Complete Genomic Sequences of Three Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Muenchen Strains from an Orchard in San Joaquin County, California.
ABSTRACT: We present here the complete genome sequences of three Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Muenchen strains, LG24, LG25, and LG26. All three strains were isolated from almond drupes grown in an orchard in San Joaquin County, California, in 2016. These genomic sequences are nonidentical and will contribute to our understanding of S. enterica genomics.
Project description:The genomes of two strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cubana and serovar Muenchen, isolated from dry hazelnuts and chia seeds, respectively, were sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform, assembled de novo using the overlap-layout-consensus method, and aligned to their respective most identical sequence genome scaffolds using MUMMER and BLAST searches.
Project description:Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica is the leading cause of bacterial food-borne disease in the United States. Molecular subtyping methods are powerful tools for tracking the farm-to-fork spread of food-borne pathogens during outbreaks. In order to develop a novel multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for subtyping the major serovars of S. enterica subsp. enterica, the virulence genes sseL and fimH and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci were sequenced from 171 clinical isolates from nine Salmonella serovars, Salmonella serovars Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Newport, Heidelberg, Javiana, I 4,,12:i:-, Montevideo, Muenchen, and Saintpaul. The MLST scheme using only virulence genes was congruent with serotyping and identified epidemic clones but could not differentiate outbreaks. The addition of CRISPR sequences dramatically improved discriminatory power by differentiating individual outbreak strains/clones. Of particular note, the present MLST scheme provided better discrimination of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis strains than pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). This method showed high epidemiologic concordance for all serovars screened except for Salmonella serovar Muenchen. In conclusion, the novel MLST scheme described in the present study accurately differentiated outbreak strains/clones of the major serovars of Salmonella, and therefore, it shows promise for subtyping this important food-borne pathogen during investigations of outbreaks.
Project description:Salmonella serovars are important reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance. Recently, we reported on multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains among pigs with resistance to ampicillin, kanamycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (resistance [R] type AKSSuT) and resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (R type AxACSSuT). In the present study, 67 isolates (39 from humans and 28 from pigs) of clinically important Salmonella serovar Muenchen were characterized. Among the porcine isolates, 75% showed resistance to seven antimicrobials: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and kanamycin (R type ACSSuTAxK). One isolate from humans showed resistance to 10 of the 12 antimicrobials: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, kanamycin, gentamicin, cephalothin, and ceftriaxone (R type ACSSuTAxKGCfCro). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed no clonality between the porcine and the human strains. The porcine and the human MDR strains carried class 1 integrons of 2.0 and 1.0 kb, respectively. Genes specific to the porcine strain included aadA2, aphA1-Iab, and tetA(B). DNA sequencing revealed that the porcine isolates carried bla(OXA-30) on a class 1 integron. Genes specific to the human strain included bla(TEM), strA, strB, cmlA, tetA(A), and aadA2. No bla(CMY-2) gene was detected. Serovar Muenchen strains of porcine and human origin were able to transfer resistance genes to laboratory strain Escherichia coli MG1655 by conjugation. Plasmid restriction with four restriction enzymes, EcoRI, BamHI, HindIII, and PstI, showed that the conjugative plasmids from porcine Salmonella serovar Muenchen and Typhimurium R-type MDR strains isolated from the same farms at the same time were similar on the basis of the sizes and the numbers of bands and Southern hybridization. The plasmid profiles among the Salmonella serovar Muenchen isolates from the two host species were different. This is the first report to show a high frequency of MDR Salmonella serovar Muenchen strains from pigs and a human strain that is similar to the MDR isolates with the AmpC enzyme previously reported among Salmonella serovars Newport and Typhimurium strains. The MDR strains from the two host species independently represent public health concerns, as Salmonella serovar Muenchen is among the top 10 causes of salmonellosis in humans.
Project description:Here, we report the complete genome sequences of three Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains isolated from alfalfa, almond drupes, and grapes that inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes strain 2011L-2857 in vitro We also report multiple gene clusters encoding secondary metabolites that may be responsible for the growth inhibition of L. monocytogenes.
Project description:Seventy-one natural isolates obtained from a Salmonella reference collection were examined for the presence of plasmids closely related to the Escherichia coli F plasmid. The collection consists of several serovars of the S. enterica Typhimurium complex, subspecies I, to which 99% of pathogenic salmonellae belong. Molecular genetic techniques of DNA hybridization, along with PCR and DNA sequencing, were used to examine the occurrence, distribution, and genetic diversity of F-like plasmids among Salmonella strains. The F plasmid genes examined were finO, traD, traY, and repA, which map at dispersed positions on the F plasmid of E. coli. Comparative sequence analysis of each of the four genes in Salmonella plasmids showed them to be homologous (in some cases, virtually identical) to those found in F plasmids of E. coli natural isolates. Furthermore, the frequency of F-like plasmids in Salmonella strains was approximately the same as that observed in the E. coli Reference Collection. However, in Salmonella, the distribution was confined predominately to the serovars Typhimurium and Muenchen. The unexpected finding of a shared pool of F-like plasmids between S. enterica and E. coli demonstrates the significant role of conjugation in the histories of these important bacterial species.
Project description:We investigated the streptomycin-induced stress response in Salmonella enterica serovars with a laser optical sensor, BARDOT (bacterial rapid detection using optical scattering technology). Initially, the top 20 S. enterica serovars were screened for their response to streptomycin at 100 ?g/mL. All, but four S. enterica serovars were resistant to streptomycin. The MIC of streptomycin-sensitive serovars (Enteritidis, Muenchen, Mississippi, and Schwarzengrund) varied from 12.5 to 50 ?g/mL, while streptomycin-resistant serovar (Typhimurium) from 125-250 ?g/mL. Two streptomycin-sensitive serovars (Enteritidis and Mississippi) were grown on brain heart infusion (BHI) agar plates containing sub-inhibitory concentration of streptomycin (1.25-5 ?g/mL) and a streptomycin-resistant serovar (Typhimurium) was grown on BHI containing 25-50 ?g/mL of streptomycin and the colonies (1.2 ± 0.1 mm diameter) were scanned using BARDOT. Data show substantial qualitative and quantitative differences in the colony scatter patterns of Salmonella grown in the presence of streptomycin than the colonies grown in absence of antibiotic. Mass-spectrometry identified overexpression of chaperonin GroEL, which possibly contributed to the observed differences in the colony scatter patterns. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoassay confirmed streptomycin-induced GroEL expression while, aminoglycoside adenylyltransferase (aadA), aminoglycoside efflux pump (aep), multidrug resistance subunit acrA, and ribosomal protein S12 (rpsL), involved in streptomycin resistance, were unaltered. The study highlights suitability of the BARDOT as a non-invasive, label-free tool for investigating stress response in Salmonella in conjunction with the molecular and immunoassay methods.
Project description:The sustainability of irrigated agriculture in many arid and semiarid areas of the world is at risk because of a combination of several interrelated factors, including lack of fresh water, lack of drainage, the presence of high water tables, and salinization of soil and groundwater resources. Nowhere in the United States are these issues more apparent than in the San Joaquin Valley of California. A solid understanding of salinization processes at regional spatial and decadal time scales is required to evaluate the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. A hydro-salinity model was developed to integrate subsurface hydrology with reactive salt transport for a 1,400-km(2) study area in the San Joaquin Valley. The model was used to reconstruct historical changes in salt storage by irrigated agriculture over the past 60 years. We show that patterns in soil and groundwater salinity were caused by spatial variations in soil hydrology, the change from local groundwater to snowmelt water as the main irrigation water supply, and by occasional droughts. Gypsum dissolution was a critical component of the regional salt balance. Although results show that the total salt input and output were about equal for the past 20 years, the model also predicts salinization of the deeper aquifers, thereby questioning the sustainability of irrigated agriculture.
Project description:California's almond growers face challenges with nitrogen management as new legislatively mandated nitrogen management strategies for almond have been implemented. These regulations require that growers apply nitrogen to meet, but not exceed, the annual N demand for crop and tree growth and nut production. To accurately predict seasonal nitrogen demand, therefore, growers need to estimate block-level almond yield early in the growing season so that timely N management decisions can be made. However, methods to predict almond yield are not currently available. To fill this gap, we have developed statistical models using the Stochastic Gradient Boosting, a machine learning approach, for early season yield projection and mid-season yield update over individual orchard blocks. We collected yield records of 185 orchards, dating back to 2005, from the major almond growers in the Central Valley of California. A large set of variables were extracted as predictors, including weather and orchard characteristics from remote sensing imagery. Our results showed that the predicted orchard-level yield agreed well with the independent yield records. For both the early season (March) and mid-season (June) predictions, a coefficient of determination (R 2) of 0.71, and a ratio of performance to interquartile distance (RPIQ) of 2.6 were found on average. We also identified several key determinants of yield based on the modeling results. Almond yield increased dramatically with the orchard age until about 7 years old in general, and the higher long-term mean maximum temperature during April-June enhanced the yield in the southern orchards, while a larger amount of precipitation in March reduced the yield, especially in northern orchards. Remote sensing metrics such as annual maximum vegetation indices were also dominant variables for predicting the yield potential. While these results are promising, further refinement is needed; the availability of larger data sets and incorporation of additional variables and methodologies will be required for the model to be used as a fertilization decision support tool for growers. Our study has demonstrated the potential of automatic almond yield prediction to assist growers to manage N adaptively, comply with mandated requirements, and ensure industry sustainability.
Project description:Over a 2-year period, drag swabs of orchard soil surface and air, soil, and almond leaf samples were collected in an almond orchard adjacent to (35 m from the first row of trees) and downwind from a poultry operation and in two almond orchards (controls) that were surrounded by other orchards. Samples were evaluated for aerobic plate count, generic Escherichia coli, other coliforms, the presence of Salmonella, bacterial community structure (analyzed through sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene), and amounts of dry solids (dust) on leaf surfaces on trees 0, 60, and 120 m into each orchard. E. coli was isolated from 41 of 206 (20%) and 1 of 207 (0.48%) air samples in the almond-poultry and control orchards, respectively. Salmonella was not isolated from any of the 529 samples evaluated. On average, the amount of dry solids on leaves collected from trees closest to the poultry operation was more than 2-fold greater than from trees 120 m into the orchard or from any of the trees in the control orchards. Members of the family Staphylococcaceae-often associated with poultry-were, on average, significantly (P?<?0.001) more abundant in the phyllosphere of trees closest to the poultry operation (10% of relative abundance) than in trees 120 m into the orchard (1.7% relative abundance) or from any of the trees in control orchards (0.41% relative abundance). Poultry-associated microorganisms from a commercial operation transferred a short distance into an adjacent downwind almond orchard.IMPORTANCE The movement of microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, from animal operations into adjacent plant crop-growing environments is not well characterized. This study provides evidence that dust and bioaerosols moved from a commercial poultry operation a short distance downwind into an almond orchard and altered the microbiome recovered from the leaves. These data provide growers with information they can use to assess food safety risks on their property.