Pharmacogenetics of Pediatric Asthma: Current Perspectives.
ABSTRACT: Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease that affects 339 million people worldwide and has a considerable impact on the pediatric population. Asthma symptoms can be controlled by pharmacological treatment. However, some patients do not respond to therapy and continue suffering from symptoms, which impair the quality of life of patients and limit their daily activity. Genetic variation has been shown to have a role in treatment response. The aim of this review is to update the main findings described in pharmacogenetic studies of pediatric asthma published from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2019. During this period, the response to short-acting beta-agonists and inhaled corticosteroids in childhood asthma has been evaluated by eleven candidate-gene studies, one meta-analysis of a candidate gene, and six pharmacogenomic studies. The findings have allowed validating the association of genes previously related to asthma treatment response (ADRB2, GSDMB, FCER2, VEGFA, SPAT2SL, ASB3, and COL2A1), and identifying novel associations (PRKG1, DNAH5, IL1RL1, CRISPLD2, MMP9, APOBEC3B-APOBEC3C, EDDM3B, and BBS9). However, some results are not consistent across studies, highlighting the need to conduct larger studies in diverse populations with more homogeneous definitions of treatment response. Once stronger evidence was established, genetic variants will have the potential to be applied in clinical practice as biomarkers of treatment response enhancing asthma management and improving the quality of life of asthma patients.
Project description:Asthma is a chronic inflammatory respiratory disease that affects over 300 million people worldwide. Glucocorticoids are a mainstay therapy for asthma because they exert anti-inflammatory effects in multiple lung tissues, including the airway smooth muscle (ASM). However, the mechanism by which glucocorticoids suppress inflammation in ASM remains poorly understood. Using RNA-Seq, a high-throughput sequencing method, we characterized transcriptomic changes in four primary human ASM cell lines that were treated with dexamethasone--a potent synthetic glucocorticoid (1 µM for 18 hours). Based on a Benjamini-Hochberg corrected p-value <0.05, we identified 316 differentially expressed genes, including both well known (DUSP1, KLF15, PER1, TSC22D3) and less investigated (C7, CCDC69, CRISPLD2) glucocorticoid-responsive genes. CRISPLD2, which encodes a secreted protein previously implicated in lung development and endotoxin regulation, was found to have SNPs that were moderately associated with inhaled corticosteroid resistance and bronchodilator response among asthma patients in two previously conducted genome-wide association studies. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting showed that dexamethasone treatment significantly increased CRISPLD2 mRNA and protein expression in ASM cells. CRISPLD2 expression was also induced by the inflammatory cytokine IL1?, and small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of CRISPLD2 further increased IL1?-induced expression of IL6 and IL8. Our findings offer a comprehensive view of the effect of a glucocorticoid on the ASM transcriptome and identify CRISPLD2 as an asthma pharmacogenetics candidate gene that regulates anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids in the ASM.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the most widely prescribed and effective medication to control asthma symptoms and exacerbations. However, many children still have asthma exacerbations despite treatment, particularly in admixed populations, such as Puerto Ricans and African Americans. A few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been performed in European and Asian populations, and they have demonstrated the importance of the genetic component in ICS response. OBJECTIVE:We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with asthma exacerbations in admixed children treated with ICS and to validate previous GWAS findings. METHODS:A meta-analysis of two GWAS of asthma exacerbations was performed in 1347 admixed children treated with ICS (Hispanics/Latinos and African Americans), analysing 8.7 million genetic variants. Those with P ? 5 × 10-6 were followed up for replication in 1697 asthmatic patients from six European studies. Associations of ICS response described in published GWAS were followed up for replication in the admixed populations. RESULTS:A total of 15 independent variants were suggestively associated with asthma exacerbations in admixed populations (P ? 5 × 10-6 ). One of them, located in the intergenic region of APOBEC3B and APOBEC3C, showed evidence of replication in Europeans (rs5995653, P = 7.52 × 10-3 ) and was also associated with change in lung function after treatment with ICS (P = 4.91 × 10-3 ). Additionally, the reported association of the L3MBTL4-ARHGAP28 genomic region was confirmed in admixed populations, although a different variant was identified. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE:This study revealed the novel association of APOBEC3B and APOBEC3C with asthma exacerbations in children treated with ICS and replicated previously identified genomic regions. This contributes to the current knowledge about the multiple genetic markers determining responsiveness to ICS which could lead in the future the clinical identification of those asthma patients who are not able to respond to such treatment.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is a biomarker of airway inflammation in asthma. The measurement of FENO is utilized to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of children with asthma, especially for those treated with inhaled corticosteroids. OBJECTIVES:The aims of this study were to evaluate the correlations between FENO and atopic status, blood eosinophil levels, FCER2 mutation, and asthma control in Vietnamese children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:This was a prospective and descriptive study approved by the local Ethical Board. All children with uncontrolled asthma, seen in the National Hospital of Pediatrics (Hanoi, Vietnam), were included. Exhaled breath FENO, blood eosinophils, skin prick test, total IgE, asthma control test (ACT), and FCER2 gene polymorphism were performed at inclusion. They were followed up at 3 months to evaluate clinical status, FENO levels, and ACT. RESULTS:Forty-two children with uncontrolled asthma with a mean age of 10±3 years (6-16 years) were included. The male/female ratio was 2.5/1. The mean FENO levels were 26±25 ppb. FENO was significantly higher in patients with a positive skin prick test for respiratory allergens (P<0.05). FENO was significantly correlated with blood eosinophil levels (r=0.5217; P=0.0004). Five of the 32 subjects (15.6%) had a mutation of FCER2 gene (rs28364072 SNP). In this group, the levels of FENO were highest (37±10 ppb; P<0.05). The levels of FENO were significantly decreased after 3 months of treatment (17±8 ppb vs 26±25 ppb; P<0.05). Significant correlations between inhaled corticosteroid doses and FENO levels occurred at 1 and 3 months (r=0.415, P=0.007; r=0.396, P=0.010; respectively). There were no correlations between FENO levels, ACT, and daily use of salbutamol. After 3 months, asthma remained uncontrolled in 22.2% of children. CONCLUSION:The measurement of FENO levels is a useful and feasible tool to predict clinical, biological, and asthma control in Vietnamese children.
Project description:Patient response to the asthma drug classes, bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids and leukotriene modifiers, are characterized by a large degree of heterogeneity, which is attributable in part to genetic variation. Herein, we review and update the pharmacogenetics and pharmaogenomics of common asthma drugs.Early studies suggest that bronchodilator reversibility and asthma worsening in patients on continuous short-acting and long-acting beta-agonists are related to the Gly16Arg genotype for the ADRB2. More recent studies including genome-wide association studies implicate variants in other genes contribute to bronchodilator response heterogeneity and fail to replicate asthma worsening associated with continuous beta-agonist use. Genetic determinants of the safety of long-acting beta-agonist require further study. Variants in CRHR1, TBX21, and FCER2 contribute to variability in response for lung function, airways responsiveness, and exacerbations in patients taking inhaled corticosteroids. Variants in ALOX5, LTA4H, LTC4S, ABCC1, CYSLTR2, and SLCO2B1 contribute to variability in response to leukotriene modifiers.Identification of novel variants that contribute to response heterogeneity supports future studies of single nucleotide polymorphism discovery and include gene expression and genome-wide association studies. Statistical models that predict the genomics of response to asthma drugs will complement single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in moving toward personalized medicine.
Project description:While DNA methylation plays a role in T-helper (Th) cell maturation, its potential dysregulation in the non-atopic Th1-polarized systemic inflammation observed in obesity-associated asthma is unknown. We studied DNA methylation epigenome-wide in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 8 obese asthmatic pre-adolescent children and compared it to methylation in PBMCs from 8 children with asthma alone, obesity alone and healthy controls. Differentially methylated loci implicated certain biologically relevant molecules and pathways. PBMCs from obese asthmatic children had distinctive DNA methylation patterns, with decreased promoter methylation of CCL5, IL2RA and TBX21, genes encoding proteins linked with Th1 polarization, and increased promoter methylation of FCER2, a low-affinity receptor for IgE, and of TGFB1, inhibitor of Th cell activation. T-cell signaling and macrophage activation were the two primary pathways that were selectively hypomethylated in obese asthmatics. These findings suggest that dysregulated DNA methylation is associated with non-atopic inflammation observed in pediatric obesity-associated asthma.
Project description:Numerous studies have examined the association between pharmacogenetic effects and the response to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in patients with asthma. In fact, several single nucleotide polymorphisms of a number of candidate genes have been identified that might influence the clinical response to ICS in children with asthma. Their direct or indirect effects depend on their role in the inflammatory process in asthma or the anti-inflammatory action of corticosteroids, respectively. Among the genes identified, variants in T-box 21 ( TBX21) and Fc fragment of IgE receptor II ( FCER2) contribute indirectly to the variability in the response to ICS by altering the inflammatory mechanisms in asthma, while other genes such as corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 ( CRHR1), nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 1 ( NR3C1), stress induced phosphoprotein 1 ( STIP1), dual specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1), glucocorticoid induced 1 (GLCCI1), histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC), ORMDL sphingolipid biosynthesis regulator 3 (ORMDL3), and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) directly affect this variability through the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of ICS. The results to date indicate various potential genetic factors associated with the response to ICS, which could be utilized to predict the individual therapeutic response of children with asthma to ICS. Clinical trials are underway and their results are greatly anticipated. Further pharmacogenetic studies are needed to fully understand the effects of genetic variation on the response to ICS in children with asthma.
Project description:Asthma is a frequent disease, mainly characterized by airway inflammation, in which drug therapy is crucial in its management. The potential of pharmacogenomics testing in asthma therapy has been, to date, little explored. In this review, we discuss pharmacogenetic factors affecting asthma treatment, both related to drugs used as controller medications for regular maintenance, such as inhaled corticosteroids, anti-leukotriene agents, long-acting beta-agonists, and the new biologic agents used to treat severe persistent asthma. In addition, we discuss current pharmacogenomics knowledge for rescue medications provided to all patients for as-needed relief, such as short-acting beta-agonists. Evidence for genetic variations as a factor related to drugs response has been provided for the following genes and groups of drugs: Inhaled corticosteroids: FCER2; anti-leukotriene agents: ABCC1, and LTC4S; beta-agonists: ADRB2. However, the following genes require further studies confirming or rejecting association with the response to asthma therapy: ADCY9, ALOX5, ARG1, ARG2, CRHR1, CRHR2, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYSLTR1, CYSLTR2, GLCCI1, IL4RA, LTA4H, ORMDL3, SLCO2B1, SPATS2L, STIP1, T, TBX21, THRA, THRB, and VEGFA. Although only a minority of these genes are, at present, listed as associated with drugs used in asthma therapy, in the Clinical Pharmacogenomics Implementation Consortium gene-drug pair list, this review reveals that sufficient evidence to start testing the potential of clinical pharmacogenomics in asthma therapy already exists. This evidence supports the inclusion in pilot pharmacogenetics tests of at least four genes. Hopefully these tests, if proven useful, will increase the efficiency and the safety of asthma therapy.
Project description:?2-Agonists are the most common form of treatment of asthma, but there is significant variability in response to these medications. A significant proportion of this responsiveness may be heritable.To investigate whether a genome-wide association study (GWAS) could identify novel pharmacogenetic loci in asthma.We performed a GWAS of acute bronchodilator response (BDR) to inhaled ?2-agonists. A total of 444,088 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were examined in 724 individuals from the SNP Health Association Resource (SHARe) Asthma Resource Project (SHARP). The top 50 SNPs were carried forward to replication in a population of 444 individuals.The combined P value for four SNPs reached statistical genome-wide significance aftercorrecting for multiple comparisons. Combined P values for rs350729, rs1840321, rs1384918, and rs1319797 were 2.21?×?10(-10), 5.75?×?10(-8), 9.3?×?10(-8), and 3.95?×?10(-8), respectively. The significant variants all map to a novel genetic region on chromosome 2 near the ASB3 gene, a region associated with smooth muscle proliferation. As compared with the wild type, the presence of the minor alleles reduced the degree of BDR by 20% in the original population and by a similar percentage in the confirmatory population.These GWAS findings for BDR in subjects with asthma suggest that a gene associated with smooth muscle proliferation may influence a proportion of the smooth muscle relaxation that occurs in asthma.
Project description:Asthma is a heterogeneous and multifactorial respiratory disease with an important impact on childhood. Difficult-to-treat asthma is not uncommon among children, and it causes a high burden to the patient, caregivers, and society. This review aims to summarize the recent findings on pediatric asthma treatment response revealed by different omic approaches conducted in 2018-2019. A total of 13 studies were performed during this period to assess the role of genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, and the microbiome in the response to short-acting beta agonists, inhaled corticosteroids, and leukotriene receptor antagonists. These studies have identified novel associations of genetic markers, epigenetic modifications, metabolites, bacteria, and molecular mechanisms involved in asthma treatment response. This knowledge will allow us establishing molecular biomarkers that could be integrated with clinical information to improve the management of children with asthma.
Project description:Ankyrin repeat and SOCS box (ASB) family members have a C-terminal SOCS box and an N-terminal ankyrin-related sequence of variable repeats belonging to the SOCS superfamily. While SH2-domain-bearing SOCS proteins are mainly involved in the negative feedback regulation of the protein tyrosine kinase-STAT pathway in response to a variety of cytokines, the roles of ASB family members remain largely unknown. To investigate ASB functions, we screened for ASB3-interacting factors by using antibody array technology and identified tumor necrosis factor receptor II (TNF-R2) as an ASB3 binding target. ASB3 expression and activities are required for (i) TNF-R2 ubiquitination both in vivo and in vitro, (ii) TNF-R2 proteolysis via the proteasome pathway, and (iii) the inhibition of TNF-R2-mediated Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) activation. While the ankyrin repeats of ASB3 interact with the C-terminal 37 amino acids of TNF-R2, the SOCS box of ASB3 is responsible for recruiting the E3 ubiquitin ligase adaptors Elongins-B/C, leading to TNF-R2 ubiquitination on multiple lysine residues within its C-terminal region. Downregulation of ASB3 expression by a small interfering RNA inhibited TNF-R2 degradation and potentiated TNF-R2-mediated cytotoxicity. The data presented here implicate ASB3 as a negative regulator of TNF-R2-mediated cellular responses to TNF-alpha by direct targeting of TNF-R2 for ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation.