E-Cigarette, or Vaping, Product Use Associated Lung Injury (EVALI) with Acute Respiratory Failure in Three Adolescent Patients: a Clinical Timeline, Treatment, and Product Analysis.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:E-cigarette, or vaping, product use associated lung injury (EVALI) has become a recent concern among public health officials. Factors that contribute to the concern include an increasing number of cases over time, the severity of the illness, and an unknown understanding of the pathophysiology and etiology of the illness. CASE SERIES:We cared for three adolescent patients with acute respiratory failure secondary to EVALI. All three patients were treated with high-dose steroids in addition to antimicrobials, which resulted in clinical improvement and resolution of their respiratory failure. Pulmonary function testing was performed on these previously healthy patients both acutely and subacutely. Additionally, we report the results from the laboratory analysis of one vaping device fluid which revealed previously unpublished components within these products. DISCUSSION:EVALI is a recent public health concern without a known etiology which can cause life-threatening lung injury in patients without prior lung pathology. We hope these cases will highlight the importance of return precautions in adolescents with vague respiratory symptoms and provide a cautionary tale to providers while they counsel patients regarding the use of these products.
Project description:Since the appearance of the E-Cigarette in the early 2000s, its industry, popularity, and prevalence have risen dramatically. In the past, E-Cigarette use with the vaping of nicotine or cannabis products had been associated with a few reported cases of lung injury. However, in 2019, thousands of cases of E-Cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) were reported in the United States. Evidence linked this outbreak with vaping of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). We report two confirmed cases of EVALI and their associated clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features. This report supports the growing body of information regarding EVALI. It also discusses various substances, particularly vitamin E acetate, which has been suggested as a causative agent.
Project description:Inhalation of aerosolized products generated by different electronic devices is called vaping. E-cigarettes or Vaping product use Associated Lung Injury (EVALI) outbreak peaked in August-September 2019 and gradually declined. EVALI remains a diagnosis of exclusion which presents as an acute lung injury in the vaping population. Vitamin E acetate and its products are implicated as one of the cytotoxic agents causing airway centered pneumonitis. Lipid laden macrophages are found in samples of BAL fluid but their role in cytopathology of the disease remains unclear. We present a 57 years old man who came to the emergency department at Monmouth Medical Center, New Jersey in fall, 2019. Reportedly he has been vaping THC about 100g every day for past three days. At initial presentation, he had fever, shortness of breath and hypoxia requiring supplemental oxygen. He was empirically treated with levofloxacin 500 mg for five days without a significant improvement in his symptoms. Non-contrast chest CT scan showed bilateral ground-glass opacities, indicative of diffuse alveolar damage. He underwent flexible bronchoscopy to rule out infective pneumonia followed by auto-immune work-up that was non-conclusive. He was given 1 mg/kg methylprednisolone with a quick taper of oral steroids leading to the resolution of symptoms. At six months follow-up, imaging showed near resolution of ground-glass opacities.
Project description:Vitamin E acetate (VEA) is strongly linked to the outbreak of electronic-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury (EVALI). It has been proposed that VEA decomposition to ketene-a respiratory poison that damages lungs at low ppm levels-may play a role in EVALI. However, there is no information available on the temperature at which VEA decomposes and how this correlates with the vaping process. We have studied the temperature-dependent kinetics of VEA decomposition using quantum chemical and statistical mechanical modelling techniques, developing a chemical kinetic model of the vaping process. This model predicts that, under typical vaping conditions, the use of VEA contaminated e-cigarette products is unlikely to produce ketene at harmful levels. However, at the high temperatures encountered at low e-cigarette product levels, which produce 'dry hits', ketene concentrations are predicted to reach acutely toxic levels in the lungs (as high as 30 ppm). We therefore hypothesize that dry hit vaping of e-cigarette products containing VEA contributes to EVALI.
Project description:The recent identification of Vitamin E acetate as one of the causal agents for the e-cigarette, or vaping, product use associated lung injury (EVALI) is a major milestone. In membrane biophysics, Vitamin E is a linactant and a potent modulator of lateral phase separation that effectively reduces the line tension at the two-dimensional phase boundaries and thereby exponentially increases the surface viscosity of the pulmonary surfactant. Disrupted dynamics of respiratory compression-expansion cycling may result in an extensive hypoxemia, leading to an acute respiratory distress entailing the formation of intraalveolar lipid-laden macrophages. Supplementation of pulmonary surfactants which retain moderate level of cholesterol and controlled hypothermia for patients are recommended when the hypothesis that the line-active property of the vitamin derivative drives the pathogenesis of EVALI holds.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The causative agents for the current national outbreak of electronic-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) have not been established. Detection of toxicants in bronchoalveolar-lavage (BAL) fluid from patients with EVALI can provide direct information on exposure within the lung.<h4>Methods</h4>BAL fluids were collected from 51 patients with EVALI in 16 states and from 99 healthy participants who were part of an ongoing study of smoking involving nonsmokers, exclusive users of e-cigarettes or vaping products, and exclusive cigarette smokers that was initiated in 2015. Using the BAL fluid, we performed isotope dilution mass spectrometry to measure several priority toxicants: vitamin E acetate, plant oils, medium-chain triglyceride oil, coconut oil, petroleum distillates, and diluent terpenes.<h4>Results</h4>State and local health departments assigned EVALI case status as confirmed for 25 patients and as probable for 26 patients. Vitamin E acetate was identified in BAL fluid obtained from 48 of 51 case patients (94%) in 16 states but not in such fluid obtained from the healthy comparator group. No other priority toxicants were found in BAL fluid from the case patients or the comparator group, except for coconut oil and limonene, which were found in 1 patient each. Among the case patients for whom laboratory or epidemiologic data were available, 47 of 50 (94%) had detectable tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or its metabolites in BAL fluid or had reported vaping THC products in the 90 days before the onset of illness. Nicotine or its metabolites were detected in 30 of 47 of the case patients (64%).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Vitamin E acetate was associated with EVALI in a convenience sample of 51 patients in 16 states across the United States. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and others.).
Project description:Several cases have recently been reported concerning the development of a syndrome of acute lung injury associated with the use of electronic cigarettes, leading to respiratory failure and several deaths. We present a case of a young veteran who presented with e-cigarette vaping associated lung injury (EVALI) to a primary care clinic and who required subsequent inpatient admission and home oxygen therapy after discharge. The patient afterwards improved after a three-month course of steroids and cessation of THC-containing electronic cigarettes, consistent with previously reported cases. Furthermore, evidence on bronchoscopy and biopsy demonstrated intracellular lipid droplets in the patient's macrophages. This outpatient case of EVALI prompts primary care providers to raise suspicion of this condition, and enquire about the use of e-cigarettes, particularly THC-containing vaping products. Furthermore, in the setting of the COVID-19 pandemic, similar clinical and radiographic presentations between COVID-19 and EVALI can be seen.
Project description:The NHLBI convened a working group on October 23, 2019, to identify the most relevant and urgent research priorities and prevailing challenges in e-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury (EVALI). Experts across multiple disciplines discussed the complexities of the EVALI outbreak, identified research priorities, and recommended strategies to address most effectively its causal factors and improve diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this disease. Many research priorities were identified, including the need to create national and international registries of patients with EVALI, to track accurately those affected and assess outcomes. The group concluded that biospecimens from subjects with EVALI are urgently needed to help define EVALI pathogenesis and that vaping has disease risks that are disparate from smoking, with the occurrence of EVALI highlighting the importance of broadening e-cigarette research beyond comparators to smoking-related diseases.
Project description:As of December 4, 2019, a total of 2,291 cases of hospitalized e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) have been reported from 50 states, the District of Columbia, and two U.S. territories (Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands) (1). State health departments, including the Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH), are working with their local health departments and with CDC, the Food and Drug Administration, and other clinical and public health partners in investigating this outbreak of EVALI. On August 7, 2019, ISDH issued an advisory regarding patients hospitalized in Wisconsin with severe acute lung injury who reported the use of e-cigarette, or vaping, products (2); health care providers were requested to notify ISDH of similar cases. On August 8, 2019, ISDH received reports of five similar cases among Indiana residents. Suspected cases EVALI reported to ISDH were investigated further only among patients who required hospitalization. Established case definitions were used to classify cases.* Medical record abstractions and patient interviews were completed using nationally standardized forms to ascertain patient characteristics, medical care received, and product-use behaviors.
Project description:Beginning in June of 2019, there was a marked increase in reported cases of serious pulmonary injury associated with vaping. The condition, referred to as e-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury (EVALI), does not appear to involve an infectious agent; rather, a chemical adulterant or contaminant in vaping fluids is suspected. In August of 2019, the Wadsworth Center began receiving vaporizer cartridges recovered from patients with EVALI for analysis. Having no a priori information of what might be in the cartridges, we employed untargeted analyses using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-resolution mass spectrometry to identify components of concern. Additionally, we employed targeted analyses used for New York medical marijuana products. Here, we report on the analyses of 38 samples from the first 10 New York cases of EVALI for which we obtained cartridges. The illicit fluids had relatively low cannabinoid content, sometimes with unusual ?9-/?8-tetrahydrocannabinol ratios, sometimes containing pesticides and many containing diluents. A notable diluent was ?-tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E acetate; VEA), which was found in 64% of the cannabinoid-containing fluids. To investigate potential sources of the VEA, we analyzed six commercial cannabis-oil diluents/thickeners. Three were found to be >95% VEA, two were found to be primarily squalane, and one was primarily ?-bisabolol. The cause(s) of EVALI is unknown. VEA and squalane are components of some personal care products; however, there is growing concern that vaping large amounts of these compounds is not safe.
Project description:During the e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) investigation, the U.S. FDA's Forensic Chemistry Center (FCC) received numerous sample submissions from various states and other sources. Many of these products were linked directly to patients, while others were not; both categories included used and unused products. Elemental analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) preceded by microwave-assisted decomposition was carried out on the cartridge contents of 65 of these submitted samples. Challenges encountered included limited sample, high sample viscosity, and adhesion, which necessitated sample preparation techniques not commonly used during routine elemental analysis. The elemental concentrations of contaminants including Pb, As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu, and Sn in tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) e-liquids associated with EVALI were determined. Nicotine e-liquid samples collected alongside the THC e-liquid samples were analyzed in tandem during method development. Several THC e-liquid samples contained Pb greater than 0.5 μg/g, while others had part per million levels of Ni, Cu, and/or Cr. This study presents the first detailed report of elemental concentrations in multiple THC e-liquid samples including those from informal/illicit sources and also delves into the method considerations needed for testing a viscous, hydrophobic sample matrix in limited quantity.