The Long Non-coding RNA lnc-DMP1 Regulates Dmp1 Expression Through H3K27Ac Modification.
ABSTRACT: Several long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported regulate the expression of neighbor protein-coding genes at post-transcriptional, transcriptional and epigenetic levels. Dmp1 (Dentin matrix protein 1), encoding a non-collagenous extracellular matrix protein, plays an important role in dentin and bone mineralization. However, the transcriptional regulation of lncRNA on Dmp1 has not been reported. In this study, we identified a novel lncRNA named lnc-DMP1, which is near the Dmp1 gene region and undergoes remarkable changes during mandible development. lnc-DMP1 is co-localized and significantly expressed correlation with Dmp1 in embryonic and postnatal mouse mandibles. In MC3T3-E1 cells, lnc-DMP1 positively regulates DMP1 expression and skeletal mineralization. Furthermore, lnc-DMP1 induces the promoter activity of Dmp1 by modulating H3K27Ac enrichment in the Dmp1 promoter. In conclusion, our results indicate that lnc-DMP1 is a novel lncRNA near the Dmp1 gene region and regulates Dmp1 expression by modulating the H3K27 acetylation level of Dmp1 promoter.
Project description:Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is expressed in both pulp and odontoblast cells and deletion of the Dmp1 gene leads to defects in odontogenesis and mineralization. The goals of this study were to examine how DMP1 controls dentin mineralization and odontogenesis in vivo. Fluorochrome labeling of dentin in Dmp1-null mice showed a diffuse labeling pattern with a 3-fold reduction in dentin appositional rate compared to controls. Deletion of DMP1 was also associated with abnormalities in the dentinal tubule system and delayed formation of the third molar. Unlike the mineralization defect in Vitamin D receptor-null mice, the mineralization defect in Dmp1-null mice was not rescued by a high calcium and phosphate diet, suggesting a different effect of DMP1 on mineralization. Re-expression of Dmp1 in early and late odontoblasts under control of the Col1a1 promoter rescued the defects in mineralization as well as the defects in the dentinal tubules and third molar development. In contrast, re-expression of Dmp1 in mature odontoblasts, using the Dspp promoter, produced only a partial rescue of the mineralization defects. These data suggest that DMP1 is a key regulator of odontoblast differentiation, formation of the dentin tubular system and mineralization and its expression is required in both early and late odontoblasts for normal odontogenesis to proceed.
Project description:Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (DMP1), the essential noncollagenous proteins in dentin and bone, is believed to play an important role in the mineralization of these tissues, although the mechanisms of its action are not fully understood. To gain insight into DMP1 functions in dentin mineralization we have performed immunomapping of DMP1 in fully mineralized rat incisors and in vitro calcium phosphate mineralization experiments in the presence of DMP1. DMP1 immunofluorescene was localized in peritubular dentin (PTD) and along the dentin-enamel boundary. In vitro phosphorylated DMP1 induced the formation of parallel arrays of crystallites with their c-axes co-aligned. Such crystalline arrangement is a hallmark of mineralized collagen fibrils of bone and dentin. Interestingly, in DMP1-rich PTD, which lacks collagen fibrils, the crystals are organized in a similar manner. Based on our findings we hypothesize, that in vivo DMP1 controls the mineral organization outside of the collagen fibrils and plays a major role in the mineralization of PTD.
Project description:The SIBLING (small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins) family is the major group of noncollagenous proteins in bone and dentin. These extremely acidic and highly phosphorylated extracellular proteins play critical roles in the formation of collagenous mineralized tissues. Whereas the lack of individual SIBLINGs causes significant mineralization defects in vivo, none of them led to a complete cessation of mineralization suggesting that these proteins have overlapping functions. To assess whether different SIBLINGs regulate biomineralization in a similar manner and how phosphorylation impacts their activity, we studied the effects of two SIBLINGs, dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) and dentin phosphophoryn (DPP), on mineral morphology and organization in vitro. Our results demonstrate distinct differences in the effects of these proteins on mineralization. We show that phosphorylation has a profound effect on the regulation of mineralization by both proteins. Specifically, both phosphorylated proteins facilitated organized mineralization of collagen fibrils and phosphorylated DMP1-induced formation of organized mineral bundles in the absence of collagen. In summary, these results indicate that the primary structure and phosphorylation uniquely determine functions of individual SIBLINGs in regulation of mineral morphology and organization.
Project description:The osteocyte, a terminally differentiated cell comprising 90%-95% of all bone cells, may have multiple functions, including acting as a mechanosensor in bone (re)modeling. Dentin matrix protein 1 (encoded by DMP1) is highly expressed in osteocytes and, when deleted in mice, results in a hypomineralized bone phenotype. We investigated the potential for this gene not only to direct skeletal mineralization but also to regulate phosphate (P(i)) homeostasis. Both Dmp1-null mice and individuals with a newly identified disorder, autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets, manifest rickets and osteomalacia with isolated renal phosphate-wasting associated with elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels and normocalciuria. Mutational analyses showed that autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets family carried a mutation affecting the DMP1 start codon, and a second family carried a 7-bp deletion disrupting the highly conserved DMP1 C terminus. Mechanistic studies using Dmp1-null mice demonstrated that absence of DMP1 results in defective osteocyte maturation and increased FGF23 expression, leading to pathological changes in bone mineralization. Our findings suggest a bone-renal axis that is central to guiding proper mineral metabolism.
Project description:Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is essential to odontogenesis. Its mutations in human subjects lead to dental problems such as dental deformities, hypomineralization and periodontal impairment. Primarily, DMP1 is considered as an extracellular matrix protein that promotes hydroxyapatite formation and activates intracellular signaling pathway via interacting with ?v?3 integrin. Recent in vitro studies suggested that DMP1 might also act as a transcription factor. In this study, we examined whether full-length DMP1 could function as a transcription factor in the nucleus and regulate odontogenesis in vivo. We first demonstrated that a patient with the DMP1 M1V mutation, which presumably causes a loss of the secretory DMP1 but does not affect the nuclear translocation of DMP1, shows a typical rachitic tooth defect. Furthermore, we generated transgenic mice expressing (NLS)DMP1, in which the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) entry signal sequence of DMP1 was replaced by a nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence, under the control of a 3.6?kb rat type I collagen promoter plus a 1.6?kb intron 1. We then crossbred the (NLS)DMP1 transgenic mice with Dmp1 null mice to express the (NLS)DMP1 in Dmp1-deficient genetic background. Although immunohistochemistry demonstrated that (NLS)DMP1 was localized in the nuclei of the preodontoblasts and odontoblasts, the histological, morphological and biochemical analyses showed that it failed to rescue the dental and periodontal defects as well as the delayed tooth eruption in Dmp1 null mice. These data suggest that the full-length DMP1 plays no apparent role in the nucleus during odontogenesis.
Project description:Autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets (ARHR), which is characterized by renal phosphate wasting, aberrant regulation of 1alpha-hydroxylase activity, and rickets/osteomalacia, is caused by inactivating mutations of dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1). ARHR resembles autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR) and X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), hereditary disorders respectively caused by cleavage-resistant mutations of the phosphaturic factor FGF23 and inactivating mutations of PHEX that lead to increased production of FGF23 by osteocytes in bone. Circulating levels of FGF23 are increased in ARHR and its Dmp1-null mouse homologue. To determine the causal role of FGF23 in ARHR, we transferred Fgf23 deficient/enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) reporter mice onto Dmp1-null mice to create mice lacking both Fgf23 and Dmp1. Dmp1(-/-) mice displayed decreased serum phosphate concentrations, inappropriately normal 1,25(OH)(2)D levels, severe rickets, and a diffuse form of osteomalacia in association with elevated Fgf23 serum levels and expression in osteocytes. In contrast, Fgf23(-/-) mice had undetectable serum Fgf23 and elevated serum phosphate and 1,25(OH)(2)D levels along with severe growth retardation and focal form of osteomalacia. In combined Dmp1(-/-)/Fgf23(-/-), circulating Fgf23 levels were also undetectable, and the serum levels of phosphate and 1,25(OH)(2)D levels were identical to Fgf23(-/-) mice. Rickets and diffuse osteomalacia in Dmp1-null mice were transformed to severe growth retardation and focal osteomalacia characteristic of Fgf23-null mice. These data suggest that the regulation of extracellular matrix mineralization by DMP1 is coupled to renal phosphate handling and vitamin D metabolism through a DMP1-dependent regulation of FGF23 production by osteocytes.
Project description:Activation of Notch1 in osteocytes of Rosa(Notch) mice, where a loxP-flanked STOP cassette and the Nicd coding sequence were targeted to the reverse orientation splice acceptor (Rosa)26 locus, causes osteopetrosis associated with suppressed Sost expression and enhanced Wnt signaling. To determine whether Sost downregulation mediates the effects of Notch activation in osteocytes, Rosa(Notch) mice were crossed with transgenics expressing Cre recombinase or SOST under the control of the dentin matrix protein (Dmp)1 promoter. Dmp1-SOST transgenics displayed vertebral osteopenia and a modest femoral cancellous and cortical bone phenotype, whereas hemizygous Dmp1-Cre transgenics heterozygous for the Rosa(Notch) allele (Dmp1-Cre;Rosa(Notch)) exhibited osteopetrosis. The phenotype of Notch activation in osteocytes was prevented in Dmp1-Cre;Rosa(Notch) mice hemizygous for the Dmp1-SOST transgene. The effect was associated with downregulated Notch signaling and suppressed Dmp1 and Rosa26 expression. To test whether SOST regulates Notch expression in osteocytes, cortical bone cultures from Dmp1-Cre;Rosa(Notch) mice or from Rosa(Notch) control littermates were exposed to recombinant human SOST. The addition of SOST had only modest effects on Notch target gene mRNA levels and suppressed Dmp1, but not Cre or Rosa26, expression. These findings suggest that prevention of the Dmp1-Cre;Rosa(Notch) skeletal phenotype by Dmp1-SOST is not secondary to SOST expression but to interactions among the Dmp1-SOST and Dmp1-Cre transgenes and the Rosa26 locus. In conclusion, the Dmp1-SOST transgene suppresses the expression of the Dmp1-Cre transgene and of Rosa26.
Project description:During chronic kidney disease (CKD), alterations in bone and mineral metabolism include increased production of the hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) that may contribute to cardiovascular mortality. The osteocyte protein dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) reduces FGF23 and enhances bone mineralization, but its effects in CKD are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that DMP1 supplementation in CKD would improve bone health, prevent FGF23 elevations and minimize consequent adverse cardiovascular outcomes. We investigated DMP1 regulation and effects in wild-type (WT) mice and the Col4a3-/- mouse model of CKD. Col4a3-/- mice demonstrated impaired kidney function, reduced bone DMP1 expression, reduced bone mass, altered osteocyte morphology and connectivity, increased osteocyte apoptosis, increased serum FGF23, hyperphosphatemia, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), and reduced survival. Genetic or pharmacological supplementation of DMP1 in Col4a3-/- mice prevented osteocyte apoptosis, preserved osteocyte networks, corrected bone mass, partially lowered FGF23 levels by attenuating NFAT-induced FGF23 transcription, and further increased serum phosphate. Despite impaired kidney function and worsened hyperphosphatemia, DMP1 prevented development of LVH and improved Col4a3-/- survival. Our data suggest that CKD reduces DMP1 expression, whereas its restoration represents a potential therapeutic approach to lower FGF23 and improve bone and cardiac health in CKD.
Project description:Dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP1) is a key regulator of biomineralization. Here, we examine changes in structural, geometric, and material properties of cortical bone in a transgenic mouse model overexpressing DMP1. Micro-computed tomography and three-point bending were performed on 90 femora of wild type and transgenic mice at 1, 2, 4, and 6 months. Fourier transform infrared imaging was performed at 2 months. We found that the transgenic femurs were longer (p<0.01), more robust in cross-section (p<0.05), stronger (p<0.05), but had less post-yield strain and displacement (p<0.01), and higher tissue mineral density (p<0.01) than the wild type femurs at 1 and 2 months. At 2 months, the transgenic femurs also had a higher mineral-to-matrix ratio (p<0.05) and lower carbonate substitution (p<0.05) compared to wild type femurs. These findings indicate that increased mineralization caused by overexpressing DMP1 led to increased structural cortical bone properties associated with decreased ductility during the early post-natal period.
Project description:Remineralization of dentin during dental caries is of considerable clinical interest. Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is a non-collagenous calcium-binding protein that plays a critical role in biomineralization. In the present study, we tested if peptides derived from DMP1 can be used for dentin remineralization. Peptide pA (pA, MW = 1.726 kDa) and peptide pB (pB, MW = 2.185), containing common collagen-binding domains and unique calcium-binding domains, were synthesized by solid-phase chemistry. An extreme caries lesion scenario was created by collagenase digestion, and the biomineral-nucleating potential of these peptides was ascertained when coated on collagenase-treated dentin matrix and control, native human dentin matrix under physiological levels of calcium and phosphate. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that peptide pB was an effective nucleator when compared with pA. However, a 1:4 ratio of pA to pB was determined to be ideal for dentin remineralization, based on hydroxyapatite (HA) morphology and calcium/phosphorus ratios. Interestingly, HA was nucleated on collagenase-challenged dentin with as little as 20 min of 1:4 peptide incubation. Electron diffraction confirmed the presence of large HA crystals that produced a diffraction pattern indicative of a rod-like crystal structure. These findings suggest that DMP1-derived peptides may be useful to modulate mineral deposition and subsequent formation of HA when exposed to physiological concentrations of calcium and phosphate.