Non-invasive Detection of Exosomal MicroRNAs via Tethered Cationic Lipoplex Nanoparticles (tCLN) Biochip for Lung Cancer Early Detection.
ABSTRACT: Circulating microRNAs carried by exosomes have emerged as promising diagnostic biomarkers for cancer because of their abundant amount and remarkable stability in body fluids. Exosomal microRNAs in blood are typically quantified using the RNA isolation-qRT-PCR workflow, which cannot distinguish circulating microRNAs secreted by cancer cells from those released by non-tumor cells, making it potentially less sensitive in detecting cancer-specific microRNA biomarkers. We have developed a sensitive and simple tethered cationic lipoplex nanoparticles (tCLN) biochip to detect exosomal microRNAs in human sera. The tCLN biochip allows the discrimination of tumor-derived exosomes from their non-tumor counterparts, and thus achieves higher detection sensitivity and specificity than qRT-PCR. We have demonstrated the clinical utility of the tCLN biochip in lung cancer diagnosis using sera from normal controls, therapy-naive early stage and late stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Total five microRNAs (miR-21, miR-25, miR-155, miR-210, and miR-486) were selected as the biomarkers. Each microRNA biomarker measured by tCLN assay showed higher sensitivity and specificity in lung cancer detection than that measured by qRT-PCR. When all five microRNAs were combined, the tCLN assay distinguished normal controls from all NSCLC patients with sensitivity of 0.969, specificity of 0.933 and AUC of 0.970, and provided much better diagnostic accuracy than qRT-PCR (sensitivity = 0.469, specificity = 1.000, AUC = 0.791). Remarkably, the tCLN assay achieved absolute sensitivity and specificity in discriminating early stage NSCLC patients from normal controls, demonstrating its great potential as a liquid biopsy assay for lung cancer early detection.
Project description:Tumor-derived exosomes (TEXs) play instrumental roles in tumor growth, angiogenesis, immune modulation, metastasis, and drug resistance. TEX RNAs are a new class of noninvasive biomarkers for cancer. Neither current techniques, such as quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and next-generation sequencing, nor new ones, such as electrochemical or surface plasmon resonance-based biosensors, are able to selectively capture and separate TEXs from normal cell-derived exosomes, making TEX RNAs potentially less sensitive biomarkers. We developed an immuno-biochip that selectively captures TEXs using antibodies against tumor-associated proteins and quantifies in situ TEX RNAs using cationic lipoplexes containing molecular beacons. We used the immuno-biochip to measure the expression of miR-21 microRNA and TTF-1 mRNA in EGFR- or PD-L1-bearing exosomes from human sera and achieved absolute sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing normal controls from non-small cell lung cancer patients. Our results demonstrated that the effective separation of TEXs from other exosomes greatly improved the detection sensitivity and specificity. Compared with the traditional immunomagnetic separation-RNA isolation-qRT-PCR workflow, the immuno-biochip showed superior lung cancer diagnostic performance, consumed less samples (∼30 μL), and shortened assay time from ∼24 to 4 h.
Project description:Validation of biomarkers is essential to advance the translational process to clinical application. Although there exists an increasing number of reports on small non-coding RNAs (microRNAs) as minimally-invasive markers from blood, serum or plasma, just a limited number is verified in follow-up studies. We used qRT-PCR to evaluate a known miRNA signature measured from blood that allowed for separation between patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), COPD and healthy controls.From the data of our previous microarray studies we selected a panel of 235 miRNAs related to lung cancer and COPD. We observed a high concordance between the AUC values of our initial microarray screening and the qRT-PCR data (correlation of 0.704, p < 10-16). Overall, 90.3% of markers were successfully validated. Among the top markers that were concordant between both studies we found hsa-miR-20b-5p, hsa-miR-20a-5p, hsa-miR-17-5p, and hsa-miR-106a-5p. The qRT-PCR analysis also confirmed that non-small cell lung cancer patients could be accurately differentiated from unaffected controls: a subset of five markers was sufficient to separate NSCLC patients from unaffected controls with accuracy of 94.5% (specificity and sensitivity of 98% and 91%). Beyond differentiation from controls, we also succeeded in separating NSCLC patients from patients with COPD. MiRNAs that were identified as relevant for the separation between lung cancer and COPD by both qRT-PCR and the array-based studies included hsa-miR-26a-5p, hsa-miR-328-3p and hsa-miR-1224-3p. Although for differentiation between NSCLC patients from COPD patients more markers were required, still high accuracy rates were obtained (5 markers: 78.8%; 10 markers: 83.9%; 50 markers: 87.6%).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4> MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to play significant roles in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the roles of microRNA (miR)-1915-3p in NSCLC remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the biological functions of miR-1915-3p in NSCLC. <h4>Methods</h4> The expression of miR-1915-3p and SET nuclear proto-oncogene (SET) in NSCLC tissues were examined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Migratory and invasive abilities of lung cancer were tested by wound healing and transwell invasion assay. The direct target genes of miR-1915-3p were measured by dual-luciferase reporter assay and western blot. Finally, the regulation between METTL3/YTHDF2/KLF4 axis and miR-1915-3p were evaluated by qRT-PCR, promoter reporter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP). <h4>Results</h4> miR-1915-3p was downregulated in NSCLC tissues and cell lines, and inversely associated with clinical TNM stage and overall survival. Functional assays showed that miR-1915-3p significantly suppressed migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in NSCLC cells. Furthermore, miR-1915-3p directly bound to the 3′untranslated region (3′UTR) of SET and modulated the expression of SET. SET inhibition could recapitulate the inhibitory effects on cell migration, invasion and EMT of miR-1915-3p, and restoration of SET expression could abrogate these effects induced by miR-1915-3p through JNK/Jun and NF-κB signaling pathways. What’s more, miR-1915-3p expression was regulated by METTL3/YTHDF2 m6A axis through transcription factor KLF4. <h4>Conclusions</h4> These findings demonstrate that miR-1915-3p function as a tumor suppressor by targeting SET and may have an anti-metastatic therapeutic potential for lung cancer treatment.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Lung cancer is still a disease with high morbidity and mortality in the world. MicroRNAs have been proven to act as an indispensable role in the reuse of multiple solid tumours. Although miR-1258 plays a vital role in suppressing metastasis in breast cancer and gastric cancer, the specific biological function of miR-1258 in non-small-cell lung cancer remains unclear. METHODS:The differential expression of miR-1258 in NSCLC tissues and corresponding paracancerous tissues was detected by qRT-PCR and ISH. Flow cytometry and CCK-8, EdU, tubule formation, and senescence assays were performed, and xenograft models were studied to explore the function of miR-1258. Potential targets of miR-1258 were verified by dual luciferase reporter assay, qRT-PCR, IHC and Western blotting. RESULTS:In vitro and in vivo gain- and loss-of-function assays suggested that miR-1258 inhibits NSCLC cell proliferation and induces senescence and apoptosis. The luciferase reporter assay, IHC and Western blotting analysis showed that GRB2 is one of the direct targets of miR-1258. The GRB2 overexpression plasmid can reverse the functional changes after overexpression of miR-1258. In contrast, miR-1258 inhibitor significantly reversed si-GRB2-induced GRB2 down-regulation. Mechanistically, overexpression of miR-1258 inhibits GRB2 expression and then leads to inactivation of the Ras/Erk oncogenic pathway. CONCLUSIONS:Our results indicate that miR-1258 can suppress NSCLC progression by targeting the GRB2/Ras/Erk pathway, which may lead to different insights into potential biomarkers and novel therapeutic strategies for NSCLC patients.
Project description:Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), one of the most common causes of cancer-related death, is a worldwide public health problem. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been identified as a novel class of regulators of carcinogenesis and tumor progression, including miRNAs associated with NSCLC. This study aimed to explore the role of miR-522 in NSCLC and the mechanisms underlying this role. We report here that miR-522 expression was significantly increased in both human NSCLC tissues and cell lines. Furthermore, an MTT assay, 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay kit and flow cytometry confirmed that the inhibition of miR-522 suppressed NSCLC cells proliferation and induced apoptosis. Compared with miR-522 overexpression, miR-522 inhibitor markedly reduced cells migration and invasion, as indicated by wound-healing and transwell assays. In addition, a luciferase assay identified DENN/MADD domain containing 2D (DENND2D) as a direct target of miR-522. qRT-PCR and western blot analyses indicated the reciprocal expression of miR-522 and DENND2D in NSCLC tissue samples. DENND2D was involved in miR-522 induced proliferation and metastasis of NSCLC cells by a miRNA-masking antisense oligonucleotides (miR-mask) technology. These data highlight a novel molecular interaction between miR-522 and DENND2D, which indicates that targeting miR-522 may constitute a potential therapy for NSCLC.
Project description:Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most deadly cancer in the world due to its often delayed diagnosis. Identification of biomarkers with high sensitivity, specificity, and accessibility for early detection, such as circulating microRNAs, is therefore of utmost importance. In the present study, we identified a significantly higher expression of miR-146a-5p in the serum and tissue samples of NSCLC patients than that of the healthy controls. In parallel, miR-146a-5p was also highly expressed in three human NSCLC adenocarcinoma-cell lines (A549, H1299, and H1975) compared to the human bronchial epithelium cell line (HBE). By dual-luciferase reporter assay and manipulation of the expressions of miR-146a-5p and its target gene, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), we showed that the functional effects of miR-146a-5p on NSCLC cell survival and migration were mediated by direct binding to and suppression of TRAF6. Overexpression of TRAF6 sufficiently reversed miR-146a-5p-induced cancer cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis resistance. Our data implied that miR-146a-5p/TRAF6/NF-?B-p65 axis could be a promising diagnostic marker and a therapeutic target for NSCLC.
Project description:Exosomes are cell-derived, nanosized extracellular vesicles for intercellular communication. Exosomal RNAs have been shown as one type of promising cancer liquid biopsy biomarkers. Conventional methods to characterize exosomal RNAs such as quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) are limited by low sensitivity, large sample consumption, time-consuming process, and high cost. Many technologies have been developed to overcome these challenges; however, many hours are still required to complete the assays, especially when exosome lysis and RNA extraction are required. We have developed a microfluidic cationic lipoplex nanoparticles (mCLN) assay that utilizes a micromixer biochip to allow for the effective capture of exosomes by cationic lipoplex nanoparticles and thus enables ultrafast and sensitive exosomal RNA detection for cancer diagnosis. The sensing performance and diagnostic performance of the mCLN assay were investigated using non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as the disease model and exosomal microRNA-21 and TTF-1 mRNA as the biomarkers. The limits of detection of the mCLN assay were 2.06 × 10<sup>9</sup> and 3.71 × 10<sup>9</sup> exosomes/mL for microRNA-21 and TTF-1 mRNA, respectively, indicating that the mCLN assay may require as low as 1 <i>μ</i>L of serum for exosomal RNA detection. The mCLN assay successfully distinguished NSCLC from normal controls by detecting significantly higher microRNA-21 and TTF-1 mRNA levels in exosomes from both NSCLC patient serum samples and A549 NSCLC cells than those from normal controls and BEAS-2B normal bronchial epithelial cells. Compared with conventional qRT-PCR assay, the mCLN assay showed a higher diagnostic accuracy in lung cancer, required less sample volume (30 vs 100 <i>μ</i>L), and consumed much less time (10 min vs 4 h).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Early diagnosis is essential for improvements of prognosis and survival of the patients. Currently, there is no effective biomarker available in clinical settings for early detection of lung cancer. Altered expressions in many cancer types including NSCLC and stable existence in plasma make microRNAs (miRNAs) a group of potentially useful biomarkers for clinical assessments of patients with NSCLC.<h4>Objectives</h4>To evaluate the potential values of miRNAs as blood-based biomarkers for early diagnosis and prognosis in NSCLC patients.<h4>Methods</h4>Peripheral blood samples from healthy volunteers and early-staged NSCLC patients before and after surgery were collected, and plasma was separated. Expression of ten miRNAs in the plasma and tumor sections of the patients was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.<h4>Results</h4>MiRNA (miR)-486 and miR-150 were found to significantly distinguish lung cancer patients from healthy volunteers. Area under curve of miR-486 and miR-150 were 0.926 (sensitivity, 0.909; specificity, 0.818) and 0.752 (sensitivity, 0.818; specificity, 0.818), respectively. In response to therapy, patients with down-regulated miR-486 expression showed prolonged recurrence-free survival than those with un-reduced miR-486 expression (median, unreached vs. 19 months; hazard ratio, 0.1053; 95% confidence interval, 0.01045 to 1.060; P=0.056).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The results suggest that miR-486 and miR-150 could be potential blood-based biomarkers for early diagnosis of NSCLC. Monitoring change of miR-486 expression in plasma might be an effective and non-invasive method for recurrence prediction of early-staged NSCLC patients.
Project description:Background:Lung cancer is one of the leading diagnosed cancers worldwide, and microRNAs could be used as biomarkers to diagnose lung cancer. hsa-miR-195 has been demonstrated to affect the prognosis of NSCLC (non-small-cell lung cancer) in a previous study. However, the diagnostic value of hsa-miR-195-5p in lung cancer has not been investigated. Methods:To evaluate the ability of hsa-miR-195-5p to diagnose lung cancer, we compared the expression of hsa-miR-195-5p in lung cancer patients, COPD patients, and normal controls. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of hsa-miR-195-5p. Coexpression network and pathway analysis were carried out to explore the mechanism. Results:We found that hsa-miR-195-5p had lower expression in lung cancer and COPD patients than in normal controls, and the AUC was 0.92 for diagnosing lung cancer. hsa-miR-143 correlated with hsa-miR-195-5p, and by combining these two microRNAs, the AUC was 0.97 for diagnosing lung cancer. Conclusions:hsa-miR-195-5p may act as a biomarker that contributes to the diagnosis of lung cancer and the detection of its high-risk population.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a leading cause of death worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been indicated as crucial actors in cancer biology. Accumulating evidence suggests that miRNAs can be used as diagnostic and prognostic markers for NSCLC.<h4>Methods</h4>The purpose of this study was to characterize and identify the novel biomarker miR-4317 and its targets in NSCLC. The expression of miR-4317 was analyzed by in situ hybridization (ISH) and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The effect of miR-4317 on proliferation was evaluated through 3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2-4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) and colony formation assays, and cell migration and invasion were evaluated through transwell assays. The expression of target proteins and downstream molecules was analyzed by qRT-PCR and western blot. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to assess the target genes of miR4317 in NSCLC cells.<h4>Results</h4>Our results demonstrated that miR-4317 was downregulated in NSCLC tissues and serum, particularly in lymph node metastasis and advanced clinical stage tissues. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that NSCLC patients with high expression of miR-4317 exhibited better overall survival (OS). Enhanced expression of miR-4317 significantly inhibited proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion, and hampered cycles of NSCLC cell lines in vitro. Our results suggested that miR-4317 functions by directly targeting fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) and cyclin D2 (CCND2). In concordance with in vitro studies, mouse xenograft, lung, and brain metastatic studies validated that miR-4317 functions as a potent suppressor miRNA of NSCLC in vivo. Systemically delivered agomiR-4317 reduced tumor growth and inhibited FGF9 and CCND2 protein expression. Reintroduction of FGF9 and CCND2 attenuated miR-4317-mediated suppression of migration and invasion in NSCLC.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results indicate that miR-4317 can reduce NSCLC cell growth and metastasis by targeting FGF9 and CCND2. These findings provide new evidence of miR-4317 as a potential non-invasive biomarker and therapeutic target for NSCLC.