Longitudinal Study of Body Composition and Energy Expenditure in Overweight or Obese Young Adults.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of an aerobic training program with a strength training program on body composition and energy expenditure in overweight or obese (29.06?±?3.49?kg/m2) young adults (21.96?±?1.90 years). Subjects (N?=?109) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a control group (CG), an aerobic training (AT) group and a strength training (ST) group. Training took place over twelve weeks comprising three sessions per week with each session lasting 60 to 90?minutes. Before and after the program, weight, height, body mass index, lean mass percentage and fat mass percentage were evaluated. In addition, The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF) was used to estimate energy expenditure. The results of both aerobic training and strength training produced statistically significant improvements in weight (AT-CG?=?-2.892?kg; ST-CG?=?-2.986?kg); BMI (AT-CG?=?-1.075?kg/m2; ST-CG?=?-1.118?kg/m2); total body fat (AT-CG?=?-1529.172?g; ST-CG?=?-763.815); and total body fat percentage (AT-CG?=?-1.421%; AT-ST?=?-0.855%). These two exercise prescription models were therefore useful in reducing overweight and obesity, which could have an impact on improving the health and quality of life of individuals with these characteristics.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Determine both the effects and hierarchy of effectiveness for exercise interventions (aerobic, strength training or both) on selected measures of adiposity (body mass index (BMI) in kg/m2, fat mass and per cent body fat) in overweight and obese children and adolescents. DESIGN:Network meta-analysis of randomised exercise intervention trials. SETTING:Any setting where a randomised trial could be conducted. PARTICIPANTS:Overweight and obese male and/or female children and adolescents 2-18 years of age. INTERVENTIONS:Randomised exercise intervention trials>4 weeks, published between 1 January 1973 and 22 August 2018, and which included direct and/or indirect evidence for aerobic, strength training or combined aerobic and strength training. PRIMARY OUTCOMES:Changes in BMI in kg/m2, fat mass and per cent body fat. RESULTS:Fifty-seven studies representing 127 groups (73 exercise, 54 control) and 2792 participants (1667 exercise, 1125 control) met the criteria for inclusion. Length of training ([Formula: see text] ± SD) averaged 14.1±6.2 weeks, frequency, 3.3±1.1 days per week and duration 42.0±21.0?min per session. Significant and clinically important reductions in BMI, fat mass and per cent body fat were observed in aerobic versus control comparisons (BMI, mean, 95%?CI -1.0, 1.4 to -0.6; fat mass -2.1, -3.3 to -1.0?kg; per cent fat -1.5, -2.2 to -0.9%) and combined aerobic and strength versus control comparisons (BMI -0.7, -1.4 to -0.1; fat mass -2.5, -4.1 to -1.0?kg; per cent fat, -2.2, -3.2 to -1.2%). A significant reduction in per cent fat was also found for strength vs control comparisons (-1.3,-2.5 to -0.1%). Combined aerobic and strength training was ranked first for improving both fat mass (kg) and per cent body fat while aerobic exercise was ranked first for improving BMI. CONCLUSIONS:Aerobic and combined aerobic and strength training are associated with improvements in adiposity outcomes in overweight and obese children and adolescents. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42017073103.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To examine the long-term effects of exercise modality during weight loss on body composition and associations between body composition and physical function changes. METHODS:Two hundred forty-nine older adults (66.9?±?4.7 years, 71% women, 32% African American, BMI: 34.4?±?3.7 kg/m2 ) were randomized to weight loss (WL; n?=?82), WL plus aerobic training (WL?+?AT; n?=?86), or WL plus resistance training (WL?+?RT; n?=?81) for 18 months. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-acquired body composition, 400-m walk time, and knee extensor strength were measured at baseline and at 6 and 18 months. RESULTS:Total body mass loss was enhanced when WL was combined with exercise (WL: -5.7?±?0.7 kg, WL?+?AT: -8.5?±?0.7 kg, WL?+?RT: -8.7?±?0.7 kg; P?<?0.01). Total body fat mass loss was significantly greater in WL?+?AT (-6.8?±?0.6 kg, -16.4%) and WL?+?RT (-7.8?±?0.5 kg, -19.0%) than WL (-4.8?±?0.6 kg, -10.9%); both P?<?0.01. Lean mass loss was greatest in WL?+?AT (-1.6?±?0.3 kg, -3.1%) compared with WL?+?RT (-0.8?±?0.3 kg, -1.5%) or WL (-1.0?±?0.3 kg; -2.0%); both P???0.02. Change in 400-m walk time was associated with change in fat mass (?/SD?=?+6.1 s; P?<?0.01), while change in knee extensor strength was associated with change in lean mass (?/SD?=?+1.6?Nm; P?<?0.01). CONCLUSIONS:WL?+?RT results in less lean mass lost than WL?+?AT; WL plus exercise yields greater fat mass loss than WL alone.
Project description:Aerobic exercise training has many known cardiovascular benefits that may promote healthy aging. It is not known if long-term aerobic exercise training is also associated with structural benefits (e.g., lower fat mass, higher areal bone mineral density (BMD) and greater muscle mass). We evaluated these parameters in middle-aged long-term endurance runners compared to sex-, age-, height-, and weight-matched non-running controls. Total and regional lean and fat mass and areal BMD were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sagittal magnetic resonance images captured the cross-sectional area and thickness of the lumbar multifidus. Runners (n = 10; all male) had a mean (standard deviation; SD) age of 49 (4) years, height of 178.9 (4.9) cm, weight of 67.8 (5.8) kg, body mass index (BMI) of 21.4 (1.4) kg/m2 and had been running 82.6 (27.9) km/week for 23 (13) years. Controls (n = 9) had a mean (SD) age of 51 (5) years, height of 176.0 (5.1) cm, weight of 72.8 (7.1) kg, and BMI of 23.7 (2.1) kg/m2. BMI was greater in controls (p = 0.010). When compared to controls on average, runners had a 10 percentage-point greater total body lean mass than controls (p = 0.001) and 14% greater trunk lean mass (p = 0.010), as well as less total body (8.6 kg; p < 0.001), arm (58%; p = 0.002), leg (52%; p < 0.001), trunk (73%; p < 0.001), android (91%; p < 0.001), and gynoid fat mass (64%; p < 0.001). No differences were observed between groups for BMD outcomes or multifidus size. These results underscore the benefits of endurance running to body composition that carry over to middle-age.
Project description:Although exercise has well-documented health benefits on cardiovascular disease (CVD), the benefit of combination exercise on CVD risk factors in individuals with elevated risk has not been fully elucidated. We compared the effects of aerobic, resistance, and a combination of both aerobic and resistance training on CVD risk factors including peripheral and central BP, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), muscular strength, body composition, blood glucose and lipids. Sixty-nine adults (58±7 years) with an elevated blood pressure or hypertension, overweight/obesity, and sedentary lifestyle were randomized to one of the three 8-week exercise programs or a non-exercise control group. Participants in all three exercise groups had an equal total exercise time, 3 days/week (aerobic: 60 minutes/session vs. resistance: 60 minutes/session vs. combination: aerobic 30 minutes/session plus resistance 30 minutes/session). Combined training provided significant reductions in peripheral (-4 mmHg) and central diastolic BP (-4 mmHg), increase in CRF (4.9 ml/kg/min), increase in upper (4 kg) and lower (11 kg) body strength, and increase in lean body mass (0.8 kg) (p <0.05). Aerobic training only increased CRF (7.7 ml/kg/min), and reduced body weight (-1.0 kg) and fat mass (-0.9 kg) (p <0.05). Resistance training only increased lower body strength (13 kg) and reduced waist circumference (-1.7 cm) (p <0.05). However, neither aerobic or resistance training alone showed significant reductions in BP (p>0.05). Furthermore, a composite score of CVD risk factors indicated a greater reduction with combination training compared to the control group. In conclusion, among individuals at an increased risk for CVD, as little as 8-weeks of combined training may provide more comprehensive CVD benefits compared to time-matched aerobic or resistance training alone.
Project description:Introduction: A family history of type 2 diabetes (FH+) is a major risk factor for the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, it remains unknown whether exercise-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility are impacted by a FH+. Therefore, we investigated whether improvements in insulin sensitivity, metabolic flexibility, body composition, aerobic fitness and muscle strength are limited by a FH+ following eight weeks of combined exercise training compared to individuals without a family history of type 2 diabetes (FH-). Methods: Twenty (n = 10 FH-, n = 10 FH+) young, healthy, sedentary, normoglycemic, Mexican-American males (age: FH- 22.50 ± 0.81, FH+ 23.41 ± 0.86 years; BMI: FH- 27.91 ± 1.55, FH+ 26.64 ± 1.02 kg/m2) underwent eight weeks of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training three times/week (35 min aerobic followed by six full-body resistance exercises). Insulin sensitivity was assessed via hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps. Metabolic flexibility was assessed by the change in respiratory quotient from fasted to insulin-stimulated states. Body composition was determined using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Aerobic fitness was determined by a graded exercise test, and upper- and lower-body strength were assessed via one-repetition maximum bench press and leg strength dynamometer, respectively. Results: Insulin sensitivity, metabolic flexibility, aerobic fitness and strength were not different between groups (p > 0.05). Eight weeks of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training improved insulin sensitivity (FH- p = 0.02, FH+ p = 0.002), increased fat free mass (FH- p = 0.006, FH+ p = 0.001), aerobic fitness (FH- p = 0.03, FH+ p = 0.002), and upper- (FH- p = 0.0001, FH+ p = 0.0001) and lower-body strength (FH- p = 0.0009, FH+ p = 0.0003), but did not change metabolic flexibility (p > 0.05) in both groups. Exercise-induced improvements in metabolic outcomes were similar between groups. Conclusions: Insulin sensitivity, metabolic flexibility, aerobic fitness and strength were not compromised by a FH+. Additionally, a FH+ is not a limiting factor for exercise-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity, aerobic fitness, body composition, and strength in normoglycemic young Mexican-American men.
Project description:To date, there has been no study on the long-term effects of resistance exercise on sarcopenia and obesity indices for people with sarcopenia. The present study thus aimed to determine the effect of 18 months of periodized, high-velocity/intensity/effort progressive resistance training (HIT-RT) on body composition and strength in older men with osteosarcopenia. Using a single-blind, two-group parallel design, 43 community-dwelling men, 72 years and older, with osteopenia and sarcopenia in Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany, were randomly assigned to two study arms by drawing lots: (1) an exercise group that conducted a consistently supervised periodized high-velocity/intensity/effort protocol (HIT-RT; n = 21) on machines twice a week for 18 months or (2) a control group (CG; n = 22) that maintained their physical activity/exercise habits. Both groups were supplied with protein, cholecalciferol, and calcium according to current recommendations. The study outcomes were lean body mass (LBM), total and abdominal body fat as determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and maximum hip/leg extensor strength as assessed on an isokinetic leg press at baseline and after 8, 12, and 18 months of follow-up. The intention-to-treat principle and multiple imputation were applied to calculated study outcomes. After 18 months of HIT-RT, altogether five participants were lost to follow up (HIT-RT: n = 2, CG: n = 3). The attendance rates (95%) for HIT-RT were high; relevant adverse effects were not observed. Significant effects (i.e., differences between HIT-RT vs. CG) in favor of HIT-RT were determined for LBM (+1.73 kg, 95% CI: +1.13 to +2.32 kg), total body fat mass (-2.44 kg, 95% CI: -1.28 to 3.60 kg), abdominal body fat percentage (-2.68, 95% CI: -1.70 to -3.66), and maximum hip/leg extensor strength (+533 N, 95% CI: +397 to +670 N; all p < 0.001). Even after adjusting for multiple testing, all effects remained significant. Of note, after 8 months of HIT-RT, only slight (LBM and fat indices) to moderate (maximum strength) ongoing effects were observed. Carefully introduced, continuously supervised HIT-RT is an effective, attractive, feasible, and safe method to improve body composition and muscle strength in older community-dwelling men with sarcopenia. However, even when consequently applying principles of exercise intensity progression within the RT protocol, only slight further positive changes were observed after 8 months of exercise.
Project description:Background/objective:This study aimed to examine the effects of eight weeks of dry-land strength combined with swimming training on the development of upper and lower body strength, jumping ability, and swimming performance in competitive sprinter swimmers. Methods:Twenty (14 men and 6 women) university swimmers of national-level (age: 20.55 ± 1.76 years, body mass: 68.86 ± 7.69 kg, height: 1.77 ± 0.06 m, 100 m front crawl: 71.08 ± 6.71s, 50 m front crawl: 31.70 ± 2.45s) were randomly divided into two groups: experimental group (EG: 11) and control group (CG: 9). In addition to the usual in-water training (3-4 sessions per week of ?80 min), the EG performed 8 weeks (one session per week) of strength-training (ST). The ST included bench press, full squat, countermovement jumping, countermovement jumping with free-arm movement, and the medical ball throwing. Stroke length, stroke frequency, stroke index, and swimming velocity were recorded during 50 and 100 m front crawl time-trials. Strength and swimming performance were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of training. Results:The results showed a significant improvement in sprint performance (50 m: p < 0.01, d = 0.47; 100 m: p < 0.05, d = 0.42), stroke frequency (50 m: p < 0.01, d = 0.90) and stroke index (100 m: p < 0.01, d = 0.29) in the EG. Despite both groups' increased strength performance, increases in bench press were higher in the EG (p < 0.001, d = 0.75) than CG (p = 0.05, d = 0.34). Conclusions:Complementing in-water training with strength training seems to be relevant to improve upper body strength and to optimize 50 m and 100 m swimming performance, adapting technical patterns used during all-out swimming.
Project description:Background:The present study examined the effects of a prolonged exercise intervention at the lactate threshold (LT) on body composition, aerobic performance, and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in women with obesity. Methods:A total of 36 obese Korean women aged 36 to 55 years (mean±standard deviation, 44.8±5.2 years) were randomly assigned to a control group (CON, n=18) or an experimental group (EXP, n=18); and EXP underwent aerobic exercise training three times a week at a heart rate corresponding to the LT (HR_LT) for 12 weeks. All dependent variables (body composition, aerobic performance, and ANS function parameters) were evaluated before and after training. Results:Compared with the CON group, the EXP group showed significant improvement in body composition (body weight, -4.57 vs. -2.40 kg; body mass index, -1.79 vs. -0.96 kg/m2; %body fat, -4.63 vs. -1.41; fat-free mass, 3.24 vs. -0.08 kg), aerobic performance (oxygen consumption at LT, 5.74 vs. 0.12 mL/kg/min; maximal oxygen consumption, 5.41 vs. 2.14 mL/kg/min; treadmill speed at HR_LT, 1.40 vs. 0.29 km/hr; bicycle load at HR_LT, 18.62 vs. 4.52 w; and ANS function (mean RR, 50.83 vs. -15.04 ms; standard deviation of NN intervals, 5.08 vs. -0.55 ms; root mean square of successive differences, 6.42 vs. 1.87 ms; total power, 0.34 vs. 0.10 ms2; high frequency, 0.32 vs. -0.04 ms2; low frequency/high frequency, -0.09 vs. 0.01). Conclusion:Aerobic exercise at the LT for 12 weeks is a practical method of improving body composition, aerobic performance, and ANS function for women with obesity.
Project description:The objective of this study was to verify the influence of the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPAR?2 gene in response of a training program on the body composition. Sixty-nine previously inactive men and women (32.8 ± 8.2 years) were genotyped and underwent a 12-week aerobic (running/walking) training program (3-5 sessions, 40 - 60 min per session, and intensity between the aerobic and anaerobic threshold) (experimental group n = 53) or were part of the control group (n = 16). They were tested for aerobic capacity (ergospirometry), body composition (DXA), abdomen, waist and hip circumferences and nutritional assessment before and 48 h after the experimental protocol. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA test was used to verify possible differences in variables between the experimental vs. control groups or Pro/Pro vs. Pro/Ala groups, and the Chi-squared test was used to verify the distribution of responders and non-responders according to genotype (p < 0.05). Frequencies of 75.5% Pro/Pro (n = 40) and 24.5% Pro/Ala (n = 13) were found, without any occurrence of the recessive homozygote. Body fat reduction was initially confirmed compared to a control group which did not exercise (n = 16; 29.1 ± 8.8 years), so that the exercise group obtained a reduction of -1.3 kg vs. -0.3 kg in the control group (p = 0.03). When they were divided by genotype, there were significant changes in fat mass (-1.3 ± 2.1 kg; p = 0.00), lean mass (0.6 ± 1.5 kg; p = 0.02), fat percentage (-1.3 ± 1.6; p = 0.00), waist circumference (-2.2 ± 2.9 cm; p = 0.00), abdomen circumference (-3.3 ± 3.6 cm; p = 0.00) and hip circumference (-2.7 ± 2.7 cm; p = 0.00) for Pro/Pro genotypes; and fat mass (-1.1 ± 1.7 kg; p = 0.04), fat percentage (-0.9 ± 1.5; p = 0.04), abdomen circumference (-3.9 ± 3.5 cm; p = 0.00) and hip circumference (-1.8 ± 1.8 cm; p = 0.00) for Pro/Ala genotypes, without any group interaction differences. The Chi squared test revealed no differences in the distribution of responders or non-responders according to genotype. It is concluded that an aerobic training program promotes weight loss, but the Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPAR?2 gene does not influence the variability of aerobic-induced exercise weight loss.
Project description:Vitamin D and calcium supplementation have been posited to improve body composition and different formulations of calcium may impact bioavailability. However, data are lacking regarding the combinatorial effects of exercise, diet, and calcium and/or vitamin D supplementation on body composition changes in post-menopausal women. Herein, 128 post-menopausal women (51.3 ± 4.5 years, 36.4 ± 5.7 kg/m2, 46.2 ± 4.5% fat) were assigned to diet and supplement groups while participating in a supervised circuit-style resistance-training program (3 d/week) over a 14-week period. Diet groups included: (1) normal diet (CTL), (2) a low-calorie, higher protein diet (LCHP; 1600 kcal/day, 15% carbohydrates, 55% protein, 30% fat), and (3) a low-calorie, higher carbohydrate diet (LCHC; 1600 kcal/day, 55% carbohydrates, 15% protein, 30% fat). Supplement groups consisted of: (1) maltodextrin (PLA), (2) 800 mg/day of calcium carbonate (Ca), and (3) 800 mg/day of calcium citrate and malate and 400 IU/day of vitamin D (Ca+D). Fasting blood samples, body composition, resting energy expenditure, aerobic capacity, muscular strength and endurance measures were assessed. Data were analyzed by mixed factorial ANOVA with repeated measures and presented as mean change from baseline [95% CI]. Exercise training promoted significant improvements in strength, peak aerobic capacity, and blood lipids. Dieting resulted in greater losses of body mass (CTL -0.4 ± 2.4; LCHC -5.1 ± 4.2; LCHP -3.8 ± 4.2 kg) and fat mass (CTL -1.4 ± 1.8; LCHC -3.7 ± 3.7; LCHP -3.4 ± 3.4 kg). When compared to LCHC-PLA, the LCHC + Ca combination led to greater losses in body mass (PLA -4.1 [-6.1, -2.1], Ca -6.4 [-8.1, -4.7], Ca+D -4.4 [-6.4, -2.5] kg). In comparison to LCHC-Ca, the LCHC-Ca+D led to an improved maintenance of fat-free mass (PLA -0.3 [-1.4, 0.7], Ca -1.4 [-2.3, -0.5], Ca+D 0.4 [-0.6, 1.5] kg) and a greater loss of body fat (PLA -2.3 [-3.4, -1.1], Ca -1.3 [-2.3, -0.3], Ca+D -3.6 [-4.8, -2.5]%). Alternatively, no significant differences in weight loss or body composition resulted when adding Ca or Ca+D to the LCHP regimen in comparison to when PLA was added to the LCHP diet. When combined with an energy-restricted, higher carbohydrate diet, adding 800 mg of Ca carbonate stimulated greater body mass loss compared to when a PLA was added. Alternatively, adding Ca+D to the LCHC diet promoted greater% fat changes and attenuation of fat-free mass loss. Our results expand upon current literature regarding the impact of calcium supplementation with dieting and regular exercise. This data highlights that different forms of calcium in combination with an energy restricted, higher carbohydrate diet may trigger changes in body mass or body composition while no impact of calcium supplementation was observed when participants followed an energy restricted, higher protein diet.