Differential activities of cellular and viral macro domain proteins in binding of ADP-ribose metabolites.
ABSTRACT: Macro domain is a highly conserved protein domain found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Macro domains are also encoded by a set of positive-strand RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm of animal cells, including coronaviruses and alphaviruses. The functions of the macro domain are poorly understood, but it has been suggested to be an ADP-ribose-binding module. We have here characterized three novel human macro domain proteins that were found to reside either in the cytoplasm and nucleus [macro domain protein 2 (MDO2) and ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 2] or in mitochondria [macro domain protein 1 (MDO1)], and compared them with viral macro domains from Semliki Forest virus, hepatitis E virus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and with a yeast macro protein, Poa1p. MDO2 specifically bound monomeric ADP-ribose with a high affinity (K(d)=0.15 microM), but did not bind poly(ADP-ribose) efficiently. MDO2 also hydrolyzed ADP-ribose-1'' phosphate, resembling Poa1p in all these properties. Ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 2 did not show affinity for ADP-ribose or its derivatives, but instead bound poly(A). MDO1 was generally active in these reactions, including poly(A) binding. Individual point mutations in MDO1 abolished monomeric ADP-ribose binding, but not poly(ADP-ribose) binding; in poly(ADP-ribose) binding assays, the monomer did not compete against polymer binding. The viral macro proteins bound poly(ADP-ribose) and poly(A), but had a low affinity for monomeric ADP-ribose. Thus, the viral proteins do not closely resemble any of the human proteins in their biochemical functions. The differential activity profiles of the human proteins implicate them in different cellular pathways, some of which may involve RNA rather than ADP-ribose derivatives.
Project description:The ADP-ribosylation of proteins is an important post-translational modification that occurs in a variety of biological processes, including DNA repair, transcription, chromatin biology and long-term memory formation. Yet no protein modules are known that specifically recognize the ADP-ribose nucleotide. We provide biochemical and structural evidence that macro domains are high-affinity ADP-ribose binding modules. Our structural analysis reveals a conserved ligand binding pocket among the macro domain fold. Consistently, distinct human macro domains retain their ability to bind ADP-ribose. In addition, some macro domain proteins also recognize poly-ADP-ribose as a ligand. Our data suggest an important role for proteins containing macro domains in the biology of ADP-ribose.
Project description:UNLABELLED:ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational protein modification in which ADP-ribose is transferred from NAD(+) to specific acceptors to regulate a wide variety of cellular processes. The macro domain is an ancient and highly evolutionarily conserved protein domain widely distributed throughout all kingdoms of life, including viruses. The human TARG1/C6orf130, MacroD1, and MacroD2 proteins can reverse ADP-ribosylation by acting on ADP-ribosylated substrates through the hydrolytic activity of their macro domains. Here, we report that the macro domain from hepatitis E virus (HEV) serves as an ADP-ribose-protein hydrolase for mono-ADP-ribose (MAR) and poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) chain removal (de-MARylation and de-PARylation, respectively) from mono- and poly(ADP)-ribosylated proteins, respectively. The presence of the HEV helicase in cis dramatically increases the binding of the macro domain to poly(ADP-ribose) and stimulates the de-PARylation activity. Abrogation of the latter dramatically decreases replication of an HEV subgenomic replicon. The de-MARylation activity is present in all three pathogenic positive-sense, single-stranded RNA [(+)ssRNA] virus families which carry a macro domain: Coronaviridae (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and human coronavirus 229E), Togaviridae (Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus), and Hepeviridae (HEV), indicating that it might be a significant tropism and/or pathogenic determinant. IMPORTANCE:Protein ADP-ribosylation is a covalent posttranslational modification regulating cellular protein activities in a dynamic fashion to modulate and coordinate a variety of cellular processes. Three viral families, Coronaviridae, Togaviridae, and Hepeviridae, possess macro domains embedded in their polyproteins. Here, we show that viral macro domains reverse cellular ADP-ribosylation, potentially cutting the signal of a viral infection in the cell. Various poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases which are notorious guardians of cellular integrity are demodified by macro domains from members of these virus families. In the case of hepatitis E virus, the adjacent viral helicase domain dramatically increases the binding of the macro domain to PAR and simulates the demodification activity.
Project description:Macro domains constitute a protein module family found associated with specific histones and proteins involved in chromatin metabolism. In addition, a small number of animal RNA viruses, such as corona- and toroviruses, alphaviruses, and hepatitis E virus, encode macro domains for which, however, structural and functional information is extremely limited. Here, we characterized the macro domains from hepatitis E virus, Semliki Forest virus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). The crystal structure of the SARS-CoV macro domain was determined at 1.8-Angstroms resolution in complex with ADP-ribose. Information derived from structural, mutational, and sequence analyses suggests a close phylogenetic and, most probably, functional relationship between viral and cellular macro domain homologs. The data revealed that viral macro domains have relatively poor ADP-ribose 1"-phosphohydrolase activities (which were previously proposed to be their biologically relevant function) but bind efficiently free and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1-bound poly(ADP-ribose) in vitro. Collectively, these results suggest to further evaluate the role of viral macro domains in host response to viral infection.
Project description:Macro domains (also called "X domains") constitute a protein module family present in all kingdoms of life, including viruses of the Coronaviridae and Togaviridae families. Crystal structures of the macro domain from the Chikungunya virus (an "Old World" alphavirus) and the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (a "New World" alphavirus) were determined at resolutions of 1.65 and 2.30 A, respectively. These domains are active as adenosine di-phosphoribose 1''-phosphate phosphatases. Both the Chikungunya and the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus macro domains are ADP-ribose binding modules, as revealed by structural and functional analysis. A single aspartic acid conserved through all macro domains is responsible for the specific binding of the adenine base. Sequence-unspecific binding to long, negatively charged polymers such as poly(ADP-ribose), DNA, and RNA is observed and attributed to positively charged patches outside of the active site pocket, as judged by mutagenesis and binding studies. The crystal structure of the Chikungunya virus macro domain with an RNA trimer shows a binding mode utilizing the same adenine-binding pocket as ADP-ribose, but avoiding the ADP-ribose 1''-phosphate phosphatase active site. This leaves the AMP binding site as the sole common feature in all macro domains.
Project description:The pandemic outbreak of a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has threatened the global public health and economy since late December 2019. SARS-CoV-2 encodes the conserved macro domain within nonstructural protein 3, which may reverse cellular ADP-ribosylation and potentially cut the signal of a viral infection in the cell. Herein, we report that the SARS-CoV-2 macro domain was examined as a poly-ADP-ribose (ADPR) binding module and possessed mono-ADPR cleavage enzyme activity. After confirming the ADPR binding ability via a biophysical approach, the X-ray crystal structure of the SARS-CoV-2 macro domain was determined and structurally compared with those of other viruses. This study provides structural, biophysical, and biochemical bases to further evaluate the role of the SARS-CoV-2 macro domain in the host response via ADP-ribose binding but also as a potential target for drug design against COVID-19.
Project description:The newly emerging Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) encodes the conserved macro domain within non-structural protein 3. However, the precise biochemical function and structure of the macro domain is unclear. Using differential scanning fluorimetry and isothermal titration calorimetry, we characterized the MERS-CoV macro domain as a more efficient adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose binding module than macro domains from other CoVs. Furthermore, the crystal structure of the MERS-CoV macro domain was determined at 1.43-Å resolution in complex with ADP-ribose. Comparison of macro domains from MERS-CoV and other human CoVs revealed structural differences in the ?1 helix alters how the conserved Asp-20 interacts with ADP-ribose and may explain the efficient binding of the MERS-CoV macro domain to ADP-ribose. This study provides structural and biophysical bases to further evaluate the role of the MERS-CoV macro domain in the host response via ADP-ribose binding but also as a potential target for drug design.
Project description:Sindbis virus (SINV), the prototype alphavirus, contains a macro domain in the highly conserved N-terminal region of nonstructural protein 3 (nsP3). However, the biological role of the macro domain is unclear. Mutations of amino acids 10 and 24 from asparagine to alanine in the ADP-ribose binding region of the macro domain impaired SINV replication and viral RNA synthesis particularly in neurons, but did not alter binding of poly(ADP-ribose). Mutation at position 10 had the greatest effect and caused nsP3 instability in neurons, decreased SINV-induced death of mature, but not immature neurons, and attenuated virulence in 2 week-old, but not 5 day-old mice. A compensatory mutation at amino acid 31 in the macro domain of nsP3, as well as reversion of mutated amino acid 10, occurred during replication of double mutant SINV in vitro and in vivo. The nsP3 macro domain is important for SINV replication and age-dependent susceptibility to encephalomyelitis.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is one of the first proteins localized to foci of DNA damage. Upon activation by encountering nicked DNA, the PARP-1 mediated trans-poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of DNA binding proteins occurs, facilitating access and accumulation of DNA repair factors. PARP-1 also auto-(ADP-ribosyl)ates its central BRCT-containing domain forming part of an interaction site for the DNA repair scaffolding protein X-ray cross complementing group 1 protein (XRCC1). The co-localization of XRCC1, as well as bound DNA repair factors, to sites of DNA damage is important for cell survival and genomic integrity.Here we present the solution structure and biophysical characterization of the BRCT domain of rat PARP-1. The PARP-1 BRCT domain has the globular ?/? fold characteristic of BRCT domains and has a thermal melting transition of 43.0°C. In contrast to a previous characterization of this domain, we demonstrate that it is monomeric in solution using both gel-filtration chromatography and small-angle X-ray scattering. Additionally, we report that the first BRCT domain of XRCC1 does not interact significantly with the PARP-1 BRCT domain in the absence of ADP-ribosylation. Moreover, none of the interactions with other longer PARP-1 constructs which previously had been demonstrated in a pull-down assay of mammalian cell extracts were detected.The PARP-1 BRCT domain has the conserved BRCT fold that is known to be an important protein:protein interaction module in DNA repair and cell signalling pathways. Data indicating no significant protein:protein interactions between PARP-1 and XRCC1 likely results from the absence of poly(ADP-ribose) in one or both binding partners, and further implicates a poly(ADP-ribose)-dependent mechanism for localization of XRCC1 to sites of DNA damage.
Project description:Protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and ubiquitination are two key post-translational modifications regulating many biological processes. Through crystallographic and biochemical analysis, we show that the RNF146 WWE domain recognizes poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) by interacting with iso-ADP-ribose (iso-ADPR), the smallest internal PAR structural unit containing the characteristic ribose-ribose glycosidic bond formed during poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. The key iso-ADPR-binding residues we identified are highly conserved among WWE domains. Binding assays further demonstrate that PAR binding is a common function for the WWE domain family. Since many WWE domain-containing proteins are known E3 ubiquitin ligases, our results suggest that protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation may be a general mechanism to target proteins for ubiquitination.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification that occurs on chemically diverse amino acids, including aspartate, glutamate, lysine, arginine, serine and cysteine on proteins and is mediated by ADP-ribosyltransferases, including a subset commonly known as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases. ADP-ribose can be conjugated to proteins singly as a monomer or in polymeric chains as poly(ADP-ribose). While ADP-ribosylation can be reversed by ADP-ribosylhydrolases, this protein modification can also be processed to phosphoribosylation by enzymes possessing phosphodiesterase activity, such as snake venom phosphodiesterase, mammalian ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1, Escherichia coli RppH, Legionella pneumophila Sde and Homo sapiens NudT16 (HsNudT16). Our studies here sought to utilize X-ray crystallographic structures of HsNudT16 in complex with monomeric and dimeric ADP-ribose in identifying the active site for binding and processing free and protein-conjugated ADP-ribose into phosphoribose forms. These structural data guide rational design of mutants that widen the active site to better accommodate protein-conjugated ADP-ribose. We identified that several HsNudT16 mutants (?17, F36A, and F61S) have reduced activity for free ADP-ribose, similar processing ability against protein-conjugated mono(ADP-ribose), but improved catalytic efficiency for protein-conjugated poly(ADP-ribose). These HsNudT16 variants may, therefore, provide a novel tool to investigate different forms of ADP-ribose.