Body Weight, Obesity Perception, and Actions to Achieve Desired Weight among Rural and Urban Ghanaian Adults.
ABSTRACT: Background:Accurate body weight perception is important to maintaining an ideal body weight. In Africa, a preference for a larger body size and its association with health and wellbeing has been well documented. It remains speculative if these perceptions have changed or improved and if differences exist among rural and urban dwellers. The main aim of this study was to assess the body weight and obesity perceptions among rural and urban Ghanaians. Methods:This cross-sectional study involved 565 participants. The Stunkard figure rating scale was used to assess the body weight perception of participants. Participants were to choose from the scale figures they perceived to represent their current body weight, desired body weight, ideal body weight, ideal look for a wealthy person, ideal look for a woman with children, and ideal look for a woman without children. Additionally, participants were asked to describe obesity and its threat to health in their terms. Responses of participants to the above questions are presented as frequencies. Differences between rural and urban participants as well as males and females with respect to the median figure chosen for each question were determined by Mann-Whitney U test. Results:The median age of participants was 40 (IQR 26). The prevalence of overweight and obesity observed among participants was 52.8%. The most frequently selected figure as current body image was figure 5 (23.5%). Figure 4 was most frequently chosen by both males (37.2%) and females (24.6%) as their desired body image (27.4%). Male participants (41.8%) chose figure 5 as ideal for their gender while females (27.4%) maintained figure 4 as ideal for their gender. Study participants associated overweight with wealth and childbirth, and attributed their current weights to hereditary (27%) and childbirth (27%). Most participants were not taking steps to achieve their desired body image, and only a few engaged in both dieting and exercise to lose weight. Majority of participants described obesity as the accumulation of fat (91.0%) and viewed it as a threat to health (91.0%). Differences were observed among rural and urban participants with regard to the figure chosen as ideal for a wealthy person. Conclusion:Results from this study show an improvement in obesity perception and the acknowledgment of obesity as a threat to health. There was a desire for a normal-weight figure among study participants. Attribution of current body weight to hereditary and childbirth seems to be a hindrance to the implementation of actions to achieve this normal figure weight. Public health education, screening for overweight and obesity, creation of supportive food environments, and culture-sensitive interventions are promising to curbing the obesity menace.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The coexistence of undernutrition (thinness) and overnutrition (overweight/obesity) among children and adolescents is a public health concern in low-middle-income countries. Accurate prevalence estimates of thinness and overweight/obesity among children and adolescents are unavailable in many low-middle-income countries due to lack of data. Here we describe the prevalences and examine correlates of objectively measured weight status among urban and rural schoolchildren in Mozambique. METHODS:A cross-sectional study design was applied to recruit 9-11-year-old schoolchildren (n = 683) from 17 urban and rural primary schools in Mozambique. Body mass index (BMI) was computed from objectively measured height and weight and participants' weight categories were determined using the World Health Organization cut-points. Actigraph GT3X + accelerometers were worn 24 hours per day for 7 days to assess movement behaviours. Multilevel multivariable modelling was conducted to estimate odds ratios and confidence intervals. RESULTS:Combined prevalence of overweight/obesity (11.4%) was significantly higher among urban participants compared to rural participants (5.7%; ?2 = 7.1; p = 0.008). Conversely, thinness was more prevalent among rural (6.3%) compared to urban (4.2%) participants. Passive school commute, not meeting daily moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) guidelines, and maternal BMI >25 kg/m2 were associated with overweight/obesity while possessing one or more functional cars at home, maternal BMI >25 kg/m2 and being an older participant were associated with thinness in the present sample. The proportion of total variance in the prevalences of obesity and/or thinness occurring at the school level was 8.7% and 8.3%, respectively. CONCLUSION:Prevalences of thinness, overweight/obesity and other key variables differ between urban and rural schoolchildren in Mozambique. MVPA, active transport and mother's BMI are important modifiable correlates of weight status among Mozambican schoolchildren. Results from this study demonstrate important differences between urban and rural schoolchildren that should not be ignored when designing interventions to manage malnutrition, formulating public health strategies, and interpreting findings.
Project description:Background:Obesity is defined as an abnormal or excessive accumulation of body fat and it is currently one of the most concerning public health issues, as it is related to a wide range of serious diseases and disorders. The study of the causes of obesity is multifactorial, and its diagnosis requires specific methods. Its management is complex, and it is crucial that it is handled appropriately, and its primary focus should be on prevention through lifestyle changes.The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of overweight/obesity in adolescents of both genders, aged 10 to 12 years, from different geographical environments (rural and urban), as well as to identify the underlying risk factors related to the respective obesity rates, namely: family environment, eating habits, and physical exercise. Methods:An observational, cross-sectional study in a sample of 129 adolescents aged 10 to 12 years was conducted. Participants of both genders from rural and urban environments were included in this study. A questionnaire was completed on eating habits and physical activity, focusing on the number of daily meals, meal composition, and sedentary lifestyle habits. An anthropometric assessment was also performed, including weight, height, skinfolds, waist circumference, arm circumference, and percentage of lean mass and body fat, using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Results:In the rural environment, the obesity rate was 16.9%, with 26.8% being either overweight or obese; whereas in the urban environment, these rates were respectively 16.7% and 33.4%. Living in a rural environment was not an independent predictor of being overweight or obesity, p?=?0.581, or for increased percentage of body fat, p?=?0.790. In contrast, being 12 years old, eating high-calorie foods four times a week or less, and having at least one obese parent were predictors of being overweight or obesity. Being 12 years old was also a predictor of gaining moderate to high body fat. Conclusions:Adolescents' residence in a rural or urban environment does not affect the occurrence of being overweight, obesity or high body fat. Paternal obesity was an important predictor of obesity in children. Obese fathers tended to serve higher calorie meals to their children.
Project description:The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity and obesity-related risk factors in southern China.A cross-sectional survey of 15,364 participants aged 15 years and older was conducted from November 2013 to August 2014 in Jiangxi Province, China, using questionnaire forms and physical measurements. The physical measurements included body height, weight, waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (BFP) and visceral adipose index (VAI). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the risk factors for overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity.The prevalence of overweight was 25.8% (25.9% in males and 25.7% in females), while that of obesity was 7.9% (8.4% in males and 7.6% in females). The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 10.2% (8.6% in males and 11.3% in females). The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 37.1% in urban residents and 30.2% in rural residents, and this difference was significant (P < 0.001). Urban residents had a significantly higher prevalence of abdominal obesity than rural residents (11.6% vs 8.7%, P < 0.001). Among the participants with an underweight/normal body mass index (BMI), 1.3% still had abdominal obesity, 16.1% had a high BFP and 1.0% had a high VAI. Moreover, among obese participants, 9.7% had a low /normal WC, 0.8% had a normal BFP and 15.9% had a normal VAI. Meanwhile, the partial correlation analysis indicated that the correlation coefficients between VAI and BMI, VAI and WC, and BMI and WC were 0.700, 0.666, and 0.721, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that being female and having a high BFP and a high VAI were significantly associated with an increased risk of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity. In addition, living in an urban area and older age correlated with overweight/obesity.This study revealed that obesity and abdominal obesity, which differed by gender and age, are epidemic in southern China. Moreover, there was a very high, significant, positive correlation between WC, BMI and VAI. However, further studies are needed to explore which indicator of body fat could be used as the best marker to indirectly reflect cardiometabolic risk.
Project description:PURPOSE:The urban-rural disparity for childhood overweight and obesity shows different patterns in most countries. This study aimed to examine the recent trend of urban-rural disparity for childhood overweight and obesity at national and subnational levels in Chinese children from 2010 to 2014. DESIGN:Two successive national cross-sectional studies. Overweight and obesity were classified using Chinese national age-specific and sex-specific body mass index reference. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was compared between urban and rural areas at national and subnational levels. SETTING:Thirty-one provinces in China. PARTICIPANTS:Data were obtained from the Chinese National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health in 2010 and 2014 with 215 214 (107 741 in 2010 and 107 473 in 2014) children aged 7-12 years. RESULTS:The overweight and obesity prevalence increased from 17.1% in 2010 to 22.5% in 2014. The overweight and obesity prevalence in both urban and rural areas was higher in the eastern provinces but lower in the western provinces. The urban-rural disparity in overweight and obesity decreased steadily from 2010 to 2014 (1.79 to 1.42 for prevalence OR). There was greater urban-rural disparity in western China than eastern China. A reversal occurred in 2014 in several eastern provinces where the overweight and obesity prevalence in rural children surpassed that of their urban peers. CONCLUSIONS:A narrowing urban-rural disparity and the reversal signal between urban and rural areas in overweight and obesity would contribute to a growing proportion of obese children in rural areas. Therefore, urgent region-specific policies and interventions with a forward-looking approach should be considered for Chinese children, especially in rural areas.
Project description:Native of rural West Cameroon, the Bamiléké population is traditionally predisposed to obesity. Bamiléké who migrated to urban areas additionally experience the nutrition transition. We investigated the biocultural determinants of obesity in Bamiléké who migrated to urban Cameroon (Yaoundé), or urban France (Paris). We conducted qualitative interviews (n = 36; 18 men) and a quantitative survey (n = 627; 266 men) of adults using two-stage sampling strategy, to determine the association of dietary intake, physical activity and body weight norms with obesity of Bamiléké populations in these three socio-ecological areas (rural Cameroon: n = 258; urban Cameroon: n = 319; urban France: n = 50). The Bamiléké valued overweight and traditional energy-dense diets in rural and urban Cameroon. Physical activity levels were lower, consumption of processed energy-dense food was frequent and obesity levels higher in new migrants living in urban Cameroon and France. Female sex, age, duration of residence in urban areas, lower physical activity and valorisation of overweight were independently associated with obesity status. This work argues in favour of local and global health policies that account for the origin and the migration trajectories to prevent obesity in migrants.
Project description:Although migration and urbanization have been linked with higher obesity rates, especially in low-resource settings, prospective information about the magnitude of these effects is lacking. We estimated the risk of obesity and central obesity among rural subjects, rural-to-urban migrants and urban subjects.Prospective data from the PERU MIGRANT Study were analyzed. Baseline data were collected in 2007-2008 and participants re-contacted in 2012-2013. At follow-up, outcomes were obesity and central obesity measured by body mass index and waist circumference. At baseline, the primary exposure was demographic group: rural, rural-to-urban migrant and urban. Other exposures included an assets index and educational attainment. Cumulative incidence, incidence ratio (IR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for obesity and central obesity were estimated with Poisson regression models.At baseline, mean age (±s.d.) was 47.9 (±12.0) years, and 53.0% were females. Rural subjects comprised 20.2% of the total sample, whereas 59.7% were rural-to-urban migrants and 20.1% were urban dwellers. A total of 3598 and 2174 person-years were analyzed for obesity and central obesity outcomes, respectively. At baseline, the prevalence of obesity and central obesity was 20.0 and 52.5%. In multivariable models, migrant and urban groups had an 8- to 9.5-fold higher IR of obesity compared with the rural group (IR migrants=8.19, 95% CI=2.72-24.67; IR urban=9.51, 95% CI=2.74-33.01). For central obesity, there was a higher IR only among the migrant group (IR=1.95; 95% CI=1.22-3.13). Assets index was associated with a higher IR of central obesity (IR top versus bottom tertile 1.45, 95% CI=1.03-2.06).Peruvian urban individuals and rural-to-urban migrants show a higher incidence of obesity compared with their rural counterparts. Given the ongoing urbanization occurring in middle-income countries, the rapid development of increased obesity risk by rural-to-urban migrants suggests that measures to reduce obesity should be a priority for this group.
Project description:To evaluate the urban-rural disparity of overweight/obesity and explore its potential trend with breast cancer among Chinese women.The prevalence of overweight/obesity for Chinese rural women (35.2%, 29.2% for overweight and 6.0% for obesity) was significantly higher than that for Chinese urban women (33.4%, 27.7% for overweight and 5.7% for obesity) (P < 0.001). For either rural or urban women, the prevalence of overweight/obesity was highest in north region, followed by east region for rural women and north-east region for urban women. For rural women, higher prevalence of overweight/obesity was significantly positively associated with elder age, Han nationality, low level of education, no occupation, high family income, less number of family residents, insurance, and elder age at marriage. Similar positive associations were also found for urban women, except negative associations for high family income, less number of family residents, and elder age at marriage. A non-significant positive trend between overweight/obesity and breast cancer was found for rural women [odds ratio (OR): 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87-1.29], but a significant positive trend for urban women (OR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.19-2.02).A total of 1 210 762 participants were recruited from the Chinese National Breast Cancer Screening Program. Overweight and obesity were defined as body mass index (BMI) ranged 24.0-27.9 kg/m2 and BMI ? 28.0kg/m2, respectively.There was an obvious urban-rural disparity of overweight/obesity distribution among Chinese women, which could also lead to an obvious disparity of breast cancer distribution.
Project description:Understanding factors related to girls' body image discrepancy, which is the difference between self-perceived current or actual and ideal body size, is important for addressing body-related issues and preventing adverse sequelae. Two aims were to: 1) examine demographic differences in body image discrepancy; and 2) determine the association of body image discrepancy with weight status, percent body fat, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and cardiovascular (CV) fitness among young adolescent girls.The cross-sectional study included a secondary analysis of baseline data from a group randomized controlled trial including 1519 5th-8th grade girls in 24 U.S. schools. Girls completed physical activity and sedentary behavior surveys. To indicate perceived current/actual and ideal body image, girls selected from nine body figures the one that represented how they look now and another showing how they want to look. Girls wore accelerometers measuring physical activity. Height, weight, and percent body fat were assessed. The Progressive Aerobic CV Endurance Run was used to estimate CV fitness. Independent t-test, one- and two-way ANOVA, correlational analyses, and hierarchical linear regressions were performed.The majority (67.5%; n?=?1023) chose a smaller ideal than current/actual figure. White girls had higher body image discrepancy than Black girls (p?=?.035). Body image discrepancy increased with increasing weight status (F3,1506?=?171.32, p?<?.001). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity were negatively correlated with body image discrepancy (r?=?-.10, p?<?.001; r?=?-.14, p?<?.001, respectively), but correlations were not significant after adjusting for race and body mass index (BMI), respectively. Body image discrepancy was moderately correlated with CV fitness (r?=?-.55, p?<?.001). After adjusting for demographics, percent body fat, but not CV fitness or MVPA, influenced body image discrepancy. Girls with higher percent body fat had higher body image discrepancy (p?<?.001).This study provided important information to guide interventions for promoting a positive body image among girls.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01503333 , registration date: January 4, 2012.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To assess the association between acculturation and body weight status among internal migrant children in China. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1154 pairs of migrant children aged 11-17 years and their primary caregivers in Guangzhou, China, from April to May 2016. MEASURES:Migrant children's body weight status was measured by body mass index. Acculturation was measured by a questionnaire, developed and validated by the research team. The questionnaire had three dimensions with five factors, namely language, social interaction, custom, dressing and diet. Social anxiety was measured by Social Anxiety Scale for Children. Food intake was measured by the food frequency table that was developed from a previous study. Logistic regression was performed to examine the association between acculturation and overweight/obesity while controlling for migrant children's and their caregivers' demographic characteristics, children's social anxiety and food intake. RESULTS:Seventy-six out of 1154 (6.6%) migrant children were overweight, and 36 (3.1%) were obese. The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity was 12.5% in boys, and 6.1% in girls (p<0.001), respectively. The mean scores of acculturation were 41.8 (SD=14.6). Migrant children had the highest level of acculturation in the aspect of dressing (mean=61.7, SD=16.6), followed by language (mean=47.9, SD=22.3), diet (mean=45.0, SD=18.5), social interaction (mean=42.4, SD=21.3) and custom (mean=27.6, SD=19.2). After controlling for confounding factors, the levels of acculturation was negatively associated with overweight/obesity (adjusted OR (aOR)=0.98, 95%?CI 0.97 to 1.00, p=0.030). Furthermore, migrant children who had urban-to-urban migrant caregivers were more likely to be overweight/obese (aOR=2.07, 95%?CI 1.16 to 3.69, p=0.014) than their counterparts living with rural-to-urban migrant caregivers. CONCLUSIONS:The low levels of acculturation was associated with overweight/obesity among migrant children in Guangzhou, China. Promoting healthy acculturation and social campaign on healthy body weight may help prevent childhood overweight/obesity. Young migrant children, boys and children living with urban-to-urban migrant caregivers should be the target subgroups.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Rural-to-urban migration is associated with increased obesity, yet it remains unknown whether this association exist, and to what extent, with other types of internal migration. METHODS:We conducted a secondary analysis of the Peruvian Demographic and Health Surveys (2005 to 2012) on data collected from women aged 15-49?years. Participants were classified as rural stayers, urban stayers, rural-to-urban migrants, intra-rural migrants, intra-urban migrants, and urban-to-rural migrants. Marginal effects from a logit regression model were used to assess the probabilities of being and becoming obese given both the length of time in current place of residence and women's migration status. RESULTS:Analysis of cross-sectional survey data generated between 2005 and 2012. Data from 94,783 participants was analyzed. Intra-urban migrants and rural-to-urban migrants had the highest rates of obesity (21% in 2012). A steady increase in obesity is observed across all migration statuses. Relative to rural non-migrants, participants exposed to urban environments had greater odds, two- to three-fold higher, of obesity. The intra-rural migrant group also shows higher odds relative to rural stayers (42% higher obesity odds). The length of exposure to urban settings shows a steady effect over time. CONCLUSION:Both exposure to urban environments and migration are associated with higher odds of obesity. Expanding the characterization of within-country migration dynamics provides a better insight into the relationship between duration of exposure to urban settings and obesity.