Elevated systemic inflammatory responses, factors associated with physical and mental quality of life, and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: Impaired quality of life (QOL) is common in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. In this study, we used a large hospital-based multiethnic HCC patient cohort to systematically identify factors associated with QOL and investigate the prognostic value of QOL.The Short Form-12 questionnaire was used to assess QOL. The Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores were categorized into three groups (low, medium, and high) and ordered logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the association of PCS and MCS scores with patient characteristics. The association of PCS and MCS scores with mortality was assessed by Cox regression analysis.Notably, a panel of elevated systemic inflammatory response markers was associated with poor QOL. Other significant factors associated with QOL included age, liver function, sex, smoking, HCC etiology, and major clinical features. Patients with low (hazard ratio [95% CI], 1.72 [1.36-2.17]) and medium (1.52 [1.23-1.89]) PCS scores exhibited higher risks of death compared to patients with high PCS score. The association of MCS with the risk of death was not significant. These observations were consistent across all the different ethnicities.The identified factors associated with QOL may help clinicians formulate interventions to improve QOL and outcomes in HCC patients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Cross-sectional health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) measures are associated with mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The impact of changes in HR-QOL on outcomes remains unclear. We describe the association of prior changes in HR-QOL with subsequent mortality among HD patients.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 13 784 patients in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study had more than one measurement of HR-QOL. The impact of changes between two measurements of the physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component summary scores of the SF-12 on mortality was estimated with Cox regression.<h4>Results</h4>Mean age was 62 years (standard deviation: 14 years); 59% were male and 32% diabetic. Median time between HR-QOL measurements was 12 months [interquartile range (IQR): 11, 14]. Median initial PCS and MCS scores were 37.5 (IQR: 29.4, 46.2) and 46.4 (IQR: 37.2, 54.9); median changes in PCS and MCS scores were -0.2 (IQR: -5.5, 4.7) and -0.1 (IQR: -6.8, 5.9), respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for a 5-point decline in HR-QOL score was 1.09 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-1.12] for PCS and 1.05 (95% CI: 1.03-1.08) for MCS. Adjusting for the second QOL score, the change was not associated with mortality: HR = 1.01 (95% CI: 0.98-1.05) for delta PCS and 1.01 (95% CI: 0.98-1.03) for delta MCS. Categorizing the first and second scores as predictors, only the second PCS or MCS score was associated with mortality.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In our study, only the most recent HR-QOL score was associated with mortality. Hence, the predictive power of a measurement of HR-QOL is not affected by changes in HR-QOL prior to that measurement; more frequent HR-QOL measurements are needed to improve the prediction of outcomes in HD. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal frequency and appropriate instrument to be used for serial measurements.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Little is known about determinants of quality of life (QoL) in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Recent studies suggest that QoL in ADPKD is determined by more factors than mere renal function. We investigated the effect of ADPKD on QoL and evaluated how Qol is affected by disease severity markers renal function, kidney volume and liver volume.<h4>Methods</h4>We performed a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression analyses of cohort studies and randomized controlled trials investigating patient-reported QoL in adult patients with ADPKD not yet on dialysis. EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Web of Science were searched to August 2015 without language restrictions. Two investigators independently reviewed title, abstracts and full text of potentially relevant citations to determine eligibility. We compared pooled QoL summary scores of ADPKD patients using a random-effects meta-analytic model. These scores were compared with mean and age-corrected reference scores of the general population. In a meta-regression analysis, we investigated the univariate effect of renal function, kidney volume and liver volume on QoL.<h4>Results</h4>We included nine studies in meta-analysis including 1623 patients who completed the SF-36 questionnaire. Pooled physical (PCS) and mental component scores (MCS) of the SF-36 of individuals with ADPKD were lower than those of the reference population (45.7 vs. 50.0 and 47.8 vs. 50.0 points, both P < 0.001). QoL of ADPKD patients remained lower after comparison with age-corrected reference values (age 35-44 year; PCS 52.2, MCS 49.9 points, both P < 0.05). Larger liver volume negatively impacted PCS (P < 0.001) and MCS (P = 0.001), whereas there was no association with renal function (PCS P = 0.1, MCS P = 0.9) and kidney volume (PCS P = 0.5, MCS P = 0. 5). Total liver and kidney volume had no impact on PCS (P = 0.1), but did have impact on MCS (P = 0.02).<h4>Conclusions</h4>QoL reported by non-dialysis patients with ADPKD is impaired compared to the general population. Large liver volume was the most important factor that diminishes QoL. PROSPERO International Registry number CRD42015026428.
Project description:Patient reported health-related quality of life (QOL) is a major component of the overall well-being of cancer patients, with links to prognosis. In 6,420 lung cancer patients, we identified patient characteristics and genetic determinants of QOL. Patient responses from the SF-12 questionnaire was used to calculate normalized Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores. Further, we analyzed 218 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the p38 MAPK signaling pathway, a key mediator of response to cellular and environmental stress, as genetic determinants of QOL in a subset of the study population (N?=?641). Trends among demographic factors for mean PCS and MCS included smoking status (PCS Ptrend?<?0.001, MCS Ptrend?<?0.001) and education (PCS Ptrend?<?0.001, MCS Ptrend?<?0.001). Similar relationships were seen for MCS. The homozygous rare genotype of MEF2B: rs2040562 showed an increased risk of a poor MCS (OR: 3.06, 95% CI: 1.05-8.92, P?=?0.041). Finally, survival analysis showed that a low PCS or a MCS was associated with increased risks of five-year mortality (HR?=?1.63, 95% CI: 1.51-1.77, HR?=?1.23, 95% CI: 1.16-1.32, respectively) and there was a significant reduction in median survival time (Plog-rank?<?0.001). These findings suggest that multiple factors contribute to QOL in lung cancer patients, and baseline QOL can impact survival.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Despite improvements in dialysis treatment, mortality rates remain high, especially among older hemodialysis patients. Quality of life (QOL) among hemodialysis patients is strongly associated with higher risk of death. This study aimed to describe the health-related QOL and its change in older maintenance hemodialysis patients and to demonstrate characteristics associated with health-related QOL. METHODS:Data on 892 maintenance hemodialysis patients aged 60 years or older who were surveyed using the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form at baseline and 2 years after study enrollment in phases 4 (2009-2011) and 5 (2012-2014) of the Japanese Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study were analyzed. We categorized participants into 3 age groups (60-69, 70-79, and ?80 years) and described baseline physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores, as well as their distribution of changes after 2 years across each category. RESULTS:Hemodialysis patients aged 70-79 years and ?80 years had lower PCS scores than those aged 60-69 years (median: 70-79 years = 43.1; interquartile range [IQR], 35.2-49.4; ?80 years = 38.8; IQR, 31.6-43.8; 60-69 years = 45.4; IQR, 37.5-51.4; p < 0.001). In contrast, MCS scores did not significantly differ by age category (70-79 years = 45.6; IQR, 38.4-53.7; ?80 years = 45.4; IQR, 36.9-55.1; 60-69 years = 46.8; IQR, 39.5-55.7; p = 0.1). As dialysis vintage lengthened, the PCS score significantly became lower, whereas no association was found with change in the MCS score. The MCS score declined over time in older patients, especially among those aged 80 years and older after 2 years' follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:Physical QOL became worse as dialysis vintage lengthened. In contrast, mental QOL declined over time within a relatively short period among older maintenance hemodialysis patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The main purpose of performing radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients is to improve the quality of life (QoL) and alleviate AF-related symptoms. We aimed to determine the qualitative and quantitative effects of RFCA on the QoL in AF patients. METHODS:We performed a systemic review and meta-analysis using a random effects model. We searched for the studies that reported the physical component summary score (PCS) and mental component summary score (MCS) of the short form-36, a validated system to assess and quantify the QoL, before and after RFCA in AF patients. PCS and MCS are T-scores with a mean of 50 and standard deviation of 10. RESULTS:Of the 470 studies identified through systematic search, we included 13 studies for pre-RFCA vs. the post-RFCA analysis and 5 studies for treatment success vs. AF recurrence analyses. In the pre-RFCA vs. post-RFCA analysis, RFCA was associated with a significant increase in both the PCS (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 6.33 [4.81-7.84]; p < 0.001) and MCS (WMD = 7.80 [6.15-9.44]; p < 0.001). The ?PCS (post-RFCA PCS-pre-RFCA PCS) and ?MCS values were used for the treatment success vs. AF recurrence analysis. Patients with successful ablation had a higher ?PCS (WMD = 7.46 [4.44-10.49]; p < 0.001) and ?MCS (WMD = 7.59 [4.94-10.24]; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:RFCA is associated with a significant increase in the PCS and MCS in AF patients. Patients without AF recurrence after RFCA had a better improvement in the PCS and MCS than patients who had AF recurrence.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Quality of life (QOL) is impaired in pancreatic cancer patients. Our aim was to investigate the determinants and prognostic value of QOL after diagnosis in a hospital-based cohort of racially/ethnically diverse patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). PATIENTS AND METHODS:QOL was prospectively assessed using the Short Form-12 in 2478 PDAC patients. The Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) were categorised into tertiles based on their distribution. Ordered logistic regression was adopted to compare the risk of having lower PCS and MCS by patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. The association of PCS and MCS with mortality was assessed by Cox regression. RESULTS:Compared with non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics were at significantly higher risk of having lower PCS (odds ratio [95% CI], 1.69 [1.26-2.26]; P < 0.001) and lower MCS (1.66 [1.24-2.23]; P < 0.001). Patients diagnosed with stage III (1.80 [1.10-2.94]; P = 0.02) and stage IV (2.32 [1.50-3.59]; P < 0.001) PDAC were more likely to have lower PCS than stage I patients. Other determinants of QOL included sex, age, drinking, smoking, education level, comorbidities and time since diagnosis. The low tertile of PCS (hazard ratio [95% CI], 1.94 [1.72-2.18]; P < 0.001) and MCS (1.42 [1.26-1.59]; P < 0.001) were each related to poor prognosis. Similar results were found for non-Hispanic whites as compared with African-Americans/Hispanics/others. CONCLUSION:QOL after diagnosis is a significant prognostic indicator for patients with PDAC. Multiple factors determine QOL, suggesting possible means of intervention to improve QOL and outcomes of PDAC patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study was undertaken to explore the longitudinal patterns of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among youth and young adults with Hemophilia A (HA) over a 3-year period. This report presents the baseline characteristics of the study cohort. METHODS:Males, 14 to 29 years of age, with predominantly severe HA were recruited from six treatment centres in Canada. Subjects completed a comprehensive survey. HRQoL was measured using: the CHO-KLAT2.0 (youth), Haemo-QoL-A (young adults) and the SF-36v2 (all). RESULTS:13 youth (mean age?=?15.7, range?=?12.9-17.9 years) and 33 young adults (mean age?=?23.6; range?=?18.4 -28.7 years) with moderate (7 %) and severe (93 %) HA were enrolled. All were on a prophylactic regimen with antihemophilic factor (Helixate FS®) during the study. The youth had minimal joint damage (mean HJHS?=?5.2) compared to young adults (mean HJHS?=?13.3). The mean HRQoL scores for youth were: 79.2 (SD?=?11.9) for the CHO-KLAT, and 53.0 (5.5) and 52.3 (6.8) for the SF-36 Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores respectively. The mean HRQoL scores for young adults were: 85.8 (9.5) for the Haemo-Qol-A, and 50.8 (6.4) and 50.9 (8.8) for PCS and MCS respectively. PCS and MCS scores were comparable to published Canadian norms, however significant differences were found for the domains of Physical Functioning and Bodily Pain. The disease-specific HRQoL scores were weakly correlated with the PCS for youth (CHO-KLAT vs. PCS r?=?0.28, p?=?0.35); and moderately correlated for the MCS (r?=?0.39, p?=?0.19). Haemo-QoL-A scores for young adults were strongly correlated with the PCS (r?=?0.53, p?=?0.001); and weakly correlated with the MCS (r?=?0.26, p?=?0.13). Joint status as assessed by HJHS was correlated with PCS scores. A history of lifelong prophylaxis resulted in better PCS but worse MCS scores. CONCLUSION:Despite having hemophilia, the youth in this cohort have minimal joint disease and good HRQoL. The young adults demonstrated more joint disease and slightly worse HRQoL in the domains of physical functioning and pain. The data presented here provide new information to inform the selection of Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) instruments for use in future clinical trials involving persons with hemophilia. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT01034904. Study funded by CSL Behring Canada.
Project description:Symptoms in polycystic liver disease (PLD) are thought to be caused by compression of organs and structures by the enlarged liver.The aim of this article is to assess the impact of liver volume on symptoms and quality of life (QoL) in PLD.We included PLD patients from two prospective studies that used the PLD-questionnaire (PLD-Q) for symptom assessment. QoL was assessed through SF-36, summarized in a physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component score. Liver volume was correlated with PLD-Q total scores. Patients were classified based on height-corrected liver volume in mild (<1600?ml), moderate (1600-3200?ml), and severe (>3200?ml) disease. PLD-Q and QoL (PCS and MCS) scores were compared across disease stages.We included 82 of 131 patients from the original studies (disease stages; mild n?=?26, moderate n?=?33, and severe n?=?23). Patients with larger liver volume reported higher symptom burden (r?=?0.516, p?<?0.001). Symptom scores increased with disease progression, except for abdominal pain (p?=?0.088). PCS decreased with advancing disease (p?<?0.001), in contrast to MCS (p?=?0.055). Moderate (p?=?0.007) and severe (p?<?0.001) PLD patients had lower PCS scores than the general population.PLD with larger liver volume is more likely to be symptomatic and is associated with lower QoL.
Project description:Objective To assess the burden of diseases and quality of life (QOL) of patients for a large variety of diseases within general practice. Design In a representative nationwide cross-sectional study, a total of 825 general practitioners (GPs) were randomly selected from across France. Independent investigators recruited 8559 patients attending the GPs' practices. Data on QOL (12-Item Short Form questionnaire) and other individual characteristics were documented by the independent investigators for all participants in the waiting room. Medical information was recorded by GPs. Sampling was calibrated to national standards using the CALMAR (CALage sur MARges) weighting procedure. Associations of lower scores (ie, below vs above the first quartile) of physical and mental component scores (physical component summary score (PCS) and mental component summary score (MCS), respectively) with main diseases and patients characteristics were estimated using multivariate logistic regression. Weighted morbidity rates, PCS and MCS were computed for 100 diagnoses using the International Classification of Diseases (9th version). Results Overall mental impairment was observed among patients in primary care with an average MCS of 41.5 (SD 8.6), ranging from 33.0 for depressive disorders to 45.3 for patients exhibiting fractures or sprains. Musculoskeletal diseases were found to have the most pronounced effect on impaired physical health (OR=2.31; 95% CI 2.08 to 2.57) with the lowest PCS (45.6 (SD 8.8)) and ranked first (29.0%) among main diagnoses experienced by patients followed by cardiovascular diseases (26.7%) and psychological disorders (22.0%). When combining both prevalence and QOL, musculoskeletal diseases represented the heaviest burden in general practice. Conclusions Etude épidémiologique de l'Impact de santé public sur 3 groupes de pathologies (EPI3) is the first study to provide reference figures for burden of disease in general practice across a wide range of morbidities, particularly valuable for health-economics and healthcare-system evaluation.
Project description:The frequency of noncardiac chest pain (CP) hospitalization after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is unknown, and its significance from patients' perspectives is not studied.To assess the frequency of noncardiac CP admissions after AMI and its association with patients' self-reported health status.We identified cardiac and noncardiac CP hospitalizations in the year after AMI from the 24-center TRIUMPH registry. Hierarchical repeated-measures regression was used to identify the association of these hospitalizations with patients' self-reported health status using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire Quality of Life domain (SAQ QoL) and Short Form 12 (SF-12) physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component summary scores.Of 3,099 patients, 318 (10.3%) were hospitalized with CP, of whom 92 (28.9%) were hospitalized for noncardiac CP. Compared with patients not hospitalized with CP, noncardiac CP hospitalization was associated with poorer health status (SAQ QoL-adjusted differences: -8.9 points [95% CI -12.1 to -5.6]; SF-12 PCS: -2.5 points [95% CI -4.2 to -0.8] and SF-12 MCS: -3.5 points [95% CI -5.1 to -1.9]). The SAQ QoL for patients hospitalized with noncardiac CP was similar to patients hospitalized with cardiac CP (adjusted difference: 0.6 points [95% CI -3.2 to 4.5]; SF-12 PCS (0.9 points [95% CI -1.1 to 2.9]), but was worse with regard to SF-12 MCS (adjusted difference: -2.0 points [95% CI -3.9 to -0.2]).Noncardiac CP accounted for a third of CP hospitalizations within 1 year of AMI and was associated with similar disease-specific QoL as well as general physical and mental health status impairment compared with cardiac CP hospitalization.