Immune cell repertoires in breast cancer patients after adjuvant chemotherapy.
ABSTRACT: Adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients causes immune cell depletion at an age when the regenerative capacity is compromised. Successful regeneration requires the recovery of both quantity and quality of immune cell subsets. Although immune cell numbers rebound within a year after treatment, it is unclear whether overall compositional diversity is recovered. We investigated the regeneration of immune cell complexity by comparing peripheral blood mononuclear cells from breast cancer patients ranging from 1-5 years after chemotherapy with those of age-matched healthy controls using mass cytometry and T cell receptor sequencing. These data reveal universal changes in patients' CD4+ T cells that persisted for years and consisted of expansion of Th17-like CD4 memory populations with incomplete recovery of CD4+ naive T cells. Conversely, CD8+ T cells fully recovered within a year. Mechanisms of T cell regeneration, however, were unbiased, as CD4+ and CD8+ T cell receptor diversity remained high. Likewise, terminal differentiated effector memory cells were not expanded, indicating that regeneration was not driven by recognition of latent viruses. These data suggest that, while CD8+ T cell immunity is successfully regenerated, the CD4 compartment may be irreversibly affected. Moreover, the bias of CD4 memory toward inflammatory effector cells may impact responses to vaccination and infection.
Project description:Immunization in the absence of CD4(+) T cell help results in defective CD8(+) T cell memory, deficient recall responses and diminished protective immunity. Here we investigated at what stage during the immune response to pathogen CD4(+) T cells are essential in the promotion of functional CD8(+) T cell memory. Memory CD8(+) T cell numbers decreased gradually in the absence of CD4(+) T cells despite the presence of similar numbers of memory cell precursors at the peak of the effector phase. Adoptive transfer of effector or memory CD8(+) T cells into wild-type or CD4(+) T cell-deficient mice demonstrated that the presence of CD4(+) T cells was important only after, not during, the early CD8(+) T cell programming phase. In the absence of CD4(+) T cells, memory CD8(+) T cells became functionally impaired and decreased in quantity over time. We conclude that in the context of an acute infection, CD4(+) T cells are required only during the maintenance phase of long-lived memory CD8(+) T cells.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Although effective antiretroviral therapy(ART) increases CD4+ T-cell count, responses to ART vary considerably and only a minority of patients normalise their CD4+/CD8+ ratio. Although retention of naïve CD4+ T-cells is thought to predict better immune responses, relationships between CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets and CD4+/CD8+ ratio have not been well described.<h4>Methods</h4>A cross-sectional study in a cohort of ambulatory HIV+ patients. We used flow cytometry on fresh blood to determine expanded CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets; CD45RO+CD62L+(central memory), CD45RO+CD62L-(effector memory) and CD45RO-CD62L+(naïve) alongside routine T-cell subsets(absolute, percentage CD4+ and CD8+ counts), HIVRNA and collected demographic and treatment data. Relationship between CD4+/CD8+ T-cell ratio and expanded T-cell subsets was determined using linear regression analysis. Results are median[IQR] and regression coefficients unless stated.<h4>Results</h4>We recruited 190 subjects, age 42(36-48) years, 65% male, 65.3% Caucasian, 91% on ART(52.6% on protease inhibitors), 78.4% with HIVRNA<40cps/ml and median ART duration 6.8(2.6-10.2) years. Nadir and current CD4+ counts were 200(112-309) and 465(335-607) cells/mm3 respectively. Median CD4+/CD8+ ratio was 0.6(0.4-1.0), with 26.3% of subjects achieving CD4+/CD8+ ratio>1. Of the expanded CD4+ T-cell subsets, 27.3(18.0-38.3)% were naïve, 36.8(29.0-40.0)% central memory and 27.4(20.0-38.5)% effector memory. Of the CD8+ T-cells subsets, 16.5(10.2-25.5)% were naïve, 19.9(12.7-26.6)% central memory and 41.0(31.8-52.5)% effector memory. In the multivariable adjusted analysis, total cumulative-ART exposure(+0.15,p?=?0.007), higher nadir CD4+ count(+0.011,p<0.001) and higher %CD8+ naive T-cells(+0.0085,p<0.001) were associated with higher CD4+/CD8+ ratio, higher absolute CD8+ T-cell(-0.0044,p<0.001) and higher %CD4+ effector memory T-cells(-0.004,p?=?0.0036) were associated with lower CD4+/CD8+ ratio. Those with CD4+/CD8+ ratio>1 had significantly higher median %CD8+ naive T-cells; 25.4(14.0-36.0)% versus 14.4(9.4-21.6)%, p<0.0001, but significantly lower absolute CD8+ count; 464(384.5-567) versus 765(603-1084) cells/mm3, p<0.001.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Study suggests important role for naïve CD8+ T-cell populations in normalisation of the immune response to HIV-infection. How these findings relate to persistent immune activation on ART requires further study.
Project description:A significant proportion of HIV-infected patients experiencing a late diagnosis highlights the need to define immunological protocols able to help the clinicians in identifying patients at higher risk for immunological failure. The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of easy cytometric tests in defining the effect of antiretroviral treatment (cART) on immunological homeostasis and in identifying predictive markers of early immune recovery. Chronic HIV infected patients (n = 202) were enrolled in a prospective multicentric study, and their immunological profile was studied before (w0) and after 24 weeks (w24) of antiretroviral treatment (cART) using a standardized flow cytometric panel. Based on CD4 T cell count before treatment, patients were divided in late (LP: CD4 <350/mmc), intermediate (IP: 350/mmc<CD4<500/mmc) and early (EP: CD4 >500/mmc) presenters. In all groups, cART introduction increased CD4 and CD4/CD8 T cell ratio, naïve T cell (CD4 and CD8) and CD127-expressing CD4 T cells. In parallel, cART significantly reduced effector memory T cells (CD4 and CD8) and T cell activation (CD38+CD8 and CD95+CD4 T cells). Moreover, the frequency of Naïve and Effector CD4 T cells before treatment correlated with several immune parameters key associated with the pathogenesis of HIV, thus mirroring the health of immune system. Interestingly, we identified the Naïve/Effector CD4 T cell ratio (N/EM) at w0 as a marker able to predict early immune recovery. Specifically, in LP, N/EM ratio was significantly higher in immunological responder patients (CD4>500/mmc at w24) when compared to immunological non responder (CD4 T cells <500/mmc at w24). Finally, a multivariate analysis indicates that after 24w patients with N/EM ratio higher than 1.86 at w0 recovered 96 CD4 T cells more than those with N/EM ratio lower than 0.46. Altogether, our data define an easy protocol able to define reliable immunological markers useful for the characterization of immune profile in viremic HIV patients and identify the naïve/effector CD4 T cell ratio as a new tool able to predict an early immune reconstitution potential.
Project description:Generation and persistence of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibodies are synonymous with the development of immunity and considered as correlates of protection against HEV infection. However, issues like longevity of immunological memory following recovery from hepatitis E still remains a puzzle. It is critical to understand whether anamnestic response exists for protection from HEV re-infection. The levels and persistence of anti-HEV antibodies were assessed in hepatitis E recovered individuals 1-30 years post HEV infection. The frequencies and functionality of recombinant HEV capsid protein (rORF2p)-stimulated memory B and T cells were also investigated 1-16 years post infection. Anti-HEV antibodies persisted in 91% of hepatitis E recovered individuals. HEV-specific memory B cell responses were detected in 95% of seropositive hepatitis E recovered individuals. CD4<sup>+</sup> and CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells displayed an effector memory cell phenotype in hepatitis E recovered individuals. In conclusion, long-lived anti-HEV antibodies and HEV-specific memory B cells are maintained for several years in hepatitis E recovered individuals. Involvement of CD4<sup>+</sup> and CD8<sup>+</sup> effector memory T cells is an important observation since it is inextricably linked to long-lasting protective immunity. In addition to anti-HEV antibodies, possible role of memory B cell response against HEV re-infection could also be considered.
Project description:Chronic psychological stress is associated with accelerated biological aging, immune dysfunction, and premature morbidity and mortality. Changes in the relative proportions of T cell subpopulations are thought to be a characteristic of immunological aging; however, understanding of whether these changes are associated with chronic psychological stress is incomplete. This study investigated associations between chronic caregiving stress and distributions of T cell phenotypes in a sample of high stress mothers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (caregivers; n?=?91) and low stress mothers of neurotypical children (controls; n?=?88). Immune markers assessed were naïve (CD45RA?+?CD62L+), central memory (CD45RA-CD62L+), and effector memory (CD45RA-CD62L-) CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We also examined the ratio of effector to naïve (E:N) CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In models adjusted for age, body mass index, race/ethnicity, and antidepressant use, caregivers displayed higher percentages of effector memory CD8+ and CD4+ T cells as well as lower percentages of naïve CD8+ T cells and central memory CD8+ and CD4+ T cells compared to controls. Caregivers also displayed significantly higher E:N ratios for both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. These findings were also independent of cytomegalovirus infection status. Furthermore, higher parental stress, across both groups, was related to several immune parameters. These findings provide preliminary evidence that chronic parental caregiving stress is associated with changes in relative proportions of T cell subpopulations that are consistent with accelerated immunological aging.
Project description:HIV infection selectively targets CD4+ effector memory T (T EM) cells, resulting in dramatic depletion of CD4+ T cells in mucosal effector sites in early infection. Regeneration of the T EM cell compartment is slow and incomplete, even when viral replication is controlled by antiretroviral therapy (ART). Here, we demonstrate that IL-15 dramatically increases in vivo proliferation of rhesus macaque (RM) CD4+ and CD8+ T EM cells with little effect on the naive or central memory T (T CM) cell subsets, a response pattern that is quite distinct from that of either IL-2 or IL-7. T EM cells produced in response to IL-15 did not accumulate in blood. Rather, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling studies suggest that many of these cells rapidly disperse to extralymphoid effector sites, where they manifest (slow) decay kinetics indistinguishable from that of untreated controls. In RMs with uncontrolled SIV infection and highly activated immune systems, IL-15 did not significantly increase CD4+ T EM cell proliferation, but with virologic control and concomitant reduction in immune activation by ART, IL-15 responsiveness was again observed. These data suggest that therapeutic use of IL-15 in the setting of ART might facilitate specific restoration of the CD4 + T cell compartment that is the primary target of HIV with less risk of exhausting precursor T cell compartments or generating potentially deleterious regulatory subsets.
Project description:The success of immune system-based cancer therapies depends on a broad immune response engaging a range of effector cells and mechanisms. Immune mobilizing monoclonal T cell receptors (TCRs) against cancer (ImmTAC™ molecules: fusion proteins consisting of a soluble, affinity enhanced TCR and an anti-CD3 scFv antibody) were previously shown to redirect CD8<sup>+</sup> and CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells against tumours. Here we present evidence that IMCgp100 (ImmTAC recognizing a peptide derived from the melanoma-specific protein, gp100, presented by HLA-A*0201) efficiently redirects and activates effector and memory cells from both CD8<sup>+</sup> and CD4<sup>+</sup> repertoires. Using isolated subpopulations of T cells, we find that both terminally differentiated and effector memory CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells redirected by IMCgp100 are potent killers of melanoma cells. Furthermore, CD4<sup>+</sup> effector memory T cells elicit potent cytotoxic activity leading to melanoma cell killing upon redirection by IMCgp100. The majority of T cell subsets belonging to both the CD8<sup>+</sup> and CD4<sup>+</sup> repertoires secrete key pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-?, interferon-?, interleukin-6) and chemokines (macrophage inflammatory protein-1?-?, interferon-?-inducible protein-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1). At an individual cell level, IMCgp100-redirected T cells display a polyfunctional phenotype, which is a hallmark of a potent anti-cancer response. This study demonstrates that IMCgp100 induces broad immune responses that extend beyond the induction of CD8<sup>+</sup> T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. These findings are of particular importance because IMCgp100 is currently undergoing clinical trials as a single agent or in combination with check point inhibitors for patients with malignant melanoma.
Project description:Immunotherapies that augment antitumor T cells have had recent success for treating patients with cancer. Here we examined whether tumor-specific CD4(+) T cells enhance CD8(+) T-cell adoptive immunotherapy in a lymphopenic environment. Our model employed physiological doses of tyrosinase-related protein 1-specific CD4(+) transgenic T cells-CD4(+) T cells and pmel-CD8(+) T cells that when transferred individually were subtherapeutic; however, when transferred together provided significant (p ? 0.001) therapeutic efficacy. Therapeutic efficacy correlated with increased numbers of effector and memory CD8(+) T cells with tumor-specific cytokine expression. When combined with CD4(+) T cells, transfer of total (naïve and effector) or effector CD8(+) T cells were highly effective, suggesting CD4(+) T cells can help mediate therapeutic effects by maintaining function of activated CD8(+) T cells. In addition, CD4(+) T cells had a pronounced effect in the early posttransfer period, as their elimination within the first 3 days significantly (p < 0.001) reduced therapeutic efficacy. The CD8(+) T cells recovered from mice treated with both CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells had decreased expression of PD-1 and PD-1-blockade enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of pmel-CD8 alone, suggesting that CD4(+) T cells help reduce CD8(+) T-cell exhaustion. These data support combining immunotherapies that elicit both tumor-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells for treatment of patients with cancer.
Project description:Despite improvement in the prognosis of HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome) patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART), cryptococcal meningitis (CM) still causes 10-15% mortality among HIV-infected patients. The immunological impact of ART on the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell repertoire during cryptococcal co-infection is unclear. We determined longitudinal phenotypic changes in T cell subsets among patients with CM after they initiated ART. We hypothesized that ART alters the clonotypic phenotype and structural composition of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells during CM co-infection. For this substudy, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated at four time points from CM patients following ART initiation during the parent study (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01075152). Phenotypic characterization of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was done using T cell surface marker monoclonal antibodies by flow cytometry. There was variation in the expression of immunophenotypic markers defining central memory (CD27+CD45R0+), effector memory (CD45R0+CD27-), immune activation (CD38+ and Human Leucocyte Antigen DR (HLA-DR+), and exhaustion (Programmed cell death protein one (PD-1) in the CD4+ T cell subset. In comparison to the CD4+ T cell population, the CD8+ central memory subset declined gradually with minimal increase in the effector memory subset. Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell immune exhaustion and activation markers remained elevated over 12 weeks. The relative surge and decline in the expression of T cell surface markers outlines a variation in the differentiation of CD4+ T cells during ART treatment during CM co-infection.
Project description:During human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, chronic immune activation leads to T-cell exhaustion. PD-1 identifies "exhausted" CD8 T cells with impaired HIV-specific effector functions, but its role on CD4 T cells and in HIV-infected children is poorly understood.In a Kenyan cohort of vertically HIV-infected children, we measured PD-1+ CD4 T-cell frequencies and phenotype by flow cytometry and their correlation with HIV disease progression and immune activation. Second, in vitro CD4 T-cell proliferative and cytokine responses to HIV-specific and -nonspecific stimuli were assessed with and without PD-1 blockade.HIV-infected children have increased frequencies of PD-1+ memory CD4 T cells that fail to normalize with antiretroviral treatment. These cells are comprised of central and effector memory subsets and correlate with HIV disease progression, measured by viral load, CD4 percentage, CD4:CD8 T-cell ratio, and immune activation. Last, PD-1+ CD4 T cells predict impaired proliferative potential yet preferentially secrete the Th1 and Th17 cytokines interferon-? and interleukin 17A, and are unresponsive to in vitro PD-1 blockade.This study highlights differences in PD-1+ CD4 T-cell memory phenotype and response to blockade between HIV-infected children and adults, with implications for potential immune checkpoint therapies.