Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration in patients with previous abdominal biliary tract operations.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:A history of abdominal biliary tract surgery has been identified as a relative contraindication for laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE), and there are very few reports about laparoscopic procedures in patients with a history of abdominal biliary tract surgery. METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed the clinical outcomes of 227 consecutive patients with previous abdominal biliary tract operations at our institution between December 2013 and June 2019. A total of 110 consecutive patients underwent LCBDE, and 117 consecutive patients underwent open common bile duct exploration (OCBDE). Patient demographics and perioperative variables were compared between the two groups. RESULTS:The LCBDE group performed significantly better than the OCBDE group with respect to estimated blood loss [30 (5-700) vs. 50 (10-1800) ml; p?=?0.041], remnant common bile duct (CBD) stones (17 vs. 28%; p?=?0.050), postoperative hospital stay [7 (3-78) vs. 8.5 (4.5-74) days; p?=?0.041], and time to oral intake [2.5 (1-7) vs. 3 (2-24) days; p?=?0.015]. There were no significant differences in the operation time [170 (60-480) vs. 180 (41-330) minutes; p?=?0.067]. A total of 19 patients (17%) in the LCBDE group were converted to open surgery. According to Clavien's classification of complications, the LCBDE group had significantly fewer postoperative complications than the OCBDE group (40 vs. 57; p?=?0.045). There was no mortality in either group. Multiple previous operations (??2 times), a history of open surgery, and previous biliary tract surgery (including bile duct or gallbladder?+?bile duct other than cholecystectomy alone) were risk factors for postoperative adhesion (p?=?0.000, p?=?0.000, and p?=?0.000, respectively). CONCLUSION:LCBDE is ultimately the least invasive, safest, and the most effective treatment option for patients with previous abdominal biliary tract operations and is especially suitable for those with a history of cholecystectomy, few previous operations (
Project description:Introduction:With the development of laparoscopic skills, the laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has become the standard surgical procedure for choledocholithiasis. We usually use Hem-o-lok clips to control cystic duct and vessels, which is safe on most occasions and has few perioperative complications such as major bleeding, wound infection, bile leakage, and biliary and bowel injury. However, a rare complication of post-cholecystectomy clip migration (PCCM) increases year by year due to the advancement and development of LC, CBD exploration as well as the wide use of surgical ligation clips. Materials and Methods:Six patients whose clips are found dropping into CBD or forming T-tube sinus after laparoscopic surgery in our department. Results:Six patients whose clips are found dropping into CBD (clip-stone) (3/6) or forming T-tube sinus (T clip-sinus) (3/6) after LCBDE or LC. Conclusions:PCCM is a rare but severe complication of LCBDE. A pre-operative understanding of bile duct anatomy, the use of the minimum number of clips and the harmonic scalpel during the surgeries is necessary. Considering clip-stone or clip-sinus in the differential diagnosis of patients with biliary colics or cholangitis after LCBDE even years after surgery, the detailed medical history and pre-operative examination are inevitable, especially for these patients who had undergone LCBDE.
Project description:Common bile duct (CBD) stones can be managed by either endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE). The aim of this survey was to document the management of CBD stones by European-African HPB Association (E-AHPBA) members.All 331 members of the E-AHPBA were invited by personal email to participate to an online survey.Ninety-three (28%) surgeons replied within 2 months. Responding surgeons were attending surgeons (84%), working as HPB surgeons (75%) in academic hospitals (73%). In patients with clinically suspected CBD stones, MRCP was the preferred diagnostic test for 61% of respondents. LCBDE was the preferred therapeutic strategy for 11 (12%) respondents only. Previous gastric surgery was an absolute contraindication to ERCP for 47% of respondents. Absence of CBD dilation was considered an absolute contraindication for LCBDE in 24% of respondents. Yearly caseload exceeded 10 patients for only 30% of 56 centers performing LCBDE. The transcystic approach was preferred by 39% of surgeons performing LCBDE. There was considerable variation amongst respondents with regard to type and duration of drainage, bile duct closure technique and follow-up after LCBDE.Indications for single-stage LCBDE are not standardized and do not appear well established across E-AHPBA members.
Project description:Introduction:Choledochal cyst (CC) is a morphological malformation characterized by dilatations of the biliary tree that might present later with clinical symptoms, including jaundice, abdominal pain or pancreatitis. Presentation of case:Here, we reported a 10-month-old female infant with CC presenting with jaundice and a right upper quadrant mass and who was malnourished following a surgical excision of retroperitoneal teratoma one month ago. Laboratory findings were total bilirubin of 14.17 mg/dL, direct bilirubin of 12.24 mg/dL, gamma glutamyl transferase of 1157 U/L, and alkaline phosphatase 187 U/L. Abdominal computed tomography scan showed a CC that caused dilatation of the proximal common bile duct (CBD), common hepatic duct, and intrahepatic bile duct. We decided to perform an explorative laparotomy and found a CC with diameter of 5 cm. Then, we conducted a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. Due to hepaticojejunostomy anastomosis leakage, relaparotomies were done. The patient was uneventfully discharged 17 days after the third surgery. Discussion:Our findings are unique because the patient had a normal biliary tree previously and underwent intraabdominal tumor surgery. Notably, besides being an acquired CC, our case might be due to inadvertent bile duct ligation during the first operation or bile duct obstruction as a complication of the first operation. Conclusions:CC should be considered as a potential complication of intraabdominal tumor excision, especially if its location is near the CBD. Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy is still the best choice for CC management.
Project description:Curative resection is the only treatment for biliary tract cancer that achieves long-term survival. However, patients with advanced biliary tract cancer have only a limited prognosis even after radical surgical resection. Thus, to improve the longterm results, the early detection of biliary tract cancer and subsequent cure seem to be essential. The purpose of this study was to review the literature concerning the risk factors for cancerous and precancerous lesions of the biliary tract, and prophylactic surgery for these factors. It has been reported that pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) with bile duct dilatation is a risk factor for gallbladder cancer and bile duct cancer, while PBM without bile duct dilatation is a risk factor for gallbladder cancer. Thus, in the former group, a prophylactic excision of the common bile duct and gallbladder should be recommended, while in the later group, a prophylactic cholecystectomy without bile duct resection may be the appropriate surgical procedure. It has also been reported that primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma. Patients with PSC often develop advanced cholangiocarcinoma with a poor prognosis. In patients with PSC, therefore, strict follow-up should be recommended. Adenoma and dysplasia have been regarded as precancerous lesions of gallbladder cancer. A polypoid lesion of the gallbladder that is sessile, has a diameter greater than 10 mm, and /or grows rapidly, is highly likely to be cancerous and should be resected. Although gallstones seem to be closely associated with gallbladder cancer, there is no evidence of a direct causal relationship between gallstones and gallbladder cancer. Thus, a cholecystectomy is not advised for asymptomatic cholecystolithiasis. Controversy remains as to whether adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder and porcelain gallbladder are associated with gallbladder cancer. With respect to ampullary carcinoma, adenoma of the ampulla is considered to be a precancerous lesion. This article discusses the risk factors for cancerous and precancerous lesions of the biliary tract and prophylactic treatment for these factors.
Project description:Biliary tract cancers are uncommon malignancies arising from biliary epithelium intrahepatically (peripheral cholangiocarcinoma), in the extrahepatic bile duct, the gall bladder and the ampulla of Vater. Treatment has been challenging because of late presentation, complex surgery, complex biliary obstruction with jaundice and a paucity of high quality data on which to establish standard care. With improvements in imaging, biliary stenting, surgical management and the establishment of a national investigational programme we hope to define the modern management of biliary tract cancers and enable a platform for further research.
Project description:Diagnostic methods for biliary tract carcinoma and the efficacy of these methods are discussed. Neither definite methods for early diagnosis nor specific markers are available in this disease. When this disease is suspected on the basis of clinical symptoms and risk factors, hemato-biochemical examination and abdominal ultrasonography are performed and, where appropriate, enhanced computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is carried out. Diagnoses of extrahepatic bile duct cancer and ampullary carcinoma are often made based on the presence of obstructive jaundice. Although rare, abdominal pain and pyrexia, as well as abnormal findings of the hepatobiliary system detected by hemato-biochemical examination, serve as a clue to making a diagnosis of these diseases. On the other hand, the early diagnosis of gallbladder cancer is scarcely possible on the basis of clinical symptoms, so when this cancer is found with the onset of abdominal pain and jaundice, it is already advanced at the time of detection, thus making a cure difficult. When gallbladder cancer is suspected, enhanced CT is carried out. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), in particular--one of the methods of enhanced CT--is useful for decision of surgical criteria, because MDCT shows findings such as localization and extension of the tumor, and the presence or absence of remote metastasis. Procedures such as magnetic resonance imaging, endoscopic ultrasonography, bile duct biopsy, and cholangioscopy should be carried out taking into account indications for these procedures in individual patients. However, direct biliary tract imaging is necessary for making a precise diagnosis of the horizontal extension of bile duct cancer.
Project description:Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) is gaining popularity over endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for the management of common bile duct stones. However, its application has been almost exclusively following preoperative stone confirmation via magnetic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) or ERCP. We present our series of LCBDE following detection of common bile duct stones with intraoperative imaging (IOI) alone, in consecutive elective and emergency patients with suspected choledocholithiasis. All patients with suspected but unconfirmed choledocholithiasis undergoing LC with intention to proceed to LCBDE between January 2015 and June 2017 were included. LCBDE was performed following the discovery of choledocholithiasis on IOI. 371 patients with suspected choledocholithiasis underwent LC with IOI. CBD stones or obstructing sludge was identified in 107 patients (29%), with sensitivity of 96.2% and specificity of 98.5%. 100 patients, median age 59, went on to have LCBDE as indicated by intraoperative imaging. 76% were performed as emergency cases and conversion to open rate was 2%. There were no mortalities. Bile leak and retained stones occurred in 4% and 3% respectively. 7/100 patients required re-intervention, with re-look laparoscopy (n?=?4) and ERCP (n?=?3). Median length of stay was 1.5 and 3 days for elective and emergency cases respectively, and 30 readmission rate was 8%. Traditionally patients presenting with suspicion of choledocholithiasis undergo preoperative MRCP/EUS and/or ERCP prior to eventual LC. We propose an alternative, more streamlined, pathway of treatment without requiring preoperative cholangiography, applicable to both elective and emergency patients.
Project description:Background/Aims:There have been no nationwide studies to investigate the trends in incidence and 5-year survival rates of intra- and extrahepatic bile duct cancers and gallbladder cancer. Therefore, our study aimed to describe the incidence and 5-year survival rates of biliary tract cancers by subsites in South Korea. Methods:A total of 86,134 patients with biliary tract cancers were selected from the National Health Information Database. Age-standardized incidence rates and annual percentage changes were calculated. Lifetable methods and log-rank tests were used to determine the differences in survival rates. Cox-proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratio of the patients with biliary tract cancers. Results:The incidence rate of intrahepatic bile duct cancer decreased by 1.3% annually from 8.8 per 100,000 in 2006 to 7.8 per 100,000 in 2015. Extrahepatic bile duct cancer also showed a decreasing trend by 2.2% per year from 8.7 per 100,000 in 2006 to 6.7 per 100,000 in 2015. Gallbladder cancer showed the greatest decline, with an annual percentage change of 2.8% from 6.3 per 100,000 to 5.2 per 100,000 during the same period. The 5-year survival rates were 30.0% in gallbladder cancer, 27.8% in extrahepatic bile duct cancer, and 15.9% in intrahepatic bile duct cancer. Conclusions:The overall incidence rates of intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct cancer and gallbladder cancer decreased from 2006 to 2015. Among biliary tract cancers, intrahepatic bile duct cancers exhibited the highest incidence rate and the worst survival rate.
Project description:Several techniques are used for surgical treatment of gallstone disease with biliary duct calculi, but the safety and efficacy of these approaches have not been compared.To compare the efficacy and safety of 4 surgical approaches to gallstone disease with biliary duct calculi.MEDLINE, Scopus, and ISI-Web of Science databases, articles published between 1950 and 2017 and searched from August 12, 2017, to September 14, 2017. Search terms used were LCBDE, LC, preoperative, ERCP, postoperative, period, cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic, retrograde, rendezvous, intraoperative, one-stage, two-stage, single-stage, gallstone, gallstones, calculi, stone, therapy, treatment, therapeutics, surgery, surgical, procedures, clinical trials as topic, random, and allocation in several logical combinations.Randomized clinical trials comparing at least 2 of the following strategies: preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (PreERCP) plus laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC); LC with laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCDBE); LC plus intraoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (IntraERCP); and LC plus postoperative ERCP (PostERCP).A frequentist random-effects network meta-analysis was performed. The surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) was used to show the probability that each approach would be the best for each outcome.Primary outcomes were the safety to efficacy ratio using overall mortality and morbidity rates as the main indicators of safety and the success rate as an indicator of efficacy. Secondary outcomes were acute pancreatitis, biliary leak, overall bleeding, operative time, length of hospital stay, total cost, and readmission rate.The 20 trials comprised 2489 patients (and 2489 procedures). Laparoscopic cholecystectomy plus IntraERCP had the highest probability of being the most successful (SUCRA, 87.2%) and safest (SUCRA, 69.7%) with respect to morbidity. All approaches had similar results regarding overall mortality. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy plus LCBDE was the most successful for avoiding overall bleeding (SUCRA, 83.3%) and for the shortest operative time (SUCRA, 90.2%) and least total cost (SUCRA, 98.9%). Laparoscopic cholecystectomy plus IntraERCP was the best approach for length of hospital stay (SUCRA, 92.7%). Inconsistency was found in operative time (indirect estimate, 19.05; 95% CI, 2.44-35.66; P = .02) and total cost (indirect estimate, 17.06; 95% CI, 3.56-107.21; P = .04). Heterogeneity was observed for success rate (τ, 0.8), operative time (τ, >1), length of stay (τ, >1), and total cost (τ, >1).The combined LC and IntraERCP approach had the greatest odds to be the safest and appears to be the most successful. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy plus LBCDE appears to reduce the risk of acute pancreatitis but may be associated with a higher risk of biliary leak.
Project description:Surgical resection for distal cholangiocarcinoma is usually carried out using pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). However, because PD is a complex procedure with a high rate of postoperative complications, the surgical indications should be carefully considered, especially for patients with a decreased performance status, significant comorbidities, and/or anatomical anomalies. If curatively carried out, a less invasive, local resection may be an alternative procedure for such patients. In the current study, we present pancreas-preserving resection of the lower biliary tract in a patient with early-stage distal cholangiocarcinoma. This procedure was selected to avoid PD with arterial reconstruction because of arterial anomalies. After an abdominal exploration, a cholecystectomy was carried out and the common hepatic duct was transected. The bile duct was dissected from the pancreatic parenchyma without pancreatic resection, downward to the biliopancreatic ductal confluence. Next, a duodenotomy was done opposite Vater's ampulla. The duodenal mucosa around Vater's ampulla was incised and dissected, and the main pancreatic duct (MPD) was divided. The bile duct was completely separated from the pancreatic parenchyma, and the lower biliary tract was totally "cored-out". After resection, the MPD was re-implanted into the duodenal wall, and the duodenotomy was closed. Finally, a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy was created. Postoperative course was uneventful. No tumor recurrence has been observed for 21 months after the operation. Thus, pancreas-preserving resection of the lower biliary tract appeared to be appropriate for our patient. This organ-preserving approach can be a useful, alternative procedure in selected patients.