Structural basis for the increased processivity of D-family DNA polymerases in complex with PCNA.
ABSTRACT: Replicative DNA polymerases (DNAPs) have evolved the ability to copy the genome with high processivity and fidelity. In Eukarya and Archaea, the processivity of replicative DNAPs is greatly enhanced by its binding to the proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) that encircles the DNA. We determined the cryo-EM structure of the DNA-bound PolD-PCNA complex from Pyrococcus abyssi at 3.77?Å. Using an integrative structural biology approach - combining cryo-EM, X-ray crystallography, protein-protein interaction measurements, and activity assays - we describe the molecular basis for the interaction and cooperativity between a replicative DNAP and PCNA. PolD recruits PCNA via a complex mechanism, which requires two different PIP-boxes. We infer that the second PIP-box, which is shared with the eukaryotic Pol? replicative DNAP, plays a dual role in binding either PCNA or primase, and could be a master switch between an initiation and a processive phase during replication.
Project description:PolD is an archaeal replicative DNA polymerase (DNAP) made of a proofreading exonuclease subunit (DP1) and a larger polymerase catalytic subunit (DP2). Recently, we reported the individual crystal structures of the DP1 and DP2 catalytic cores, thereby revealing that PolD is an atypical DNAP that has all functional properties of a replicative DNAP but with the catalytic core of an RNA polymerase (RNAP). We now report the DNA-bound cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the heterodimeric DP1-DP2 PolD complex from Pyrococcus abyssi, revealing a unique DNA-binding site. Comparison of PolD and RNAPs extends their structural similarities and brings to light the minimal catalytic core shared by all cellular transcriptases. Finally, elucidating the structure of the PolD DP1-DP2 interface, which is conserved in all eukaryotic replicative DNAPs, clarifies their evolutionary relationships with PolD and sheds light on the domain acquisition and exchange mechanism that occurred during the evolution of the eukaryotic replisome.
Project description:Origin of DNA replication is an enigma because the replicative DNA polymerases (DNAPs) are not homologous among the three domains of life, Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. The homology between the archaeal replicative DNAP (PolD) and the large subunits of the universal RNA polymerase (RNAP) responsible for transcription suggests a parsimonious evolutionary scenario. Under this model, RNAPs and replicative DNAPs evolved from a common ancestor that functioned as an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in the RNA-protein world that predated the advent of DNA replication. The replicative DNAP of the Last Universal Cellular Ancestor (LUCA) would be the ancestor of the archaeal PolD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:DNA polymerase D (PolD) is the representative member of the D family of DNA polymerases. It is an archaea-specific DNA polymerase required for replication and unrelated to other known DNA polymerases. PolD consists of a heterodimer of two subunits, DP1 and DP2, which contain catalytic sites for 3'-5' editing exonuclease and DNA polymerase activities, respectively, with both proteins being mutually required for the full activities of each enzyme. However, the processivity of the replicase holoenzyme has additionally been shown to be enhanced by the clamp molecule proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), making it crucial to elucidate the interaction between PolD and PCNA on a structural level for a full understanding of its functional relevance. We present here the 3D structure of a PolD-PCNA-DNA complex from Thermococcus kodakarensis using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (EM). RESULTS:Two distinct forms of the PolD-PCNA-DNA complex were identified by 3D classification analysis. Fitting the reported crystal structures of truncated forms of DP1 and DP2 from Pyrococcus abyssi onto our EM map showed the 3D atomic structural model of PolD-PCNA-DNA. In addition to the canonical interaction between PCNA and PolD via PIP (PCNA-interacting protein)-box motif, we found a new contact point consisting of a glutamate residue at position 171 in a ?-hairpin of PCNA, which mediates interactions with DP1 and DP2. The DNA synthesis activity of a mutant PolD with disruption of the E171-mediated PCNA interaction was not stimulated by PCNA in vitro. CONCLUSIONS:Based on our analyses, we propose that glutamate residues at position 171 in each subunit of the PCNA homotrimer ring can function as hooks to lock PolD conformation on PCNA for conversion of its activity. This hook function of the clamp molecule may be conserved in the three domains of life.
Project description:Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is the sliding clamp that is essential for the high processivity of DNA synthesis during DNA replication. Pyrococcus furiosus, a hyperthermophilic archaeon, has at least two DNA polymerases, polymerase BI (PolBI) and PolD. Both of the two DNA polymerases interact with the archaeal P. furiosus PCNA (PfuPCNA) and perform processive DNA synthesis in vitro. This phenomenon, in addition to the fact that both enzymes display 3'-5' exonuclease activity, suggests that both DNA polymerases work in replication fork progression. We demonstrated here that both PolBI and PolD functionally interact with PfuPCNA at their C-terminal PIP boxes. The mutant PolBI and PolD enzymes lacking the PIP-box sequence do not respond to the PfuPCNA at all in an in vitro primer extension reaction. This is the first experimental evidence that the PIP-box motif, located at the C termini of the archaeal DNA polymerases, is actually critical for PCNA binding to form a processive DNA-synthesizing complex.
Project description:Genomes acquire lesions that can block the replication fork and some lesions must be bypassed to allow survival. The nuclear genome of flowering plants encodes two family-A DNA polymerases (DNAPs), the result of a duplication event, that are the sole DNAPs in plant organelles. These DNAPs, dubbed Plant Organellar Polymerases (POPs), resemble the Klenow fragment of bacterial DNAP I and are not related to metazoan and fungal mitochondrial DNAPs. Herein we report that replicative POPs from the plant model Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPolI) efficiently bypass one the most insidious DNA lesions, an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site. AtPolIs accomplish lesion bypass with high catalytic efficiency during nucleotide insertion and extension. Lesion bypass depends on two unique polymerization domain insertions evolutionarily unrelated to the insertions responsible for lesion bypass by DNAP ?, an analogous lesion bypass polymerase. AtPolIs exhibit an insertion fidelity that ranks between the fidelity of replicative and lesion bypass DNAPs, moderate 3'-5' exonuclease activity and strong strand-displacement. AtPolIs are the first known example of a family-A DNAP evolved to function in both DNA replication and lesion bypass. The lesion bypass capabilities of POPs may be required to prevent replication fork collapse in plant organelles.
Project description:During DNA replication or repair, the DNA polymerase cofactor, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), homotrimerizes and encircles the replicating DNA, thereby acting as a DNA clamp that promotes DNA polymerase processivity. The formation of the PCNA trimer is also essential for targeting the replication-licensing protein, chromatin-licensing, and DNA replication factor 1 (CDT1), for ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis to prevent chromosomal DNA re-replication. CDT1 uses its PCNA-interacting peptide box (PIP box) to interact with PCNA, and the CRL4 E3 ubiquitin ligase subunit CDT2 is recruited through the formation of PCNA-CDT1 complexes. However, it remains unclear how CDT1 and many other PIP box-containing proteins are marked for degradation by the CRL4CDT2 ubiquitin ligase during DNA replication or damage. Here, using recombinant protein expression coupled with site-directed mutagenesis, we report that CDT2 and PCNA directly interact and this interaction depends on the presence of a highly conserved, C-terminal PIP box-like region in CDT2. Deletion or mutation of this region abolished the CDT2-PCNA interaction between CDT2 and PCNA both in vitro and in vivo Moreover, PCNA-dependent CDT1 degradation in response to DNA damage and replication during the cell cycle requires an intact PIP box in CDT2. The requirement of the PIP boxes in both CDT2 and its substrate CDT1 suggests that the formation of the PCNA trimeric clamp around DNA during DNA replication and repair may bring together CDT1 and CRL4CDT2 ubiquitin E3 ligase to target CDT1 for proteolysis in a DNA synthesis-dependent manner.
Project description:DNA replication requires processivity factors that allow replicative DNA polymerases to extend long stretches of DNA. Some DNA viruses encode their own replicative DNA polymerase, such as the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) that infects decapod crustaceans but still require host replication accessory factors. We have determined by X-ray diffraction the three-dimensional structure of the Pacific white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (LvPCNA). This protein is a member of the sliding clamp family of proteins, that binds DNA replication and DNA repair proteins through a motif called PIP-box (PCNA-Interacting Protein). The crystal structure of LvPCNA was refined to a resolution of 3 Å, and allowed us to determine the trimeric protein assembly and details of the interactions between PCNA and the DNA. To address the possible interaction between LvPCNA and the viral DNA polymerase, we docked a theoretical model of a PIP-box peptide from the WSSV DNA polymerase within LvPCNA crystal structure. The theoretical model depicts a feasible model of interaction between both proteins. The crystal structure of shrimp PCNA allows us to further understand the mechanisms of DNA replication processivity factors in non-model systems.
Project description:DNA polymerase ? (Pol?) is a highly processive essential replicative DNA polymerase. In humans, the Pol? holoenzyme consists of p125, p50, p68 and p12 subunits and recently, we showed that the p12 subunit exists as a dimer. Extensive biochemical studies suggest that all the subunits of Pol? interact with the processivity factor proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) to carry out a pivotal role in genomic DNA replication. While PCNA-interacting protein motif (PIP) motifs in p68, p50 and p12 have been mapped, same in p125, the catalytic subunit of the holoenzyme, remains elusive. Therefore, in the present study by using multiple approaches we have conclusively mapped a non-canonical PIP motif from residues 999VGGLLAFA1008 in p125, which binds to the inter-domain-connecting loop (IDCL) of PCNA with high affinity. Collectively, including previous studies, we conclude that similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pol?, each of the human Pol? subunits possesses motif to interact with PCNA and significantly contributes toward the processive nature of this replicative DNA polymerase.
Project description:Archaeal replicative DNA polymerase D (PolD) constitute an atypical class of DNA polymerases made of a proofreading exonuclease subunit (DP1) and a larger polymerase catalytic subunit (DP2), both with unknown structures. We have determined the crystal structures of Pyrococcus abyssi DP1 and DP2 at 2.5 and 2.2?Å resolution, respectively, revealing a catalytic core strikingly different from all other known DNA polymerases (DNAPs). Rather, the PolD DP2 catalytic core has the same 'double-psi ?-barrel' architecture seen in the RNA polymerase (RNAP) superfamily, which includes multi-subunit transcriptases of all domains of life, homodimeric RNA-silencing pathway RNAPs and atypical viral RNAPs. This finding bridges together, in non-viral world, DNA transcription and DNA replication within the same protein superfamily. This study documents further the complex evolutionary history of the DNA replication apparatus in different domains of life and proposes a classification of all extant DNAPs.
Project description:Most replicative DNA polymerases (DNAPs) are endowed with a 3'-5' exonuclease activity to proofread the polymerization errors, governed by four universally conserved aspartate residues belonging to the Exo I, Exo II, and Exo III motifs. These residues coordinate the two metal ions responsible for the hydrolysis of the last phosphodiester bond of the primer strand. Structural alignment of the conserved exonuclease domain of DNAPs from families A, B, and C has allowed us to identify an additional and invariant aspartate, located between motifs Exo II and Exo III. The importance of this aspartate has been assessed by site-directed mutagenesis at the corresponding Asp121 of the family B ?29 DNAP. Substitution of this residue by either glutamate or alanine severely impaired the catalytic efficiency of the 3'-5' exonuclease activity, both on ssDNA and dsDNA. The polymerization activity of these mutants was also affected due to a defective translocation following nucleotide incorporation. Alanine substitution for the homologous Asp90 in family A T7 DNAP showed essentially the same phenotype as ?29 DNAP mutant D121A. This functional conservation, together with a close inspection of ?29 DNAP/DNA complexes, led us to conclude a pivotal role for this aspartate in orchestrating the network of interactions required during internal proofreading of misinserted nucleotides.