Correlation Between Subjective Happiness and Pleasant Activities at Workplace in Nursing Staff for Older Individuals in Japan.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlations between nursing staff's mental health, number of years worked, night shifts performed, and pleasant activities at the workplace. One hundred forty-three subjects who had no missing data were analyzed. Questions consisted of basic attributes, subjective happiness scale (SHS), and pleasant activities conducted at the workplace. Denouements of SHS indicated a significant trend for the main effect, with more pleasant activities in the high SHS group than the low SHS group. The interaction was significant, with fewer pleasant activities in participants in the low SHS group who worked the night shift compared with those who worked the night shift regardless of work experience. The outcomes of this study suggest that it is essential to expand the repertoire of pleasant activities at the workplace to increase the subjective happiness of nursing staff for older individuals.
Project description:The majority of people throughout the world rate subjective happiness as the top of the important thing in life. A recent structural neuroimaging study exploring neurocognitive mechanisms underlying subjective happiness has suggested that the gray matter volume of the right precuneus is associated with Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) scores. However, how the neural activity in this region, as well as the neural functional coupling between this and other regions, could be related to SHS scores remains unclear. To investigate these issues, we performed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and analyzed the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) in participants, whose subjective happiness was evaluated using the SHS. Lower fALFF values in the right precuneus were associated with higher SHS scores. Furthermore, functional connectivity and spectral dynamic causal modeling analyses showed that both functional and effective connectivity of the right precuneus with the right amygdala were positively associated with SHS scores. These findings, together with other evidence on the information-processing functions of these brain regions, suggest the possibility that subjective happiness is associated with a reduction in self-referential mental processes, which are well integrated with emotional processing.
Project description:<i>Background:</i> Omega (?) 3 fatty acid (FA) is a polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) that can modulate some mental statuses. However, most studies have not considered the functional differences between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We investigated associations among happiness, a sense of fulfillment and serum ?3 PUFA levels. <i>Methods:</i> Participants were 133 female staff from a hospital and nursing homes. Happiness was measured using the Japanese version of the subjective happiness scale (SHS); a sense of fulfillment was assessed using a visual analogue scale. Serum FA concentrations were measured. A partial correlation test and a regression model were applied. <i>Results:</i> The SHS scores showed significantly positive correlations with a sense of fulfillment, DHA% and EPA% (<i>p</i> < 0.05, < 0.05 and < 0.005, respectively), after controlling for age, BMI, menopause, snacking habits and leisure-time physical activities. A sense of fulfillment was significantly negatively correlated with ?-linoleic acid%, and positively correlated with DHA% and EPA% (<i>p</i> < 0.05, < 0.05 and < 0.005, respectively), after controlling for the confounders. A regression model showed that a sense of fulfillment, EPA, and not stopping menstruation explained happiness (standardised beta, <i>B</i> = 0.18, <i>p</i> < 0.05; <i>B</i> = 0.24, <i>p</i> < 0.01; and <i>B</i> = 0.32, and <i>p</i> < 0.05, respectively), whereas age, BMI and snacking habits could not. Simultaneously, a regression model could not explain the association between DHA and happiness. <i>Conclusion:</i> Happiness was related with serum EPA%, a sense of fulfillment, and premenopause.
Project description:Elevated blood pressure is a significant public health concern, particularly given its association with cardiovascular disease risk, including stroke. Caring for a loved one with Alzheimer disease has been associated with physical health morbidity, including higher blood pressure. Engagement in adaptive coping strategies may help prevent blood pressure elevation in this population. This 5-year longitudinal study examined whether greater participation in pleasant leisure activities was associated with reduced blood pressure in caregivers.Participants were 126 in-home spousal Alzheimer's caregivers (M [SD] age = 74.2 [7.9] years) that completed five yearly assessments. Linear mixed-effects models analysis was used to examine the longitudinal relationship between pleasant leisure activities and caregivers' blood pressure, after adjusting for demographic and health characteristics.Greater engagement in pleasant leisure activities was associated with reduced mean arterial blood pressure (B = -0.08, SE = 0.04, p = .040). Follow-up analyses indicated that engagement in activities was significantly associated with reduced diastolic (B = -0.07, SE = 0.03, p = .030) but not systolic blood pressure (B = -0.10, SE = 0.06, p = .114). In addition, mean arterial blood pressure was significantly reduced when caregiving duties ended because of placement of care recipients in nursing homes (B = -3.10, SE = 1.11, p = .005) or death of the care recipient (B = -2.64, SE = 1.14, p = .021).Greater engagement in pleasant leisure activities was associated with lowered caregivers' blood pressure over time. Participation in pleasant leisure activities may have cardiovascular health benefits for Alzheimer's caregivers.
Project description:It is well recognized that visual impairments (VI) worsen individuals' mental condition. However, little is known about the positive aspects including subjective happiness, positive emotions, and strengths. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the positive aspects of persons with VI including their subjective happiness, positive emotions, and strengths use. Positive aspects of persons with VI were measured using the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS), the Scale of Positive and Negative Experience-Balance (SPANE-B), and the Strengths Use Scale (SUS). A cross-sectional analysis was utilized to examine personal information in a Tokyo sample (N = 44). We used a simple regression analysis and found significant relationships between the SHS or SPANE-B and SUS; on the contrary, VI-related variables were not correlated with them. A multiple regression analysis confirmed that SUS was a significant factor associated with both the SHS and SPANE-B. Strengths use might be a possible protective factor from the negative effects of VI.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:to verify the relationship between the socio-demographic and work profile of the nursing professionals and the patient safety climate in a public emergency hospital. METHOD:a cross-sectional study carried out with 177 nursing professionals from a public emergency hospital. For data collection, the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire - Short Form 2006 was used, validated and cross-culturally adapted to the Portuguese language. To check the factors related to the instrument's domains, bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS:working in the medical and surgical clinic or emergency room, on a night shift, and having the intention to leave nursing, reduced the general safety climate in the multiple regression analysis. The younger professionals, with less than four years in the institution, and those who worked in the night shift had a lower safety climate related to the perception of the management. On the other hand, having a work contract with a hired worker improved the general safety climate and workplace satisfaction. CONCLUSION:identifying predictors on patient safety scores is an important management tool that allows diagnosing, planning and executing activities from the domains that need to be improved.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in patient subjective happiness and satisfaction with cataract surgery and evaluate the association between satisfaction and types of cataract. This study surveyed 247 participants (mean age, 67.9 years) and they completed questionnaires on their satisfaction with the surgery, the subjective happiness scale (SHS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) before and after surgery. The SHS increased postoperatively from 4.6?±?0.7 to 4.8?±?0.7 (P?=?0.007) and 83.4% of patients were satisfied with the surgical results and the average satisfaction score was 4.2 out of a possible 5.0. Multiple regression analysis showed that patient satisfaction was significantly associated with the postoperative SHS (??=?0.380; P?<?0.001), the postoperative PSQI (??=?-0.041; P?=?0.035) and the presence of a posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC) (??=?0.277; P?=?0.026). This study clarified that cataract surgery may improve both visual function and patient happiness and that patient satisfaction was affected by postoperative sleep quality and the disappearance of a PSC.
Project description:BACKGROUND: With China's rapid economic growth in the past few decades, there is currently an emerging focus on happiness. Cross-cultural validity studies have indicated that the four-item Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) has high internal consistency and stable reliability. However, the psychometric characteristics of the SHS in broader Chinese community samples are unknown. PURPOSE: We evaluated the factor structure and psychometric properties of the SHS in the Hong Kong general population. METHODS: The Chinese SHS was derived using forward-backward translation. Of the Cantonese-speaking participants aged ≥15 years, 2,635 were randomly selected from the random sample component of the FAMILY Cohort, a territory-wide cohort study in Hong Kong. In addition to the SHS, a single-item overall happiness scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Family Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection, Resolve (APGAR) scale, and the Medical Outcomes Study 12-item short-form version 2 (SF-12) mental and physical health scales were administered. RESULTS: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a single factor with high loadings for the four SHS items. Multiple group analyses indicated factor invariance across sex and age groups. Cronbach's alpha was 0.82, and 2-week test-retest reliability (n = 191) was 0.70. The SHS correlated significantly with single-item overall happiness (Spearman's rho [ρ] = 0.57), Family APGAR (ρ = 0.26), PHQ-9 (ρ = -0.34), and mental health-related quality of life (ρ = 0.40) but showed a lower correlation with physical health (ρ = 0.15). A regression model that included the PHQ-9 and Family APGAR scores explained 37% of the variance in SF-12 mental health scores; adding the SHS raised the variance explained to 41 %. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the reliability and validity of the SHS as a relevant component in the measurement battery for mental well-being in a Chinese general population.
Project description:Large samples of data from the World Values Survey, the US Benchmark Survey and a comparable Canadian survey are used to estimate equations designed to explore the social context of subjective evaluations of well-being, of happiness, and of health. Social capital, as measured by the strength of family, neighbourhood, religious and community ties, is found to support both physical health and subjective well-being. Our new evidence confirms that social capital is strongly linked to subjective well-being through many independent channels and in several different forms. Marriage and family, ties to friends and neighbours, workplace ties, civic engagement (both individually and collectively), trustworthiness and trust: all appear independently and robustly related to happiness and life satisfaction, both directly and through their impact on health.
Project description:Somatosensation as a proximal sense can have a strong impact on our attitude toward physical objects and other human beings. However, relatively little is known about how hedonic valence of touch is processed at the cortical level. Here we investigated the electrophysiological correlates of affective tactile sensation during caressing of the right forearm with pleasant and unpleasant textile fabrics. We show dissociation between more physically driven differential brain responses to the different fabrics in early somatosensory cortex - the well-known mu-suppression (10-20 Hz) - and a beta-band response (25-30 Hz) in presumably higher-order somatosensory areas in the right hemisphere that correlated well with the subjective valence of tactile caressing. Importantly, when using single trial classification techniques, beta-power significantly distinguished between pleasant and unpleasant stimulation on a single trial basis with high accuracy. Our results therefore suggest a dissociation of the sensory and affective aspects of touch in the somatosensory system and may provide features that may be used for single trial decoding of affective mental states from simple electroencephalographic measurements.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Monitoring disparities in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is important for tailoring smoke-free policies to the needs of different groups. We examined disparity and trends in SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers at Japanese workplaces between 2002 and 2012. METHODS:A total of 32,940 employees in nationally representative, population-based, repeated cross-sectional surveys in 2002, 2007 and 2012 in Japan was analyzed. Adjusted rate ratios for workplace SHS exposure from other people ("everyday" and "everyday or sometimes") were calculated according to covariates, using log-binomial regression models with survey weights. In this survey, employees who do not smoke at workplace are defined as workplace-nonsmokers; and those smoke at workplace are used as workplace-smokers. SHS exposure for smokers does not involve their own SHS. RESULTS:While everyday SHS exposure prevalence in workplace-nonsmokers decreased markedly (33.2% to 11.4%), that in workplace-smokers decreased only slightly (63.3% to 55.6%). Workplace-smokers were significantly more likely to report everyday SHS exposure than workplace-nonsmokers, and the degree of association increased over time: compared with the nonsmokers (reference), covariates-adjusted rate ratio (95% confidence interval) for the smokers increased from 1.70 (1.62-1.77) in 2002 to 4.16 (3.79-4.56) in 2012. Similar results were observed for everyday or sometimes SHS exposure. Compared with complete workplace smoking bans, partial and no bans were consistently and significantly associated with high SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers. We also observed disparities in SHS exposure by employee characteristics, such as age group and worksite scale. CONCLUSIONS:Although overall SHS exposure decreased among Japanese employees between 2002 and 2012, the SHS exposure disparity between nonsmokers and smokers widened. Because smokers reported more frequent SHS exposure than nonsmokers, subsequent mortality due to SHS exposure may be higher in smokers than in nonsmokers. This information may be useful for advocating workplace smoke-free policies.