Supervised Physical Activity and Improved Functional Capacity among Adults Living with HIV: A Systematic Review.
ABSTRACT: Physical activity (PA) combats the effects of multimorbidity and antiretroviral therapy in people living with HIV (PLWH), but PLWH often don't meet recommended PA guidelines. The purpose of our review was to investigate whether supervised PA improved functional capacity in PLWH. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses were followed. Five databases were searched for randomized controlled trials in English, with participants ages 18 years and older, and a supervised PA intervention. A database search yielded 8,267 articles, with 15 eligible for review inclusion. We found a low risk of bias within and across studies. Combined aerobic/progressive resistance training (PRT) improved strength, cardiovascular, and flexibility outcomes; aerobic interventions alone showed no significant improvements; PRT improved strength outcomes; yoga or yoga/meditation showed no outcome differences; and t'ai chi showed cardiovascular and flexibility improvements. We found that supervised PA increased functional capacity in PLWH and that self-report was not a reliable assessment.
Project description:The purpose of this pilot randomized controlled trial is to assess the feasibility and impact of a triweekly 12-week yoga intervention among people living with HIV (PLWH). Additional objectives included evaluating cognition, physical function, medication adherence, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and mental health among yoga participants versus controls using blinded assessors. We recruited 22 medically stable PLWH aged ?35 years. A priori feasibility criteria were ?70% yoga session attendance and ?70% of participants satisfied with the intervention using a postparticipation questionnaire. Two participants withdrew from the yoga group. Mean yoga class attendance was 82%, with 100% satisfaction. Intention-to-treat analyses (yoga n = 11, control n = 11) showed no within- or between-group differences in cognitive and physical function. The yoga group improved over time in HRQoL cognition (P = .047) with trends toward improvements in HRQoL health transition (P =.063) and depression (P = .055). This pilot study provides preliminary evidence of feasibility and benefits of yoga for PLWH.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Despite lower mortality rates due to combination antiretroviral therapy, people living with HIV (PLWH) are grappling with increasingly complex health issues, including cognitive impairments in areas such as memory, attention, processing speed, and motor function. Yoga has been shown to be an effective form of exercise and mindfulness-based stress reduction for many clinical populations. However, no randomized trials have evaluated the impact of yoga on cognitive and physical function among PLWH. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this pilot randomized trial was to determine the feasibility of a yoga intervention to lay the groundwork for a full-scale, multisite, community-based trial for PLWH. Specific objectives are to (1) assess the feasibility of study protocol and procedures, (2) compare cognition in the yoga group with the usual care control group after 12 weeks of the intervention in PLWH, and (3) compare the effects of the 12-week yoga intervention versus control on balance, walking speed, physical activity, mental health, medication adherence, and quality of life among PLWH. METHODS:We propose a pilot randomized trial with 2 parallel groups (yoga versus control). We will recruit 25 PLWH (>35 years) from community and health organizations in Halifax, Canada. After baseline assessment with blinded assessors, participants will be randomly assigned to the yoga or control group, using a random computer generator. Participants in the yoga group will engage in supervised 60-min group-based yoga sessions 3 times a week for 12 weeks at a yoga studio. Participants in the control group will maintain their current physical activity levels throughout the study. RESULTS:As per the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials extension for pilot studies, means of all outcomes, mean change, and 95% CIs will be calculated for each group separately. Two-tailed independent t tests and Fisher exact tests will be used to compare groups at baseline. We will analyze quantitative postintervention questionnaire responses using Chi-square tests, and open-ended responses will be analyzed thematically. Intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses will be used to analyze secondary variables. Changes in outcome variables will be examined between groups and within groups. Effect sizes will be reported for each outcome. A priori adherence and satisfaction criteria will be met if participants attend >70% of the yoga sessions and if >70% of the participants are satisfied with the intervention as determined by a postparticipation questionnaire. Study enrollment began in January 2018, with results expected for October 2019. CONCLUSIONS:This pilot randomized trial will be the first to investigate the feasibility and effect of a yoga intervention on cognitive and physical outcomes among PLWH. This work will inform the feasibility of further investigations in terms of capacity building, participant recruitment and retention, and assessment and intervention protocols. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03071562; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03071562 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/785sfhWkw). INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID):DERR1-10.2196/13818.
Project description:Impairments of attention and memory are evident in early psychosis, and are associated with functional disability. In a group of stable, medicated women patients, we aimed to determine whether participating in aerobic exercise or yoga improved cognitive impairments and clinical symptoms. A total of 140 female patients were recruited, and 124 received the allocated intervention in a randomized controlled study of 12 weeks of yoga or aerobic exercise compared with a waitlist group. The primary outcomes were cognitive functions including memory and attention. Secondary outcome measures were the severity of psychotic and depressive symptoms, and hippocampal volume. Data from 124 patients were included in the final analysis based on the intention-to-treat principle. Both yoga and aerobic exercise groups demonstrated significant improvements in working memory (P<0.01) with moderate to large effect sizes compared with the waitlist control group. The yoga group showed additional benefits in verbal acquisition (P<0.01) and attention (P=0.01). Both types of exercise improved overall and depressive symptoms (all P?0.01) after 12 weeks. Small increases in hippocampal volume were observed in the aerobic exercise group compared with waitlist (P=0.01). Both types of exercise improved working memory in early psychosis patients, with yoga having a larger effect on verbal acquisition and attention than aerobic exercise. The application of yoga and aerobic exercise as adjunctive treatments for early psychosis merits serious consideration. This study was supported by the Small Research Funding of the University of Hong Kong (201007176229), and RGC funding (C00240/762412) by the Authority of Research, Hong Kong.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Women with breast cancer (BC) are living longer with debilitating side effects such as cancer-related fatigue (CRF) that affect overall well-being. Yoga promotes health, well-being and may be beneficial in reducing CRF. Although there have been previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses, the effects of yoga on CRF and quality of life (QOL) remain unclear, particularly in comparison with other types of physical activity (PA). Our objective is to carry out a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of yoga on CRF and QOL in women with BC. METHODS:Electronic databases were searched (MEDLINE, Embase Classic+Embase and EMB Reviews, Cochrane Central CT) from inception to May 2018. Randomized controlled trials were included if they were full text, in English, included a yoga intervention, a comparator (including non-PA usual care or alternate PA intervention), and reported on CRF or QOL. Effects of yoga were pooled using standardized mean difference (SMD) via a random effects model. RESULTS:Of the 2468 records retrieved, 24 trials were included; 18 studies compared yoga to a non-PA comparator and 6 to a PA comparator. Yoga demonstrated statistically significant improvements in CRF over non-PA (SMD -0.30 [-0.51; -0.08]) but not PA (SMD -0.17 [-0.50; 0.17]) comparators. Additionally, yoga demonstrated statistically significant improvements in QOL over non-PA (SMD -0.27 [-0.46; -0.07]) but not PA (SMD 0.04 [-0.22; +0.31]) comparators. DISCUSSION:This meta-analysis found that yoga provides small to medium improvements in CRF and QOL compared to non-PA, but not in comparison to other PA interventions.
Project description:Aerobic exercise has been associated with reduced burden of brain and cognitive changes related to Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it is unknown whether exercise training in asymptomatic individuals harboring risk for AD improves outcomes associated with AD. We investigated the effect of 26 weeks of supervised aerobic treadmill exercise training on brain glucose metabolism and cognition among 23 late-middle-aged adults from a cohort enriched with familial and genetic risk of AD. They were randomized to Usual Physical Activity (PA) or Enhanced PA conditions. Usual PA received instruction about maintaining an active lifestyle. Enhanced PA completed a progressive exercise training program consisting of 3 sessions of treadmill walking per week for 26 weeks. By week seven, participants exercised at 70- 80% heart rate reserve for 50 minutes per session to achieve 150 minutes of moderate intensity activity per week in accordance with public health guidelines. Before and after the intervention, participants completed a graded treadmill test to assess VO2peak as a measure of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), wore an accelerometer to measure free-living PA, underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging to assess brain glucose metabolism, and a neuropsychological battery to assess episodic memory and executive function. VO2peak increased, sedentary behavior decreased, and moderate-to-vigorous PA increased significantly in the Enhanced PA group as compared to Usual PA. Glucose metabolism in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) did not change significantly in Enhanced PA relative to Usual PA. However, change in PCC glucose metabolism correlated positively with change in VO2peak. Executive function, but not episodic memory, was significantly improved after Enhanced PA relative to Usual PA. Improvement in executive function correlated with increased VO2peak. Favorable CRF adaptation after 26 weeks of aerobic exercise training was associated with improvements in PCC glucose metabolism and executive function, important markers of AD.
Project description:Background:Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a health disorder characterized by metabolic abnormalities that predict an increased risk to develop cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). It can be resolved, and its complications reduced, by lifestyle interventions offered in primary care. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of the exercise program of the CHANGE feasibility study on physical fitness and physical activity habits, and assess associations between changes in MetS components and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Methods:In this analysis of 192 of the 293 adults with MetS in the overall study, the impact on physical fitness [aerobic capacity, muscular fitness and flexibility], and non-supervised physical activities was investigated over 12?months. In the CHANGE program, aerobic capacity, muscular fitness and flexibility were assessed at baseline, after 3?months of weekly supervised exercise, and following 9 additional months during which participants had one monthly session of supervised exercise. Additionally, CRF response was also examined in relation to changes in MetS components [fasting glucose, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, waist circumference (WC)]. Results:Fitness variables were significantly increased at 12?months with most of the improvements reached by 3?months (estimated VO2 max: 6 and 12%; partial curl-ups: 55 and 80%; push-ups: 50 and 100%; flexibility: 22 and 10% in men and women, respectively, p?<? 0.001). As expected, the duration and intensity of supervised aerobic physical activity increased during the first 3?months of supervision in both men and women, and remained unchanged for the duration of the program. The duration of non-supervised physical activities did not change during the program in men whereas an increase in manual work of moderate intensity was recorded in women between 3 and 12?months. In women, mean changes in WC were significantly greater among high VO2 max responders than low responders, between 0 and 12?months, as well as between 3 and 12?months (-?3.42?cm and?-?4.32?cm, respectively, p?<? 0.05). No associations were seen with MetS components in men. Higher intensity activities were maintained by both sexes at one year. Conclusion:Patients with MetS participating in the CHANGE lifestyle program improved physical fitness and physical activity habits by three months and maintained these gains over one year. Women who achieved a greater VO2 max increase had greater reductions in WC compared to low VO2max responders.
Project description:Yoga and physical exercise have been used as adjunctive intervention for cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia (SZ), but controlled comparisons are lacking. Aims A single-blind randomised controlled trial was designed to evaluate whether yoga training or physical exercise training enhance cognitive functions in SZ, based on a prior pilot study.Consenting, clinically stable, adult outpatients with SZ (n=286) completed baseline assessments and were randomised to treatment as usual (TAU), supervised yoga training with TAU (YT) or supervised physical exercise training with TAU (PE). Based on the pilot study, the primary outcome measure was speed index for the cognitive domain of 'attention' in the Penn computerised neurocognitive battery. Using mixed models and contrasts, cognitive functions at baseline, 21 days (end of training), 3 and 6 months post-training were evaluated with intention-to-treat paradigm.Speed index of attention domain in the YT group showed greater improvement than PE at 6 months follow-up (p<0.036, effect size 0.51). In the PE group, 'accuracy index of attention domain showed greater improvement than TAU alone at 6-month follow-up (p<0.025, effect size 0.61). For several other cognitive domains, significant improvements were observed with YT or PE compared with TAU alone (p<0.05, effect sizes 0.30-1.97).Both YT and PE improved attention and additional cognitive domains well past the training period, supporting our prior reported beneficial effect of YT on speed index of attention domain. As adjuncts, YT or PE can benefit individuals with SZ.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) affects muscle mass, altering independent activities of people living with HIV (PLWH). Resistance training alone (RT) or combined with aerobic exercise (AE) is linked to improved muscle mass and strength maintenance in PLWH. These exercise benefits have been the focus of different meta-analyses, although only a limited number of studies have been identified up to the year 2013/4. An up-to-date systematic review and meta-analysis concerning the effect of RT alone or combined with AE on strength parameters and hormones is of high value, since more and recent studies dealing with these types of exercise in PLWH have been published. METHODS:Randomized controlled trials evaluating the effects of RT alone, AE alone or the combination of both (AERT) on PLWH was performed through five web-databases up to December 2017. Risk of bias and study quality was attained using the PEDro scale. Weighted mean difference (WMD) from baseline to post-intervention changes was calculated. The I2 statistics for heterogeneity was calculated. RESULTS:Thirteen studies reported strength outcomes. Eight studies presented a low risk of bias. The overall change in upper body strength was 19.3 Kg (95% CI: 9.8-28.8, p< 0.001) after AERT and 17.5 Kg (95% CI: 16-19.1, p< 0.001) for RT. Lower body change was 29.4 Kg (95% CI: 18.1-40.8, p< 0.001) after RT and 10.2 Kg (95% CI: 6.7-13.8, p< 0.001) for AERT. Changes were higher after controlling for the risk of bias in upper and lower body strength and for supervised exercise in lower body strength. A significant change towards lower levels of IL-6 was found (-2.4 ng/dl (95% CI: -2.6, -2.1, p< 0.001). CONCLUSION:Both resistance training alone and combined with aerobic exercise showed a positive change when studies with low risk of bias and professional supervision were analyzed, improving upper and, more critically, lower body muscle strength. Also, this study found that exercise had a lowering effect on IL-6 levels in PLWH.
Project description:Introduction: A family history of type 2 diabetes (FH+) is a major risk factor for the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, it remains unknown whether exercise-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility are impacted by a FH+. Therefore, we investigated whether improvements in insulin sensitivity, metabolic flexibility, body composition, aerobic fitness and muscle strength are limited by a FH+ following eight weeks of combined exercise training compared to individuals without a family history of type 2 diabetes (FH-). Methods: Twenty (n = 10 FH-, n = 10 FH+) young, healthy, sedentary, normoglycemic, Mexican-American males (age: FH- 22.50 ± 0.81, FH+ 23.41 ± 0.86 years; BMI: FH- 27.91 ± 1.55, FH+ 26.64 ± 1.02 kg/m2) underwent eight weeks of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training three times/week (35 min aerobic followed by six full-body resistance exercises). Insulin sensitivity was assessed via hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps. Metabolic flexibility was assessed by the change in respiratory quotient from fasted to insulin-stimulated states. Body composition was determined using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Aerobic fitness was determined by a graded exercise test, and upper- and lower-body strength were assessed via one-repetition maximum bench press and leg strength dynamometer, respectively. Results: Insulin sensitivity, metabolic flexibility, aerobic fitness and strength were not different between groups (p > 0.05). Eight weeks of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training improved insulin sensitivity (FH- p = 0.02, FH+ p = 0.002), increased fat free mass (FH- p = 0.006, FH+ p = 0.001), aerobic fitness (FH- p = 0.03, FH+ p = 0.002), and upper- (FH- p = 0.0001, FH+ p = 0.0001) and lower-body strength (FH- p = 0.0009, FH+ p = 0.0003), but did not change metabolic flexibility (p > 0.05) in both groups. Exercise-induced improvements in metabolic outcomes were similar between groups. Conclusions: Insulin sensitivity, metabolic flexibility, aerobic fitness and strength were not compromised by a FH+. Additionally, a FH+ is not a limiting factor for exercise-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity, aerobic fitness, body composition, and strength in normoglycemic young Mexican-American men.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Whether older people living with HIV (PLWH) can achieve similar functional benefits with exercise as their uninfected peers and the ideal intensity of exercise needed for these benefits are not known. DESIGN:Sedentary adults (50-75 years) with or without HIV were recruited for 24 weeks of supervised endurance/resistance exercise. After 12 weeks of moderate-intensity exercise, participants were randomized to continue moderate-intensity or advance to high-intensity exercise for an additional 12 weeks. METHODS:Outcomes by serostatus and exercise intensity (moderate, high) were compared using linear and mixed effects regression models and controlled for baseline values or week 12 values. RESULTS:A total of 32 PLWH and 37 controls were enrolled; 27 PLWH (12 moderate/15 high) and 29 controls (15 moderate/14 high) completed 24 weeks. PLWH had significantly poorer physical function across nearly all baseline measures. Both groups had significant improvements in all functional measures. From 0 to 12 weeks, PLWH had significantly greater percentage improvements (mean, 95% confidence interval) than controls on VO2 max [5 (0, 10)%]; from 13 to 24 weeks, PLWH had significantly greater percentage improvements on stair climb [-5 (-10, -1)%], and the time to complete a 400-m walk [-3 (-5, -0)%]; all P less than 0.05. An interaction between exercise intensity and HIV serostatus was significant for measures of strength: PLWH randomized to high-intensity gained significantly more strength than moderate-intensity in bench and leg press [6 (0, 12)% and 10 (2, 17)% greater; both P?<?0.05]; controls had similar gains regardless of intensity. CONCLUSION:Both moderate-intensity and high-intensity exercise resulted in significant improvements in physical function; high-intensity exercise may impart greater strength benefits to PLWH.