Role of eotaxin-1/CCL11 in sepsis-induced myocardial injury in elderly patients.
ABSTRACT: Myocardial injury is a serious complication of sepsis. The present study aimed to identify potential biomarkers of sepsis-induced myocardial injury. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in patients and mice with sepsis-induced myocardial injury were identified via bioinformatic analysis. The identified DEG was tested in elderly patients with sepsis-induced myocardial injury. We identified 19 co-expressed DEGs. The most significant DEG was eotaxin-1/CCL11. We enrolled 25 controls without infections and 28 patients with sepsis-induced myocardial injury. Six of patients died within 30 days. Circulating eotaxin-1/CCL11 levels were significantly higher in patients with sepsis-induced myocardial injury than controls and were higher in non-survivors than survivors (both P < 0.01). Eotaxin-1/CCL11 was positively correlated with troponin I (r=0.48, P=0.01), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP, r=0.44, P=0.02), and white blood cell (WBC) count (r=0.41, P=0.03). For the prediction of 30-day mortality, eotaxin-1/CCL11 had the greatest discriminatory ability (AUC 0.97) compared with troponin I (AUC 0.89), BNP (AUC 0.80), and WBC count (AUC 0.86). Taken together, eotaxin-1/CCL11 was upregulated in sepsis-injured myocardium and circulating eotaxin-1/CCL11 was a biomarker for predicting severity and mortality of elderly patients with sepsis-induced myocardial injury. These results suggest that eotaxin-1/CCL11 may become a useful biomarkers and potential therapeutic target for sepsis-induced myocardial injury.
Project description:Sepsis most often presents to the ED, and delayed detection is harmful. WBC count is often used to detect sepsis, but changes in WBC count size also correspond to sepsis. We sought to determine if volume increases of circulating immune cells add value to the WBC count for early sepsis detection in the ED.A blinded, prospective cohort study was conducted in two different ED populations within a large academic hospital.Neutrophil and monocyte volume parameters were measured in conjunction with routine CBC testing on a UniCel DxH 800 analyzer at the time of ED admission and were evaluated for the detection of sepsis. There were 1,320 subjects in the ED consecutively enrolled and categorized as control subjects (n = 879) and those with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) (n = 203), infection (n = 140), or sepsis (n = 98). Compared with other parameters, monocyte distribution width (MDW) best discriminated sepsis from all other conditions (area under the curve [AUC], 0.79; 95% CI, 0.73-0.84; sensitivity, 0.77; specificity, 0.73; MDW threshold, 20.50), sepsis from SIRS (AUC, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.67-0.84), and severe sepsis from noninfected patients in the ED (AUC, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.75-0.99; negative predictive value, 99%). The added value of MDW to WBC count was statistically significant (AUC, 0.89 for MDW + WBC vs 0.81 for WBC alone; P < .01); a decision curve analysis also showed improved performance compared with WBC count alone.The incorporation of MDW with WBC count is shown in this prospective cohort study to improve detection of sepsis compared with WBC count alone at the time of admission in the ED.ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT02232750; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.
Project description:Clinical studies have demonstrated a link between the eosinophil-selective chemokines, eotaxins (eotaxin-1/CCL11 and eotaxin-2/CCL24), eosinophils, and the inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the cellular source and individual contribution of the eotaxins to colonic eosinophilic accumulation in inflammatory bowel diseases remain unclear. In this study we demonstrate, by gene array and quantitative PCR, elevated levels of eotaxin-1 mRNA in the rectosigmoid colon of pediatric UC patients. We show that elevated levels of eotaxin-1 mRNA positively correlated with rectosigmoid eosinophil numbers. Further, colonic eosinophils appeared to be degranulating, and the levels positively correlated with disease severity. Using the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced intestinal epithelial injury model, we show that DSS treatment of mice strongly induced colonic eotaxin-1 and eotaxin-2 expression and eosinophil levels. Analysis of eosinophil-deficient mice defined an effector role for eosinophils in disease pathology. DSS treatment of eotaxin-2(-/-) and eotaxin-1/2(-/-) mice demonstrated that eosinophil recruitment was dependent on eotaxin-1. In situ and immunofluorescence analysis-identified eotaxin-1 expression was restricted to intestinal F4/80(+)CD11b(+) macrophages in DSS-induced epithelial injury and to CD68(+) intestinal macrophages and the basolateral compartment of intestinal epithelial cells in pediatric UC. These data demonstrate that intestinal macrophage and epithelial cell-derived eotaxin-1 plays a critical role in the regulation of eosinophil recruitment in colonic eosinophilic disease such as pediatric UC and provides a basis for targeting the eosinophil/eotaxin-1 axis in UC.
Project description:Cardiac manifestations are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with eosinophil-associated diseases. Eosinophils are thought to play a pathogenic role in myocarditis. We investigated the pathways that recruit eosinophils to the heart using a model of eosinophilic myocarditis, in which experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) is induced in IFN?-/- IL-17A-/- mice. Two conditions are necessary for efficient eosinophil trafficking to the heart: high eotaxin (CCL11, CCL24) expression in the heart and expression of the eotaxin receptor CCR3 by eosinophils. We identified cardiac fibroblasts as the source of CCL11 in the heart interstitium. CCL24 is produced by F4/80+ macrophages localized at inflammatory foci in the heart. Expression of CCL11 and CCL24 is controlled by Th2 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13. To determine the relevance of this pathway in humans, we analyzed endomyocardial biopsy samples from myocarditis patients. Expression of CCL11 and CCL26 was significantly increased in eosinophilic myocarditis compared to chronic lymphocytic myocarditis and positively correlated with the number of eosinophils. Thus, eosinophil trafficking to the heart is dependent on the eotaxin-CCR3 pathway in a mouse model of EAM and associated with cardiac eotaxin expression in patients with eosinophilic myocarditis. Blocking this pathway may prevent eosinophil-mediated cardiac damage.
Project description:Patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) display systemic inflammation and a high rate of infections, suggesting important immune disturbances. To explore the immune response to CS, we prospectively measured, in 24 consecutive CS patients, differential white blood cell (WBC) counts and the cytokines IL-1?, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, TNF?, IFN?, MCP-1 and eotaxin (CCL11), at Day 1 (T1), day 3 (T2) and day 6-8 (T3). Secondary infections and their influence on cytokines and WBCs were determined. CS induced early (T1) neutrophilia and elevated levels of IL-6, IL-10 and MCP-1, correlating with shock severity. The eosinophil chemoattractant eotaxin was elevated at T1 and decreased thereafter, and a progressive rise of blood eosinophils was noted over time. Patients with the most severe shock had reduced lymphocytes and monocytes at T2 and T3. Sixty-two percent of patients developed an infection, which did not alter the profile of immune response, except from higher IL-6 levels at T2. Therefore, CS elicits an acute pro-inflammatory response, followed by a delayed increase in blood eosinophils, consistent with the development of a tissue repair response, as well as depletion of immune cells in the most severely affected patients, which might predispose to secondary infections.
Project description:We explored the diagnostic value of a urine soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) for early sepsis identification, severity and prognosis assessment, and for secondary acute kidney injury (AKI). We compared this with white blood cell (WBC) counts, serum C-reactive protein (CRP), serum procalcitonin (PCT), urine output, creatinine clearance (CCr), serum creatinine (SCr), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN).We enrolled 104 subjects admitted to the ICU: 16 cases with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS); 35 with sepsis and 53 with severe sepsis. Results for urine sTREM-1, WBC, serum CRP and serum PCT were recorded on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14. For 17 sepsis cases diagnosed with secondary AKI, comparisons between their urine sTREM-1, urine output, CCr, SCr and BUN at diagnosis and 48 h before diagnosis were made.On the day of admission to the ICU, and compared with the SIRS group, the sepsis group exhibited higher levels of urine sTREM-1 and Acute Physiologic Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores (P < 0.05). Areas under the curve (AUC) shaped by the scores were 0.797 (95% CI 0.711 to 0.884) and 0.722 (95% CI 0.586 to 0.858), respectively. On days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14, urine sTREM-1, serum PCT and WBC levels registered higher in the severe sepsis group in contrast to the sepsis group (P < 0.05). Urine sTREM-1 and serum PCT levels continuously increased among non-survivors, while WBC and serum CRP levels in both groups declined. For 17 patients with AKI, urine sTREM-1, SCr and BUN levels at 48 h before AKI diagnosis were higher, and CCr level was lower than those for non-AKI subjects (P < 0.05). AUC for urine sTREM-1 was 0.922 (95% CI 0.850 to 0.995), the sensitivity was 0.941, and the specificity was 0.76 (based on a cut-off point of 69.04 pg/ml). Logistic regression analysis showed that urine sTREM-1 and severity were risk factors related to AKI occurrence.Besides being non-invasive, urine sTREM-1 testing is more sensitive than testing WBC, serum CRP, and serum PCT for the early diagnosis of sepsis, as well as for dynamic assessments of severity and prognosis. It can also provide an early warning of possible secondary AKI in sepsis patients.ClinicalTrial.gov identifier NCT01333657.
Project description:Circulating levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine C-C motif chemokine 11 (CCL11, also known as eotaxin-1) are increased in several animal models of neuroinflammation, including traumatic brain injury and Alzheimer's disease. Increased levels of CCL11 have also been linked to decreased neurogenesis in mice. We hypothesized that circulating CCL11 levels would increase following ischemic stroke in mice and humans, and that higher CCL11 levels would correlate with poor long-term recovery in patients. As predicted, circulating levels of CCL11 in both young and aged mice increased significantly 24 h after experimental stroke. However, ischemic stroke patients showed decreased CCL11 levels compared to controls 24 h after stroke. Interestingly, lower post-stroke CCL11 levels were predictive of increased stroke severity and independently predictive of poorer functional outcomes in patients 12 months after ischemic stroke. These results illustrate important differences in the peripheral inflammatory response to ischemic stroke between mice and human patients. In addition, it suggests CCL11 as a candidate biomarker for the prediction of acute and long-term functional outcomes in ischemic stroke patients.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major health issue, as it remains difficult to predict which new drugs will cause injury and who will be susceptible to this disease. This is due in part to the lack of animal models and knowledge of susceptibility factors that predispose individuals to DILI. In this regard, liver eosinophilia has often been associated with DILI, although its role remains unclear. We decided to investigate this problem in a murine model of halothane-induced liver injury (HILI). When female Balb/cJ mice were administered halothane, eosinophils were detected by flow cytometry in the liver within 12 hours and increased thereafter proportionally to liver damage. Chemokines, eotaxin-1 (CCL11) and eotaxin-2 (CCL24), which are known to attract eosinophils, increased in response to halothane treatment. The severity of HILI was decreased significantly when the study was repeated in wildtype mice made deficient in eosinophils with a depleting antibody and in eosinophil lineage-ablated ?dblGata(-/-) mice. Moreover, depletion of neutrophils by pretreating animals with Gr-1 antibody prior to halothane administration failed to reduce the severity of HILI at antibody concentrations that did not affect hepatic eosinophils. Immunohistochemical staining for the granule protein, major basic protein, revealed that eosinophils accumulated exclusively around areas of hepatocellular necrosis. CONCLUSION:Our findings indicate that eosinophils have a pathologic role in HILI in mice and suggest that they may contribute similarly in many clinical cases of DILI.
Project description:CCL11/eotaxin-1 is a potent eosinophilic CC chemokine expressed by primary human fibroblasts. The combination of TGF-?1 and IL-13 synergistically increases CCL11 expression, but the mechanisms behind the synergy are unclear. To address this, human airway fibroblast cultures from normal and asthmatic subjects were exposed to IL-13 alone or TGF-?1 plus IL-13. Transcriptional (nuclear run-on) and posttranscriptional (mRNA stability) assays confirmed that transcriptional regulation is critical for synergistic expression of CCL11. TGF-?1 plus IL-13 synergistically increased STAT-6 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and binding to the CCL11 promoter as compared with IL-13 alone. STAT-6 small interfering RNA significantly knocked down both STAT-6 mRNA expression and phosphorylation and inhibited CCL11 mRNA and protein expression. Regulation of the IL-4R? complex by TGF-?1 augmented IL-13 signaling by dampening IL-13R?2 expression, overcoming IL-13's autoregulation of its pathway and enhancing the expression of CCL11. Our data suggest that TGF-?1 induced activation of the MEK/ERK pathway reduces IL-13R?2 expression induced by IL-13. Thus, TGF-?1, a pleiotropic cytokine upregulated in asthmatic airways, can augment eosinophilic inflammation by interfering with IL-13's negative feedback autoregulatory loop under MEK/ERK-dependent conditions.
Project description:Background:A prominent pathological feature of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) is markedly greater eosinophilic infiltration than that seen in other demyelinating diseases, like multiple sclerosis (MS). Eosinophils express the chemokine receptor CCR3, which is activated by eotaxins (CCL11/eotaxin-1, CCL24/eotaxin-2, CCL26/eotaxin-3) and CCL13 [monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-4]. Moreover, CCL13 is part of the chemokine set that activates CCR2. The present study aimed to evaluate plasma levels of eotaxins (CCL11, CCL24, and CCL26) and MCPs (CCL13, CCL2, CCL8, and CCL7) in patients with NMOSD during remission. Methods:Healthy controls (HC; n?=?30) and patients with MS (n?=?47) and NMOSD (n?=?58) in remission were consecutively enrolled in this study between January 2016 and August 2017. Plasma CCL11, CCL24, CCL26, CCL2, CCL8, CCL7, CCL13, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and interleukin (IL)-1? levels were detected using the human cytokine multiplex assay. Results:Plasma CCL13, CCL11, and CCL26 levels were all significantly higher in patients with NMOSD than in HC and patients with MS. No significant differences were found in the CCL13, CCL11, or CCL26 levels between patients with NMOSD receiving and not receiving immunosuppressive therapy. The plasma levels of TNF-? and IL-1?, which stimulate the above chemokines, were higher in patients with NMOSD than in HC. There was no difference in CCL24 levels among the three groups. In most cases, the CCL7 levels were below the threshold value of the human cytokine multiplex assay, which is in line with other studies. Adjusted multiple regression analyses showed a positive association of CCL13 levels with the number of relapses after controlling gender, age, body mass index, and disease duration in patients with NMOSD. Conclusion:The study indicates that in NMOSD, the overproduction of cytokines such as IL-1? and TNF-? during remission stimulates eosinophilic chemoattractants such as CCL13, CCL11, and CCL26, which in turn bind to their receptor (CCR3); this could lead to eosinophil hypersensitivity. These findings suggest that the elevated secretion of CCL13, CCL11, and CCL26 may be a critical step in eosinophil recruitment during NMOSD remission.
Project description:Chronic psychosocial stress at workplace is an important factor in the development of physical and mental illness. Objective biological measures of chronic stress are still lacking, but inflammatory response and growth factors are increasingly considered as potential stress biomarkers. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between psychophysical strain and serum levels of 48 chemokines, cytokines and growth factors measured using a multiplex immunoassay, and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) measured by ELISA. Severity of psychophysical strain was scored in 115 healthy hospital workers using specific scales for anxiety, depression-like emotion, gastrointestinal or cardiac disturbances, and ergonomic dysfunction. Multivariate analysis revealed that higher anxiety scale scores were correlated with lower serum chemokine C-C motif ligand-2 (CCL2/MCP-1), chemokine C-C motif ligand-5 (CCL5/RANTES), chemokine C-C motif ligand-27 (CCL27/CTACK), chemokine C-C motif ligand-11 (CCL11/Eotaxin) and interleukin-6 (IL-6); gastrointestinal disturbances correlated with increased levels of interleukin-17 (IL-17) and reduced CCL11/Eotaxin, CCL27/CTACK and CCL2/MCP-1; while cardiac dysfunctions associate only to reduced CCL27/CTACK, and ergonomic dysfunction correlated with increased BDNF and reduced CCL11/Eotaxin and CCL5/RANTES. Thus, these 7 serum factors may provide a distinct signature for each different stress-related psychophysical outcome giving indications on individual vulnerabilities.