Examining the association between serum phosphate levels and leukocyte telomere length.
ABSTRACT: Accelerated telomere attrition is related to various diseases, and multiple factors have been reported to influence telomere length. However, little attention has focused on the relationship between serum phosphate levels and mean telomere length. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between serum phosphate levels and mean telomere length in the US general population. A total of 7,817 participants from the 1999-2002 NHANES were included. The association between serum phosphate levels and mean telomere length was investigated using regression models. A remarkably positive relationship between serum phosphate levels and mean telomere length emerged after adjustments were made for covariates. The adjusted ? coefficient of serum phosphate levels for mean telomere length was 0.038 (95% confidence intervals (CIs), 0.022 to 0.095, p?=?0.002). A longer telomere length was observed in participants with serum phosphate levels in the highest quartiles, and a dose-dependent association was observed. Our study demonstrated that higher quartiles of phosphate had a remarkable correlation with longer telomere length.
Project description:Previous evidences support that increased oxidative stress (OxS) may play an important role in metabolic syndrome (MetS) and both are closely linked to vascular dysfunction. This study determined whether there is a relationship between endothelial function and relative telomere length (RTL) in MetS subjects. In this cross-sectional study from the LIPGENE cohort, a total of 88 subjects (36 men and 52 women) were divided into four groups by quartiles of telomere length. We measured ischemic reactive hyperemia (IRH), total nitrite (NO) and protein carbonyl (PC) plasma levels, F2-isoprostanes urinary levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) plasma activities. IRH and NO plasma levels were higher in subjects with longer RTL (quartiles 3 and 4), while PC plasma levels, F2-isoprostanes urinary levels, and GPx and SOD plasma activities were lower in quartile 4 subjects (longest RTL). Additionally, MetS subjects with longer RTL had greater homeostatic model assessment-β level and lower triglycerides plasma levels. Our results suggest that endothelial dysfunction, associated with high levels of OxS, could be entailed in an increment of telomere attrition. Thus, further support of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in vascular dysfunction may contribute to the development of strategies to decelerate vascular aging or prevent cardiovascular disease.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of exercise energy expenditure (EEE) with both telomere length and telomerase activity in addition to accounting for hTERT C-1327T promoter genotype.Sixty-nine (n = 34 males; n = 35 females) participants 50-70 yr were assessed for weekly EEE level using the Yale Physical Activity Survey. Lifetime consistency of EEE was also determined. Subjects were recruited across a large range of EEE levels and separated into quartiles: 0-990, 991-2340, 2341-3540, and >3541 kcal x wk(-1). Relative telomere length and telomerase activity were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC).The second EEE quartile exhibited significantly longer telomere lengths [1.12 +/- 0.03 relative units (RU)] than both the first and fourth EEE quartiles (0.94 +/- 0.03 and 0.96 +/- 0.03 RU, respectively; P < 0.05) but was not different from the third quartile. Telomerase activity was not different among the EEE quartiles. An association was observed between telomerase enzyme activity and hTERT genotype with the TT genotype (1.0 x 10(-2) +/- 4.0 x 10(-3) attomoles (amol) per 10,000 cells; n = 19) having significantly greater telomerase enzyme activity than both the CT (1.3 x 10(-3) +/- 3.2 x 10(-3); n = 30) and CC groups (5.0 x 10(-4) +/- 3.9 x 10(-3); n = 20; P = 0.01).These results indicate that moderate physical activity levels may provide a protective effect on PBMC telomere length compared with both low and high EEE levels.
Project description:Telomere length has been associated with risk of several cancers. However, studies of the relationship between telomere length and colorectal cancer risk have been inconsistent. This study examined the relationship between telomere length in normal colon tissue and the prevalence of colorectal adenoma, a precursor to colorectal cancer. This nested case-control study consisted of 85 patients aged 40 to 65 undergoing a screening colonoscopy: 40 cases with adenoma(s) detected at colonoscopy and 45 controls with normal colonoscopy. During the colonoscopy, two pinch biopsies of healthy, normal appearing mucosa were obtained from the descending colon. Relative telomere length (rTL) was quantified in DNA extracted from colon mucosa using quantitative real-time PCR. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between telomere length and adenoma prevalence and estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. rTL was significantly longer in colon tissue of individuals with adenomas compared to healthy individuals (p = 0.008). When rTL was categorized into quartiles according to the distribution of rTL among controls, individuals with the longest telomeres had increased odds of adenoma when compared to individuals with shortest telomeres (OR = 4.58, 95% CI: 1.19, 17.7). This study suggests that long telomeres in normal colon tissue are associated with increased colorectal cancer risk.
Project description:Bilirubin (BR) is a natural endogenous compound with a potent bioactivity. Gilbert's Syndrome (GS) is a benign hereditary condition of increased unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) in serum and serves as a convenient model for studying the effects of BR in humans. In absence of liver disease, increased UCB levels are inversely associated to all-cause mortality risk, especially from cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). On the other hand, telomere malfunction is linked to a higher risk of CVDs. To our knowledge, there is no data on whether UCB is linked to telomere length in healthy or diseased individuals In the present study we have observed a relationship between mildly increased serum UCB and telomere length. We used an in vivo approach, assessing telomere length in PBMCs from individuals with GS (n?=?60) and matched healthy controls (n?=?60). An occurrence of longer telomeres was observed in male individuals chronically exposed to increased UCB, as well as in Gunn rats, an animal model of unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia. Previously identified differences in immunomodulation and redox parameters in individuals with GS, such as IL-6, IL-1? and ferric reducing ability of plasma, were confirmed and proposed as possible contributors to the occurrence of longer telomeres in GS.
Project description:CONTEXT:Critically short telomeres produce apoptosis, cell senescence, and chromosomal instability in tissue culture and animal models. Variations in telomere length have been reported in severe aplastic anemia but their clinical significance is unknown. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the relationship between telomere length and clinical outcomes in severe aplastic anemia. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS:Single institution analysis of 183 patients with severe aplastic anemia who were treated in sequential prospective protocols at the National Institutes of Health from 2000 to 2008. The pretreatment leukocyte age-adjusted telomere length of patients with severe aplastic anemia consecutively enrolled in immunosuppression protocols with antithymocyte globulin plus cyclosporine for correlation with clinical outcomes were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Hematologic response, relapse, clonal evolution, and survival. RESULTS:There was no relationship between hematologic response and telomere length with response rates of 56.5% of 46 patients in the first, 54.3% of 46 in the second, 60% of 45 in the third, and 56.5% of 46 in the fourth quartiles. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that telomere length was associated with relapse, clonal evolution, and mortality. Evaluated as a continuous variable, telomere length inversely correlated with the probability of hematologic relapse (hazard ratio [HR], 0.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03-0.69; P = .01). The probability of clonal evolution was higher in patients in the first quartile (24.5%; 95% CI, 8.7%-37.5%) than in quartiles 2 through 4 (8.4%; 95% CI, 3.2%-13.3%; P = .009), and evolution to monosomy 7 or complex cytogenetics was more common in the first quartile (18.8%; 95% CI, 3.5%-31.6%) [corrected] than in quartiles 2 through 4 (4.5%; 95% CI, 0.5%-8.2%; P = .002) [corrected]. Survival between these 2 groups differed, with 66% (95% CI, 52.9%-82.5%) surviving 6 years in the first quartile compared with 83.8% (95% CI, 77.3%-90.9%) in quartiles 2 through 4 (P = .008). CONCLUSION:In a cohort of patients with severe aplastic anemia receiving immunosuppressive therapy, telomere length was unrelated to response but was associated with risk of relapse, clonal evolution, and overall survival.
Project description:LL-37 is a host defense peptide with antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties. We examined the relation of serum LL-37 levels to the severity of bronchiolitis and viral etiology.We performed a 17-center prospective cohort study in infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis over 3 winters (2011-2014). Site teams collected clinical data, nasopharyngeal aspirates and serum. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction to test nasopharyngeal aspirates for 16 viruses. We tested serum for LL-37. Severity of bronchiolitis was defined by intensive care use and hospital length of stay. Viral etiology was defined as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or rhinovirus (RV), including coinfections with other viruses.The median age of the 1005 enrolled infants was 3 months (interquartile range, 2-6 months). After adjustment for 12 variables, LL-37 levels in the lowest quartile, compared with the highest, were associated both with intensive care use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.97; P = .01) and longer hospital stay (1.34; P < .001). In separate multivariable models, infants with LL-37 levels in the lowest 3 quartiles, compared with the highest, were more likely to have RSV (eg, aOR, 2.6 [lowest quartile]; P < .001 [all quartiles]). By contrast, infants with the lowest 3 LL-37 quartiles were less likely to have RV (eg, aOR, 0.5 [lowest quartile]; Pall quartiles ? .03 [all quartiles]).In a large multicenter study of infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis, lower levels of serum LL-37 were associated with increased severity of illness. There was also an inverse relationship between LL-37 levels and the most common virus causing bronchiolitis, RSV. These findings highlight the role of LL-37 in the pathogenesis of bronchiolitis.
Project description:Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has extended the longevity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. However, this has resulted in greater awareness of age-associated diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Accelerated cellular senescence may be responsible, but its magnitude as measured by leukocyte telomere length is unknown and its relationship to HIV-associated COPD has not yet been established. We measured absolute telomere length (aTL) in peripheral leukocytes from 231 HIV-infected adults. Comparisons were made to 691 HIV-uninfected individuals from a population-based sample. Subject quartiles of aTL were assessed for relationships with measures of HIV disease severity, airflow obstruction, and emphysema severity on computed tomographic (CT) imaging. Multivariable regression models identified factors associated with shortened aTL. Compared to HIV-uninfected subjects, the mean aTL in HIV-infected patients was markedly shorter by 27 kbp/genome (p<0.001); however, the slopes of aTL vs. age were not different (p=0.469). Patients with longer known durations of HIV infection (p=0.019) and lower nadir CD4 cell counts (p=0.023) had shorter aTL. Shorter aTL were also associated with older age (p=0.026), smoking (p=0.005), reduced forced expiratory volume in one second (p=0.030), and worse CT emphysema severity score (p=0.049). HIV-infected subjects demonstrate advanced cellular aging, yet in a cART-treated cohort, the relationship between aTL and age appears no different from that of HIV-uninfected subjects.
Project description:Leukocyte telomere length is shorter in response to chronic disease processes associated with inflammation such as diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2002 was used to explore the relationship between leukocyte telomere length and presumed NAFLD, as indicated by elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, obesity, or abdominal obesity. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between telomere length and presumed markers of NAFLD adjusting for possible confounders. There was no relationship between elevated ALT levels, abdominal obesity, or obesity and telomere length in adjusted models in NHANES (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.48-2.65; OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.52-2.62, resp.). Mexican-American men had shorter telomere length in relation to presumed NAFLD (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.006-0.79) and using different indicators of NAFLD (OR 0.012, 95% CI 0.0006-0.24). Mexican origin with presumed NAFLD had shorter telomere length than men in other population groups. Longitudinal studies are necessary to evaluate the role of telomere length as a potential predictor to assess pathogenesis of NALFD in Mexicans.
Project description:Telomeres protect the integrity of information-carrying DNA by serving as caps on the terminal portions of chromosomes. Telomere length decreases with aging, and this contributes to cell senescence. Recent evidence supports that telomere length of leukocytes and skeletal muscle cells may be positively associated with healthy living and inversely correlated with the risk of several age-related diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, chronic pain, and stress. In observational studies, higher levels of physical activity or exercise are related to longer telomere lengths in various populations, and athletes tend to have longer telomere lengths than non-athletes. This relationship is particularly evident in older individuals, suggesting a role of physical activity in combating the typical age-induced decrements in telomere length. To date, a small number of exercise interventions have been executed to examine the potential influence of chronic exercise on telomere length, but these studies have not fully established such relationship. Several potential mechanisms through which physical activity or exercise could affect telomere length are discussed, including changes in telomerase activity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and decreased skeletal muscle satellite cell content. Future research is needed to mechanistically examine the effects of various modalities of exercise on telomere length in middle-aged and older adults, as well as in specific clinical populations.
Project description:Cross-sectional studies have associated short telomere length with smoking, body weight, physical activity, and possibly alcohol intake; however, whether these associations are due to confounding is unknown. We tested these hypotheses in 4,576 individuals from the general population cross-sectionally, and with repeat measurement of relative telomere length 10 years apart. We also tested whether change in telomere length is associated with mortality and morbidity in the general population. Relative telomere length was measured with quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Cross-sectionally at the first examination, short telomere length was associated with increased age (P for trend across quartiles = 3 × 10(-77)), current smoking (P = 8 × 10(-3)), increased body mass index (P = 7 × 10(-14)), physical inactivity (P = 4 × 10(-17)), but not with increased alcohol intake (P = 0.10). At the second examination 10 years later, 56% of participants had lost and 44% gained telomere length with a mean loss of 193 basepairs. Change in leukocyte telomere length during 10 years was associated inversely with baseline telomere length (P<1 × 10(-300)) and age at baseline (P = 1 × 10(-27)), but not with baseline or 10-year inter-observational tobacco consumption, body weight, physical activity, or alcohol intake. Prospectively during a further 10 years follow-up after the second examination, quartiles of telomere length change did not associate with risk of all-cause mortality, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, or ischemic heart disease. In conclusion, smoking, increased body weight, and physical inactivity were associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not with telomere length change during 10 years observation, and alcohol intake was associated with neither. Also, change in telomere length did not associate prospectively with mortality or morbidity in the general population.