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Mucosal delivery of CpG-ODN mimicking bacterial DNA via the intrapulmonary route induces systemic antimicrobial immune responses in neonatal chicks.

ABSTRACT: The transition to antibiotic-free poultry production in the face of pathogenic threats is a very challenging task. We recently demonstrated that mucosal delivery of CpG-ODN alone by the intrapulmonary route (IPL) has potential as an effective alternative to antibiotics in neonatal chicks against Escherichia coli septicemia. How exactly mucosal delivery of CpG-ODN elicits, protective antibacterial immunity remained poorly understood. In this study, CpG-ODN or saline was delivered via the intrapulmonary route to day-old chicks (n?=?80/group) using a compressor nebulizer in an acrylic chamber (1?mg/mL CpG-ODN for 15?minutes). In the first part of the study, two days after mucosal CpG-ODN delivery, 40 chicks from each group were challenged subcutaneously with 1?×?105 cfu (n?=?20) or 1?×?106 cfu (n?=?20) of E. coli and the mortality pattern was monitored for seven days. We found significantly higher survival, better clinical conditions and lower bacterial loads in chicks that received mucosal CpG-ODN. To explore the mechanisms behind this protective immunity, we first looked at the kinetics of the cytokine gene expression (three birds/ group/ time for 10 time-points) in the lungs and spleens. Multiplex gene analysis demonstrated a significant elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes mRNA in the CpG-ODN group. Interleukin (IL)-1? robustly upregulated many folds in the lung after CpG-ODN delivery. Lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor (LITAF) and IL-18 showed expression for an extended period in the lungs. Anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was upregulated in both lungs and spleen, whereas IL-4 showed upregulation in the lungs. To investigate the kinetics of immune enrichment in the lungs and spleens, we performed flow cytometry, histology, and immunohistochemistry at 24, 48 and 72 hrs after CpG-ODN delivery. CpG-ODN treated lungs showed a significant enrichment with monocytes/macrophages and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets. Macrophages in CpG-ODN treated group demonstrated mature phenotypes (higher CD40 and MHCII expression). Importantly, mucosal delivery of CpG-ODN via the intrapulmonary route significantly enriched immune compartment in the spleen as well, suggesting a systemic effect in neonatal chicks. Altogether, intrapulmonary delivery of aerosolized CpG-ODN orchestrates protective immunity against E. coli septicemia by not only enhancing mucosal immunity but also the systemic immune responses.

SUBMITTER: Goonewardene K 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC7093454 | BioStudies | 2020-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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