The function of bacterial HtrA is evolutionally conserved in mammalian HtrA2/Omi.
ABSTRACT: Although the malfunction of HtrA2/Omi leads to Parkinson's disease (PD), the underlying mechanism has remained unknown. Here, we showed that HtrA2/Omi specifically removed oligomeric ?-Syn but not monomeric ?-Syn to protect oligomeric ?-Syn-induced neurodegeneration. Experiments using mnd2 mice indicated that HtrA2/Omi degraded oligomeric ?-Syn specifically without affecting monomers. Transgenic Drosophila melanogaster experiments of the co-expression ?-Syn and HtrA2/Omi and expression of genes individually also confirmed that pan-neuronal expression of HtrA2/Omi completely rescued Parkinsonism in the ?-Syn-induced PD Drosophila model by specifically removing oligomeric ?-Syn. HtrA2/Omi maintained the health and integrity of the brain and extended the life span of transgenic flies. Because HtrA2/Omi specifically degraded oligomeric ?-Syn, co-expression of HtrA2/Omi and ?-Syn in Drosophila eye maintained a healthy retina, while the expression of ?-Syn induced retinal degeneration. This work showed that the bacterial function of HtrA to degrade toxic misfolded proteins is evolutionarily conserved in mammalian brains as HtrA2/Omi.
Project description:mnd2 mice die prematurely as a result of neurodegeneration 30-40 days after birth due to loss of the enzymatic activity of the mitochondrial quality control protease HtrA2/Omi. Here, we show that transgenic expression of human HtrA2/Omi in the central nervous system of mnd2 mice rescues them from neurodegeneration and prevents their premature death. Interestingly, adult transgenic mnd2 mice develop accelerated aging phenotypes, such as premature weight loss, hair loss, reduced fertility, curvature of the spine, heart enlargement, increased autophagy, and death by 12-17 months of age. These mice also have elevated levels of clonally expanded mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions in their tissues. Our results provide direct genetic evidence linking mitochondrial protein quality control to mtDNA deletions and aging in mammals.
Project description:Myocardial apoptosis is a significant problem underlying ischemic heart disease. We previously reported significantly elevated expression of cytoplasmic Omi/HtrA2, triggers cardiomyocytes apoptosis. However, whether increased Omi/HtrA2 within mitochondria itself influences myocardial survival in vivo is unknown. We aim to observe the effects of mitochondria-specific, not cytoplasmic, Omi/HtrA2 on myocardial apoptosis and cardiac function. Transgenic mice overexpressing cardiac-specific mitochondrial Omi/HtrA2 were generated and they had increased myocardial apoptosis, decreased systolic and diastolic function, and decreased left ventricular remodeling. Transiently or stably overexpression of mitochondria Omi/HtrA2 in H9C2 cells enhance apoptosis as evidenced by elevated caspase-3, -9 activity and TUNEL staining, which was completely blocked by Ucf-101, a specific Omi/HtrA2 inhibitor. Mechanistic studies revealed mitochondrial Omi/HtrA2 overexpression degraded the mitochondrial anti-apoptotic protein HAX-1, an effect attenuated by Ucf-101. Additionally, transfected cells overexpressing mitochondrial Omi/HtrA2 were more sensitive to hypoxia and reoxygenation (H/R) induced apoptosis. Cyclosporine A (CsA), a mitochondrial permeability transition inhibitor, blocked translocation of Omi/HtrA2 from mitochondrial to cytoplasm, and protected transfected cells incompletely against H/R-induced caspase-3 activation. We report in vitro and in vivo overexpression of mitochondrial Omi/HtrA2 induces cardiac apoptosis and dysfunction. Thus, strategies to directly inhibit Omi/HtrA2 or its cytosolic translocation from mitochondria may protect against heart injury.
Project description:HtrA serine peptidase 2 (HtrA2), also named Omi, is a pro-apoptotic protein that exhibits dramatic changes in expression levels in a variety of disorders, including ischemia/reperfusion injury, cancer, and neurodegeneration. In our study, Omi/HtrA2 protein levels were high in the heart, brain, kidney and liver, with elevated heart/brain expression in aging mice. A similar expression pattern was observed at the mRNA level, which suggests that the regulation of Omi/HtrA2 is predominately transcriptional. Promoter binding by transcription factors is the main influencing factor of transcription, and to identify specific promoter elements that contribute to the differential expression of mouse Omi/HtrA2, we constructed truncated Omi/HtrA2 promoter/luciferase reporter vectors and analyzed their relative luciferase activity; it was greatest in the promoter regions at -1205~-838 bp and -146~+93 bp, with the -838~-649 bp region exhibiting negative regulatory activity. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that the Omi/HtrA2 gene promoter contains a CpG island at -709~+37 bp, and eight heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) sites, two Sp1 transcription factor (SP1)sites, one activator protein (AP) site, seven p53 sites, and four YY1 transcription factor(YY1) sites were predicted in the core areas. Furthermore, we found that p53 and HSF1 specifically binds to the Omi/HtrA2 promoter using chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. These results provide a foundation for understanding Omi/HtrA2 regulatory mechanisms, which could further understanding of HtrA-associated diseases.
Project description:Recently, a mutation in the mitochondrial protease Omi/HtrA2, G399S, was found in sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, leading to the designation of Omi/HtrA2 as PD locus 13 (PARK13). G399S reportedly results in reduced Omi protease activity. In vitro studies have suggested that Omi/HtrA2 acts downstream of PINK1, mutations in which mediate recessive forms of PD. We, as well as other, have previously shown that the Drosophila homologs of the familial PD genes, PINK1 (PARK6) and PARKIN (PARK2), function in a common genetic pathway to regulate mitochondrial integrity and dynamics. Whether Omi/HtrA2 regulates mitochondrial integrity and whether it acts downstream of PINK1 in vivo remain to be explored. Here, we show that Omi/HtrA2 null mutants in Drosophila, in contrast to pink1 or parkin null mutants, do not show mitochondrial morphological defects. Extensive genetic interaction studies do not provide support for models in which Omi/HtrA2 functions in the same genetic pathway as pink1, or carries out partially redundant functions with pink1, at least with respect to regulation of mitochondrial integrity and dynamics. Furthermore, Omi/HtrA2 G399S retains significant, if not full, function of Omi/HtrA2, compared with expression of protease-compromised versions of the protein. In light of recent findings showing that G399S can be found at comparable frequencies in PD patients and healthy controls, we do not favor a hypothesis in which Omi/HtrA2 plays an essential role in PD pathogenesis, at least with respect to regulation of mitochondrial integrity in the pink1/parkin pathway.
Project description:Loss of the mitochondrial protease activity of Omi causes mitochondrial dysfunction, neurodegeneration with parkinsonian features and premature death in mnd2 (motor neuron degeneration 2) mice. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying this pathology remain largely unknown. Here, we report that Omi participates in the process of mitochondrial biogenesis, which has been linked to several neurodegenerative diseases. The mitochondrial biogenesis is deficit in mnd2 mice, evidenced by severe decreases of mitochondrial components, mitochondrial DNA and mitochondrial density. Omi cleaves glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?), a kinase promoting PPAR? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) degradation, to regulate PGC-1?, a factor important for the mitochondrial biogenesis. In mnd2 mice, GSK3? abundance is increased and PGC-1? abundance is decreased significantly. Inhibition of GSK3? by SB216763 or overexpression of PGC-1? can restore mitochondrial biogenesis in mnd2 mice or Omi-knockdown N2a cells. Furthermore, there is a significant improvement of the movement ability of mnd2 mice after SB216763 treatment. Thus, our study identified Omi as a novel regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, involving in Omi protease-deficient-induced neurodegeneration.
Project description:The mitochondrial protease OMI (also known as HtrA2) has been implicated in Parkinson's Disease (PD) and deletion or protease domain point mutations have shown profound neuropathologies in mice. A beneficial role by OMI, in preserving cell viability, is assumed to occur via the avoidance of dysfunctional protein turnover. However relatively few substrates for mitochondrial Omi are known. Here we report our identification of three novel mitochondrial substrates that impact metabolism and ATP production. Using a dual proteomic approach we have identified three interactors based upon ability to bind to OMI, and/or to persist in the proteome after OMI activity has been selectively inhibited. One candidate, the chaperone HSPA8, was common to each independent study. Two others (PDHB subunit and IDH3A subunit) did not appear to bind to OMI, however persisted in the mito-proteome when OMI was inhibited. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) are two key Kreb's cycle enzymes that catalyse oxidative decarboxylation control points in mitochondrial respiration. We verified both PDHB and IDH3A co-immunoprecipitate with HSPA8 and after elution, were degraded by recombinant HtrA2 in vitro. Additionally our gene expression studies, using rotenone (an inhibitor of Complex I) showed Omi expression was silenced when pdhb and idh3a were increased when a sub-lethal dose was applied. However higher dose treatment caused increased Omi expression and decreased levels of pdhb and idh3a transcripts. This implicates mitochondrial OMI in a novel mechanism relating to metabolism.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Increased cardiac apoptosis is a hallmark of the elderly, which in turn increases the risk for developing cardiac disease. The overexpression of Omi/HtrA2 mRNA and protein contributes to apoptosis in the aged heart. Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is a transcription factor that binds to the promoter of Omi/HtrA2 in the aging myocardium. However, whether HSF1 participates in cardiomyocyte apoptosis via transcriptional regulation of Omi/HtrA2 remains unclear. The present study was designed to investigate whether HSF1 plays a role in Omi/HtrA2 transcriptional regulation and myocardial apoptosis. METHODS AND RESULTS:Assessment of the hearts of mice of different ages was performed, which indicated a decrease in cardiac function reserve and an increase in mitochondrial apoptosis. Omi/HtrA2 overexpression in the elderly was negatively correlated with left ventricular function after exercise overload and positively correlated with myocardial Caspase-9 apoptosis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) of aging hearts and plasmid transfection/RNA interference of H9C2 cells revealed that enhancement of HSF1 expression promotes Omi/HtrA2 expression by inducing the promoter activity of Omi/HtrA2 while also increasing mitochondrial apoptosis by upregulating Omi/HtrA2 expression. CONCLUSIONS:HSF1 acts as a transcriptional factor that induces Omi/HtrA2 expression and Caspase-9 apoptosis in aged cardiomyocytes, while also decreasing cardiac function reserve.
Project description:Variants in the Omi/HtrA2 gene have been nominated as a cause of Parkinson's disease. This sequencing study of Omi/HtrA2 in 95 probands with apparent autosomal dominant inheritance of Parkinson's disease did not identify any pathogenic mutations. In addition, there was no association between common variations in the Omi/HtrA2 gene and susceptibility to Parkinson's disease in any of our four patient-control series (n=2373). Taken together our results do not support a role for Omi/HtrA2 variants in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease.
Project description:OMI/HTRA2 (high-temperature requirement serine protease A2) is a mitochondrial serine protease involved in several cellular processes, including autophagy, chaperone activity, and apoptosis. Few studies on the role of OMI/HTRA2 in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are available, but none on its relationship with the cholinergic system and neurotrophic factors as well as other AD-related proteins. In this study, immunohistochemical analyses revealed that AD patients had a higher cytosolic distribution of OMI/HTRA2 protein compared to controls. Quantitative analyses on brain extracts indicated a significant increase in the active form of OMI/HTRA2 in the AD brain. Activated OMI/HTRA2 protein positively correlated with stress-associated read-through acetylcholinesterase activity. In addition, ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene expression, a receptor also known to be localized on the outer membrane of mitochondria, showed a strong correlation with OMI/HTRA2 gene expression in three different brain regions. Interestingly, the activated OMI/HTRA2 levels also correlated with the activity of the acetylcholine-biosynthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT); with levels of the neurotrophic factors, NGF and BDNF; with levels of the soluble fragments of amyloid precursor protein (APP); and with gene expression of the microtubule-associated protein tau in the examined brain regions. Overall, the results demonstrate increased levels of the mitochondrial serine protease OMI/HTRA2, and a coherent pattern of association between the activated form of OMI/HTRA2 and several key proteins involved in AD pathology. In this paper, we propose a new hypothetical model to highlight the importance and needs of further investigation on the role of OMI/HTRA2 in the mitochondrial function and AD.
Project description:Survival after acute myocardial infarction is decreased in elderly patients. The enhanced rates of apoptosis in the aging heart exacerbate myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. We have recently demonstrated that the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), the most potent endogenous inhibitor of apoptosis, was decreased in aging rats' hearts. XIAP was balanced by two mitochondria proteins, Omi/HtrA2 and Smac/DIABLO. However, the implicative role of XIAP, Omi/HtrA2, and Smac/DIABLO to aging-related MI/R injury has not been previously investigated. In our study, male aging rats (20-24 months) or young adult rats (4-6 months) were subjected to 30 min of myocardial ischemia followed by reperfusion. MI/R-induced cardiac injury was enhanced in aging rats, as evidenced by aggravated cardiac dysfunction, enlarged infarct size, and increased myocardial apoptosis (TUNEL and caspase-3 activity). Then, the XIAP, Omi/HtrA2, and Smac/DIABLO protein and mRNA expression was detected. XIAP protein and mRNA expression was decreased in both aging hearts and aging hearts subjected to MI/R. Meanwhile, myocardial XIAP protein expression was correlated to cardiac function after MI/R. However, Omi/HtrA2, but not Smac/DIABLO, expression was increased in aging hearts. Moreover, the translocation of Omi/HtrA2 from mitochondria to cytosol was increased in both aging hearts and aging hearts subjected to MI/R. Treatment with ucf-101 (a novel and specific Omi/HtrA2 inhibitor) attenuated XIAP degradation and caspase-3 activity and exerted cardioprotective effects. Taken together, these results demonstrated that increased expression and leakage of Omi/HtrA2 enhanced MI/R injury in aging hearts via degrading XIAP and promoting myocardial apoptosis.