Mucosal delivery of CpG-ODN mimicking bacterial DNA via the intrapulmonary route induces systemic antimicrobial immune responses in neonatal chicks.
ABSTRACT: The transition to antibiotic-free poultry production in the face of pathogenic threats is a very challenging task. We recently demonstrated that mucosal delivery of CpG-ODN alone by the intrapulmonary route (IPL) has potential as an effective alternative to antibiotics in neonatal chicks against Escherichia coli septicemia. How exactly mucosal delivery of CpG-ODN elicits, protective antibacterial immunity remained poorly understood. In this study, CpG-ODN or saline was delivered via the intrapulmonary route to day-old chicks (n?=?80/group) using a compressor nebulizer in an acrylic chamber (1?mg/mL CpG-ODN for 15?minutes). In the first part of the study, two days after mucosal CpG-ODN delivery, 40 chicks from each group were challenged subcutaneously with 1?×?105 cfu (n?=?20) or 1?×?106 cfu (n?=?20) of E. coli and the mortality pattern was monitored for seven days. We found significantly higher survival, better clinical conditions and lower bacterial loads in chicks that received mucosal CpG-ODN. To explore the mechanisms behind this protective immunity, we first looked at the kinetics of the cytokine gene expression (three birds/ group/ time for 10 time-points) in the lungs and spleens. Multiplex gene analysis demonstrated a significant elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes mRNA in the CpG-ODN group. Interleukin (IL)-1? robustly upregulated many folds in the lung after CpG-ODN delivery. Lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor (LITAF) and IL-18 showed expression for an extended period in the lungs. Anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was upregulated in both lungs and spleen, whereas IL-4 showed upregulation in the lungs. To investigate the kinetics of immune enrichment in the lungs and spleens, we performed flow cytometry, histology, and immunohistochemistry at 24, 48 and 72 hrs after CpG-ODN delivery. CpG-ODN treated lungs showed a significant enrichment with monocytes/macrophages and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets. Macrophages in CpG-ODN treated group demonstrated mature phenotypes (higher CD40 and MHCII expression). Importantly, mucosal delivery of CpG-ODN via the intrapulmonary route significantly enriched immune compartment in the spleen as well, suggesting a systemic effect in neonatal chicks. Altogether, intrapulmonary delivery of aerosolized CpG-ODN orchestrates protective immunity against E. coli septicemia by not only enhancing mucosal immunity but also the systemic immune responses.
Project description:Oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG-ODN) induce innate immunity against bacterial infections. Despite recent advances, how CpG-ODN alone protects against bacterial infections remained elusive. Here, we report for the first time, to our knowledge, that CpG-ODN orchestrates anti-microbial protective immunity by inducing a rapid enrichment of various immune compartments in chickens. In this study, eighteen-day-old embryonated eggs were injected with either 50?µg of CpG-ODN or saline (~n?=?90 per group). In the first experiment, four days after CpG-ODN treatment, chicks were challenged subcutaneously with a virulent strain of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and mortality was monitored for 8 days. We found significant protection, and reduced clinical scores in CpG-ODN treated chicks. To gain insights into mechanisms of protection induced by CpG-ODN, first we investigated cytokine expression kinetics elicited by CpG-ODN. The spleen and lung were collected from embryos or chicks (n?=?3-4 per group) at 10 time points post-CpG-ODN inoculation. Multiplex gene analysis (interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, interferon (IFN)-?, IFN-?, and lipopolysaccharide induced tumor necrosis factor (LITAF), revealed a significantly higher expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines following CpG-ODN treatment compared to the saline controls. In our study, LITAF stands out in the cytokine profiles of spleen and lungs, underscoring its role in CpG-ODN-induced protection. The third experiment was designed to examine the effects of CpG-ODN on immune cell populations in spleen, lungs, and thymus. Flow cytometry analysis was conducted at 24, 48 and 72?hrs (thymus only collected at 72?hr) after CpG-ODN administration to examine the changes in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets, monocyte/macrophage cell populations and their expression of maturation markers (CD40 and CD86). Flow cytometry data indicated a significant enrichment of macrophages, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets in both spleen and lungs of CpG-ODN treated embryos and chicks. Macrophages in spleen and lungs showed an upregulation of CD40 but not CD86, whereas thymocytes revealed significantly high CD4 and CD8 expression. Overall, the present study has demonstrated that CpG-ODN provides protection in neonatal chicks against E. coli infection not only by eliciting cytokine responses and stimulating immune cells but also through enriching immunological niches in spleen and lungs.
Project description:CpG oligonucleotides (ODN) stimulate the innate immune system by triggering cells that express TLR9. The resulting response promotes tumor regression, an effect optimized by delivery of CpG ODN to the tumor site. This work examines the effect of instilling CpG ODN adsorbed onto polyketal microparticles (CpG-MP) into the lungs of mice with non-small cell lung cancer. Intrapulmonary delivery of CpG-MP improved ODN uptake and retention at the tumor site, thereby inducing a stronger Th1 response than systemically administered or unadsorbed CpG ODN. CpG-MP reversed the immunosuppression that characterized the tumor microenvironment by (i) decreasing the number of immunosuppressive Tregs and M2 macrophages while (ii) increasing the number of tumoricidal CD8(+) T cells and M1 macrophages. These effects promoted tumor regression and culminated in 82% permanent survival of mice with otherwise fatal Lewis lung cancer.
Project description:Vaccines for protection against respiratory infections should optimally induce a mucosal immune response in the respiratory tract in addition to a systemic immune response. However, current parenteral immunization modalities generally fail to induce mucosal immunity, while mucosal vaccine delivery often results in poor systemic immunity. In order to find an immunization strategy which satisfies the need for induction of both mucosal and systemic immunity, we compared local and systemic immune responses elicited by two mucosal immunizations, given either by the intranasal (IN) or the intrapulmonary (IPL) route, with responses elicited by a mucosal prime followed by a systemic boost immunization. The study was conducted in BALB/c mice and the vaccine formulation was an influenza subunit vaccine supplemented with GPI-0100, a saponin-derived adjuvant. While optimal mucosal antibody titers were obtained after two intrapulmonary vaccinations, optimal systemic antibody responses were achieved by intranasal prime followed by intramuscular boost. The latter strategy also resulted in the best T cell response, yet, it was ineffective in inducing nose or lung IgA. Successful induction of secretory IgA, IgG and T cell responses was only achieved with prime-boost strategies involving intrapulmonary immunization and was optimal when both immunizations were given via the intrapulmonary route. Our results underline that immunization via the lungs is particularly effective for priming as well as boosting of local and systemic immune responses.
Project description:The immunostimulatory ability of synthetic oligonucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG-ODN), agonists of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), can be harnessed to promote antitumor immunity by their application at the tumor site to stimulate local activation of innate immunity; however, particularly in the lung, tumor-associated immunosuppression can subvert such antitumor innate immune responses. To locally maintain continuous activation of innate subpopulations while inhibiting immunosuppressive cells, we evaluated aerosol delivery CpG-ODN combined with Poly(I:C), a TLR3 agonist able to convert tumor-supporting macrophages to tumoricidal effectors, in the treatment of B16 melanoma lung metastases in C57BL/6 mice. Aerosolization of CpG-ODN with Poly(I:C) into the bronchoalveolar space reduced the presence of M2-associated arginase- and IL-10-secreting macrophages in tumor-bearing lungs and increased the antitumor activity of aerosolized CpG-ODN alone against B16 lung metastases without apparent signs of toxicity or injury of the bronchial-bronchiolar structures and alveolar walls. Moreover, CpG-ODN/Poly(I:C) aerosol combined with dacarbazine, a therapeutic agent used in patients with inoperable metastatic melanoma able to exert immunostimulatory effects, led to a significant increase in antitumor activity as compared to treatments with aerosolized CpG-ODN/Poly(I:C) or dacarbazine alone. This effect was related to an enhanced recruitment and cytotoxic activity of tumor-infiltrating NK cells in the lung. Our results point to aerosol delivery as a convenient approach for repeated applications of immunostimulants in patients with lung metastases to maintain a continuous local activation of innate immune cells while suppressing polarization of tumor-infiltrating macrophages to an M2 phenotype.
Project description:CpG-DNA or its synthetic analog CpG-ODN activates innate immunity through Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). However, the mechanism of TLR9 activation by CpG-DNA remains elusive. Here we have identified HMGB1 as a CpG-ODN-binding protein. HMGB1 interacts and preassociates with TLR9 in the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC), and hastens TLR9's redistribution to early endosomes in response to CpG-ODN. CpG-ODN stimulates macrophages and dendritic cells to secrete HMGB1; in turn, extracellular HMGB1 accelerates the delivery of CpG-ODNs to its receptor, leading to a TLR9-dependent augmentation of IL-6, IL-12, and TNFalpha secretion. Loss of HMGB1 leads to a defect in the IL-6, IL-12, TNFalpha, and iNOS response to CpG-ODN. However, lack of intracellular TLR9-associated HMGB1 can be compensated by extracellular HMGB1. Thus, the DNA-binding protein HMGB1 shuttles in and out of immune cells and regulates inflammatory responses to CpG-DNA.
Project description:Pulmonary vaccination is a promising route for immunization against tuberculosis because the lung is the natural site of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Yet, adjuvants with a suitable safety profile need to be found to enhance mucosal immunity to recombinant antigens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunogenicity, the safety and the protective efficacy of a subunit vaccine composed of the immunodominant mycolyl-transferase antigen 85A (Ag85A) and one of three powerful mucosal adjuvants: the oligodeoxynucleotide containing unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine motifs (CpG), the monophosphoryl lipid A of Salmonella minnesota (MPLA) or the B subunit of heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LTB). BALB/c mice were vaccinated in the deep lungs. Our results showed that lung administration of these adjuvants could specifically induce different types of T cell immunity. Both CpG and MPLA induced a Th-1 type immune response with significant antigen-specific IFN-? production by spleen mononuclear cells in vitro and a tendency of increased IFN-? in the lungs. Moreover, MPLA triggered a Th-17 response reflected by high IL-17A levels in the spleen and lungs. By contrast, LTB promoted a Th-2 biased immune response, with a production of IL-5 but not IFN-? by spleen mononuclear cells in vitro. CpG did not induce inflammation in the lungs while LTB and MPLA showed a transient inflammation including a neutrophil influx one day after pulmonary administration. Pulmonary vaccination with Ag85A without or with MPLA or LTB tended to decrease bacterial counts in the spleen and lungs following a virulent challenge with M. tuberculosis H37Rv. In conclusion, CpG and MPLA were found to be potential adjuvants for pulmonary vaccination against tuberculosis, providing Th-1 and Th-17 immune responses and a good safety profile.
Project description:To defend against pulmonary infections, lung epithelial cells are equipped with complex innate immunity closely linked to inflammation. Dysregulated innate immunity/inflammation leads to self-perpetuating lung injury. The CpG motif in bacterial DNA is one of the factors involved in bacterial infection-associated inflammation. Bacterial DNA and synthetic CpG oligonucleotide (ODN) induced CCN1 secretion from lung epithelial cells, functioning as a potential "braking" signal to prevent uncontrolled inflammatory responses. CpG ODN-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress resulted in Src-Y527 phosphorylation (pY527) and Src/CCN1 vWF domain dissociation. Src-Y527 activated caveolin-1 (cav-1) phosphorylation at Y14 and then modulated CCN1 secretion via pCav-1 interaction with the CCN1 IGFbp domain. Functionally, secreted CCN1 promoted anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 release from epithelial cells via integrin ?V?6-PKC, and this subsequently suppressed tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2)-2 secretion and neutrophil infiltration in the lungs. Collectively, bacterial DNA/CpG ODN-stimulated CCN1 secretion via the BiP/GRP78-Src(Y527)-JNK-Cav-1(Y14) pathway and CpG-induced CCN1 conferred anti-inflammatory roles. Our studies suggested a novel paradigm by which the lung epithelium maintains innate immune homeostasis after bacterial infection.
Project description:The development of an effective vaccine is critical for prevention of a Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) pandemic. Some studies have indicated the receptor-binding domain (RBD) protein of MERS-CoV spike (S) is a good candidate antigen for a MERS-CoV subunit vaccine. However, highly purified proteins are typically not inherently immunogenic. We hypothesised that humoral and cell-mediated immunity would be improved with a modification of the vaccination regimen. Therefore, the immunogenicity of a novel MERS-CoV RBD-based subunit vaccine was tested in mice using different adjuvant formulations and delivery routes. Different vaccination regimens were compared in BALB/c mice immunized 3 times intramuscularly (i.m.) with a vaccine containing 10 µg of recombinant MERS-CoV RBD in combination with either aluminium hydroxide (alum) alone, alum and polyriboinosinic acid (poly I:C) or alum and cysteine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN). The immune responses of mice vaccinated with RBD, incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) and CpG ODN by a subcutaneous (s.c.) route were also investigated. We evaluated the induction of RBD-specific humoral immunity (total IgG and neutralizing antibodies) and cellular immunity (ELISpot assay for IFN-? spot-forming cells and splenocyte cytokine production). Our findings indicated that the combination of alum and CpG ODN optimized the development of RBD-specific humoral and cellular immunity following subunit vaccination. Interestingly, robust RBD-specific antibody and T-cell responses were induced in mice immunized with the rRBD protein in combination with IFA and CpG ODN, but low level of neutralizing antibodies were elicited. Our data suggest that murine immunity following subunit vaccination can be tailored using adjuvant combinations and delivery routes. The vaccination regimen used in this study is promising and could improve the protection offered by the MERS-CoV subunit vaccine by eliciting effective humoral and cellular immune responses.
Project description:Infectious bursal disease (IBD), caused by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), is characterized by severe immunosuppression in young chicks of 3 to 6 week age group. Although vaccines are available to prevent IBD, outbreaks of disease are still noticed in the field among vaccinated flocks. Further, the birds surviving IBD become susceptible to secondary infections caused by various viral and bacterial agents. This study assessed the immunoprophylactic potential of Cytosine-guanosinedeoxynucleotide (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) and Tinospora cordifolia stem aqueous extract in the specific pathogen free (SPF) chicks, experimentally infected with very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV). Both of these agents (CpG ODN and herbal extract) showed significant increase in the IFN-?, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-1 levels in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) (p < 0.05) of chickens in the treatment groups following IBD infection.Further we found significant reduction in mortality rate in vvIBDV infected chicks treated with either, or in combination, compared with the birds of control group. Additionally, the adjuvant or immune enhancing potential of these two immunomodulatory agents with the commercially available IBDV vaccine was determined in chicks. The augmentation of vaccine response in terms of an enhanced antibody titer after vaccination, along with either or a combination of the two agents was noticed. The findings provide a way forward to counter the menace of IBDV in the poultry sector through use of these herbal or synthetic immunomodulatory supplements.
Project description:Background:Poultry vaccine has limited choices of adjuvants and is facing severe threat of infectious diseases due to ineffective of widely used commercial vaccines. Thus, development of novel adjuvant that offers safe and effective immunity is of urgent need. Materials and Methods:The present research engineers a novel chicken adjuvant with potent immune-potentiating capability by incorporating avian toll?-like receptor 21 (TLR21) agonist CpG ODN 2007 with a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based hollow nanoparticle platform (CpG-NP), which subsequently assessed ex vivo and in vivo. Results:CpG-NPs with an average diameter of 164 nm capable of sustained release of CpG for up to 96 hours were successfully prepared. With the ex vivo model of chicken bone marrow?-derived dendritic cells (chBMDCs), CpG-NP was engulfed effectively and found to induce DC maturation, promoting dendrite formation and upregulation of CD40, CD80 and CCR7. In addition to enhanced expression of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-12 and IFN-?, 53/84 immune?-related genes were found to be stimulated in CpG-NP-treated chBMDCs, whereas only 39 of such genes were stimulated in free CpG-treated cells. These upregulated genes suggest immune skewing toward T helper cell 1 bias and evidence of improved mucosal immunity upon vaccination with the CpG-NP. The CpG-NP-treated chBMDCs showed protective effects to DF-1 cells against avian influenza virus H6N1 infection. Upon subsequent coupling with infectious bronchitis virus subunit antigen administration, chickens were immunostimulated to acquire higher humoral immune response and protective response against viral challenge. Conclustion:This work presents a novel hollow CpG-NP formulation, demonstrating effective and long-lasting immunostimulatory ability ex vivo and in vivo for chickens, as systemically compared to free CpG. This enhanced immune stimulation benefits from high stability and controlled release of internal component of nanoparticles that improve cellular delivery, lymphoid organ targeting and sustainable DC activation. CpG-NP has broad application potential in antiviral and vaccine development.