NAMPT and NAPRT: Two Metabolic Enzymes With Key Roles in Inflammation.
ABSTRACT: Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase (NAPRT) are two intracellular enzymes that catalyze the first step in the biosynthesis of NAD from nicotinamide and nicotinic acid, respectively. By fine tuning intracellular NAD levels, they are involved in the regulation/reprogramming of cellular metabolism and in the control of the activity of NAD-dependent enzymes, including sirtuins, PARPs, and NADases. However, during evolution they both acquired novel functions as extracellular endogenous mediators of inflammation. It is well-known that cellular stress and/or damage induce release in the extracellular milieu of endogenous molecules, called alarmins or damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which modulate immune functions through binding pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and activate inflammatory responses. Increasing evidence suggests that extracellular (e)NAMPT and eNAPRT are novel soluble factors with cytokine/adipokine/DAMP-like actions. Elevated eNAMPT were reported in several metabolic and inflammatory disorders, including obesity, diabetes, and cancer, while eNAPRT is emerging as a biomarker of sepsis and septic shock. This review will discuss available data concerning the dual role of this unique family of enzymes.
Project description:Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a cofactor in redox reactions and a substrate for NAD-consuming enzymes, such as PARPs and sirtuins. As cancer cells have increased NAD requirements, the main NAD salvage enzymes in humans, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase (NAPRT), are involved in the development of novel anti-cancer therapies. Knowledge of the expression patterns of both genes in tissues and tumors is critical for the use of nicotinic acid (NA) as cytoprotective in therapies using NAMPT inhibitors. Herein, we provide a comprehensive study of NAPRT and NAMPT expression across human tissues and tumor cell lines. We show that both genes are widely expressed under normal conditions and describe the occurrence of novel NAPRT transcripts. Also, we explore some of the NAPRT gene expression mechanisms. Our findings underline that the efficiency of NA in treatments with NAMPT inhibitors is dependent on the knowledge of the expression profiles and regulation of both NAMPT and NAPRT.
Project description:Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a profoundly important cofactor in redox reactions. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase (NAPRT) are key enzymes for NAD salvage biosynthesis pathway, which reciprocally synthesize NAD to supply the main source of NAD biosythesis. However, the prognostic value of NAMPT and NAPRT in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains largely unknown. Our present study detected NAMPT and NAPRT protein expression in cancer and adjacent tissues from 261 CRC using immunohistochemical staining. We found that high expression of NAMPT or NAPRT was associated with vascular invasion, invasion depth and advanced TNM stage in CRC. High expression of NAMPT or NAPRT predicts short overall survival and disease-free survival time in CRC patients, which were further confirmed by public datasets. Furthermore, positive correlation between expression of NAMPT and NAPRT was revealed in CRC tissues and cell lines. NAPRThigh/NAMPThigh patients tended to have the shortest survival time. Using the TCGA RNA-sequencing data, we showed that gene amplification, mutation, and methylation of NAPRT are more common than NAMPT. On the other hand, NAMPT gene might be targeted by more miRNAs. Finally, genes that are correlated with NAPRT or NAMPT are enriched in different pathways. In conclusion, we found that high expression of NAMPT or NAPRT predicts poor prognosis of CRC patients, but the regulatory mechanism might be distinct from each other.
Project description:Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), the key NAD(+) biosynthetic enzyme, has two different forms, intra- and extracellular (iNAMPT and eNAMPT), in mammals. However, the significance of eNAMPT secretion remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that deacetylation of iNAMPT by the mammalian NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 predisposes the protein to secretion in adipocytes. NAMPT mutants reveal that SIRT1 deacetylates lysine 53 (K53) and enhances eNAMPT activity and secretion. Adipose tissue-specific Nampt knockout and knockin (ANKO and ANKI) mice show reciprocal changes in circulating eNAMPT, affecting hypothalamic NAD(+)/SIRT1 signaling and physical activity accordingly. The defect in physical activity observed in ANKO mice is ameliorated by nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). Furthermore, administration of a NAMPT-neutralizing antibody decreases hypothalamic NAD(+) production, and treating ex vivo hypothalamic explants with purified eNAMPT enhances NAD(+), SIRT1 activity, and neural activation. Thus, our findings indicate a critical role of adipose tissue as a modulator for the regulation of NAD(+) biosynthesis at a systemic level.
Project description:Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the salvage pathway for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) biosynthesis, and thereby regulates the deacetylase activity of sirtuins. Here we show accommodative regulation of myocardial NAD(+) by monocyte-derived extracellular Nampt (eNampt), which is essential for hemodynamic compensation to pressure overload. Although intracellular Nampt (iNampt) expression was decreased in pressure-overloaded hearts, myocardial NAD(+) concentration and Sirt1 activity were preserved. In contrast, iNampt was up-regulated in spleen and monocytes, and circulating eNampt protein and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), a key precursor of NAD(+), were significantly increased. Pharmacological inhibition of Nampt by FK866 or depletion of monocytes/macrophages by clodronate liposomes disrupted the homeostatic mechanism of myocardial NAD(+) levels and NAD(+)-dependent Sirt1 activity, leading to susceptibility to cardiomyocyte apoptosis and cardiac decompensation in pressure-overloaded mice. These biochemical and hemodynamic defects were prevented by systemic administration of NMN. Our studies uncover a crucial role of monocyte-derived eNampt in myocardial adaptation to pressure overload, and highlight a potential intervention controlling myocardial NAD(+) against heart failure.
Project description:Tumor cells are particularly dependent on NAD+ due to higher rates of metabolism, DNA synthesis and repair. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase inhibitors (NAMPTis) inhibit NAD+ biosynthesis and represent promising new anti-cancer agents. However, clinical efficacy has been limited by toxicities demonstrating the need for drug combinations to broaden the therapeutic index. One potential combination involves niacin/NAMPTi co-administration. Niacin can rescue NAD+ biosynthesis through a parallel pathway that depends on nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (NAPRT) expression. Most normal tissues express NAPRT while a significant proportion of malignant cells do not, providing a possible selection marker for patients to achieve NAMPTi efficacy while minimizing toxicities. Here we identify and validate a novel highly NAPRT-specific monoclonal antibody (3C6D2) that detects functional NAPRT in paraffin embedded tissue sections by immunohistochemistry (IHC). NAPRT detection by 3C6D2 coincides with the ability of niacin to rescue cells from NAMPTi induced cytotoxicity in cell lines and animal xenograft models. 3C6D2 binds to an epitope that is unique to NAPRT among phosphoribosyltransferases. In a series of primary tumor samples from lung and brain cancer patients, we demonstrate that >70 % of human small cell lung carcinomas, glioblastomas and oligodendrogliomas lack NAPRT identifying them as potentially suitable indications for the NAMPT/niacin combination.
Project description:Pediatric high-grade gliomas are among the deadliest of childhood cancers due to limited knowledge of early driving events in their gliomagenesis and the lack of effective therapies available. In this study, we investigate the oncogenic role of PPM1D, a protein phosphatase often found truncated in pediatric gliomas such as DIPG, and uncover a synthetic lethal interaction between PPM1D mutations and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) inhibition. Specifically, we show that mutant PPM1D drives hypermethylation of CpG islands throughout the genome and promotes epigenetic silencing of nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (NAPRT), a key gene involved in NAD biosynthesis. Notably, PPM1D mutant cells are shown to be sensitive to NAMPT inhibitors in vitro and in vivo, within both engineered isogenic astrocytes and primary patient-derived model systems, suggesting the possible application of NAMPT inhibitors for the treatment of pediatric gliomas. Overall, our results reveal a promising approach for the targeting of PPM1D mutant tumors, and define a critical link between oncogenic driver mutations and NAD metabolism, which can be exploited for tumor-specific cell killing.
Project description:Intracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (iNampt) is an essential enzyme in the NAD biosynthetic pathway. An extracellular form of this protein (eNampt) has been reported to act as a cytokine named PBEF or an insulin-mimetic hormone named visfatin, but its physiological relevance remains controversial. Here we show that eNampt does not exert insulin-mimetic effects in vitro or in vivo but rather exhibits robust NAD biosynthetic activity. Haplodeficiency and chemical inhibition of Nampt cause defects in NAD biosynthesis and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic islets in vivo and in vitro. These defects are corrected by administration of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), a product of the Nampt reaction. A high concentration of NMN is present in mouse plasma, and plasma eNampt and NMN levels are reduced in Nampt heterozygous females. Our results demonstrate that Nampt-mediated systemic NAD biosynthesis is critical for beta cell function, suggesting a vital framework for the regulation of glucose homeostasis.
Project description:Aging is a significant risk factor for impaired tissue functions and chronic diseases. Age-associated decline in systemic NAD+ availability plays a critical role in regulating the aging process across many species. Here, we show that the circulating levels of extracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (eNAMPT) significantly decline with age in mice and humans. Increasing circulating eNAMPT levels in aged mice by adipose-tissue-specific overexpression of NAMPT increases NAD+ levels in multiple tissues, thereby enhancing their functions and extending healthspan in female mice. Interestingly, eNAMPT is carried in extracellular vesicles (EVs) through systemic circulation in mice and humans. EV-contained eNAMPT is internalized into cells and enhances NAD+ biosynthesis. Supplementing eNAMPT-containing EVs isolated from young mice significantly improves wheel-running activity and extends lifespan in aged mice. Our findings have revealed a novel EV-mediated delivery mechanism for eNAMPT, which promotes systemic NAD+ biosynthesis and counteracts aging, suggesting a potential avenue for anti-aging intervention in humans.
Project description:Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is a key enzyme for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) biosynthesis, and can be found either intracellularly (iNAMPT) or extracellularly (eNAMPT). Studies have shown that both iNAMPT and eNAMPT are implicated in aging and age-related diseases/disorders in the peripheral system. However, their functional roles in aged brain remain to be established. Here we showed that upon aging, NAMPT level increased in serum but decreased in brain, decreased in cortex and hippocampus but remained unchanged in cerebellum and striatum in brain, and increased in microglia but likely decreased in neuron. Accordingly, total NAD (tNAD) level significantly decreased in hippocampus, cerebellum and striatum in aged brain. Application of recombinant NAMPT, mimicking the elevated serum NAMPT level, enhanced the susceptibility of cerebral endothelial cells to ischemic injury, while inhibition of iNAMPT by FK866, a specific inhibitor, reduced intracellular NAD level and induced neuronal death. Taken together, we have revealed a region- and cell-specific change of NAMPT level in brain and serum upon aging, deduced its potential consequences, which suggests that NAMPT is a regulatory factor in aging and age-related brain diseases.
Project description:Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a metabolite essential for cell survival and generated de novo from tryptophan or recycled from nicotinamide (NAM) through the nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT)-dependent salvage pathway. Alternatively, nicotinic acid (NA) is metabolized to NAD through the nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase domain containing 1 (NAPRT1)-dependent salvage pathway. Tumor cells are more reliant on the NAMPT salvage pathway making this enzyme an attractive therapeutic target. Moreover, the therapeutic index of NAMPT inhibitors may be increased by in NAPRT-deficient tumors by NA supplementation as normal tissues may regenerate NAD through NAPRT1. To confirm the latter, we tested novel NAMPT inhibitors, GNE-617 and GNE-618, in cell culture- and patient-derived tumor models. While NA did not protect NAPRT1-deficient tumor cell lines from NAMPT inhibition in vitro, it rescued efficacy of GNE-617 and GNE-618 in cell culture- and patient-derived tumor xenografts in vivo. NA co-treatment increased NAD and NAM levels in NAPRT1-deficient tumors to levels that sustained growth in vivo. Furthermore, NAM co-administration with GNE-617 led to increased tumor NAD levels and rescued in vivo efficacy as well. Importantly, tumor xenografts remained NAPRT1-deficient in the presence of NA, indicating that the NAPRT1-dependent pathway is not reactivated. Protection of NAPRT1-deficient tumors in vivo may be due to increased circulating levels of metabolites generated by mouse liver, in response to NA or through competitive reactivation of NAMPT by NAM. Our results have important implications for the development of NAMPT inhibitors when considering NA co-treatment as a rescue strategy.