaesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol target controlled infusion (TCI) with a target effect-site concentration (Cet) of 2.0??g?ml-?1 and either sufentanil (TCI Cet 0.48?ng?ml-?1) or remifentanil (TCI Cet 8?ng?ml-?1). If HR dropped below 60?bpm, methylatropine (1?mg) was administered intravenously. Relative changes (?) in MAP, HR, stroke volume (SV), CI and cerebral (SctO2) and peripheral (SptO2) tissue-oxygenation during induction of anaesthesia and after atropine administration were analysed. RESULTS:The sufentanil group compared to the remifentanil group showed significantly less decrease in MAP (??=?-?23?±?13 vs. -36?±?13?mmHg), HR (??=?-?5?±?7 vs. -10?±?10?bpm), SV (??=?-?23?±?18 vs. -35?±?19?ml) and CI (??=?-?0.8 (-?1.5 to -?0.5) vs. -1.5 (-?2.0 to -?1.1) l min-?1?m-?2), while SctO2 (??=?9?±?5 vs. 6?±?4%) showed more increase with no difference in ?SptO2 (??=?8?±?7 vs. 8?±?8%). Atropine caused higher ?HR (13 (9 to 19) vs. 10?±?6?bpm) and ?CI (0.4?±?0.4 vs. 0.2?±?0.3?l?min-?1?m-?2) in sufentanil vs. remifentanil-based anaesthesia, with no difference in ?MAP, ?SV and ?SctO2 and ?SptO2. CONCLUSION:Induction of anaesthesia with propofol and sufentanil results in improved haemodynamic stability and higher SctO2 compared to propofol and remifentanil in patients having CABG. Administration of atropine might be useful to counteract or prevent the haemodynamic suppression associated with these opioids. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov on June 7, 2013 (trial ID: NCT01871935 ).
Project description:Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a technically difficult and lengthy procedure requiring optimal depth of sedation. The bispectral index (BIS) monitor is a non-invasive tool that objectively evaluates the depth of sedation. The purpose of this prospective randomized controlled trial was to evaluate whether BIS guided sedation with propofol and remifentanil could reduce the number of patients requiring rescue propofol, and thus reduce the incidence of sedation- and/or procedure-related complications.A total of 180 patients who underwent the ESD procedure for gastric adenoma or early gastric cancer were randomized to two groups. The control group (n=90) was monitored by the Modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness and Sedation scale and the BIS group (n=90) was monitored using BIS. The total doses of propofol and remifentanil, the need for rescue propofol, and the rates of complications were recorded.The number of patients who needed rescue propofol during the procedure was significantly higher in the control group than the BIS group (47.8% vs. 30.0%, p=0.014). There were no significant differences in the incidence of sedation- and/or procedure-related complications.BIS-guided propofol infusion combined with remifentanil reduced the number of patients requiring rescue propofol in ESD procedures. However, this finding did not lead to clinical benefits and thus BIS monitoring is of limited use during anesthesiologist-directed sedation.