Translation of the Chinese Version of the Nomophobia Questionnaire and Its Validation Among College Students: Factor Analysis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Nomophobia or phobia of no mobile phone is the fear of being without a mobile phone or being unable to contact others via a mobile phone. It is a newly emerging psychiatric disorder among mobile phone users. OBJECTIVE:There are no psychometric scales available in China for examining nomophobia, although China has become the largest mobile phone handset consumer market in the world. Therefore, this study aimed to translate the original English version of a psychometric scale into Chinese and further examine its reliability and validity among Chinese college students. METHODS:The original version of the Nomophobia Questionnaire (NMP-Q) was first translated into Chinese using the backward and forward translation procedure. An exploratory factor analysis (a principal component analysis plus varimax rotation) and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were performed to examine the underlying factor structure of the translated questionnaire. The internal consistency reliability of the scale was determined by computing the Cronbach alpha coefficient, the test-retest reliability, and the corrected item-total correlation. A multivariate regression analysis was used for examining associations between nomophobia and independent variables among the college students. RESULTS:A total of 2000 participants were included in the study. Their ages ranged from 16 to 25 years, with 51.95% (1039/2000) being male participants. The Chinese version of NMP-Q retained 18 items. The eigenvalues, total variance explained, and scree plot jointly support a 4-factor structure of the translated questionnaire. The CFA reached the adaptive standard, and the discriminant validity of the scale was good. The Cronbach alpha coefficient of this scale was .925, and the Cronbach alpha coefficients of the subscales were .882, .843, .895, and .818. The test-retest reliability was 0.947. Corrected item-total correlation ranged from 0.539 to 0.663. The significant predictors for each of the dimensions of nomophobia and total score of the questionnaire were the average number of hours spent on a mobile phone daily and gender. CONCLUSIONS:The Chinese version of the NMP-Q exhibited satisfactory psychometric properties.
Project description:Nomophobia, which is a neologism derived from the combination of "no mobile," "phone," and "phobia" is considered to be a modern situational phobia and indicates a fear of feeling disconnected.No psychometric scales are available in Italian for investigating such a construct. We therefore planned a translation and validation study of the Nomophobia Questionnaire (NMP-Q), which is an instrument developed by Yildirim and Correia. Subjects were recruited via an online survey using a snowball approach.The NMP-Q was translated from English into Italian using a classical "backwards and forwards" procedure. In order to explore the underlying factor structure of the translated questionnaire, an exploratory factor analysis was carried out. A principal component analysis approach with varimax rotation was performed. Multivariate regression analyses were computed to shed light on the psychological predictors of nomophobia.A sample of 403 subjects volunteered to take part in the study. The average age of participants was 27.91 years (standard deviation 8.63) and the sample was comprised of 160 males (160/403, 39.7%) and 243 females (243/403, 60.3%). Forty-five subjects spent less than 1 hour on their mobile phone per day (45/403, 11.2%), 94 spent between 1 and 2 hours (94/403, 23.3%), 69 spent between 2 and 3 hours (69/403, 17.1%), 58 spent between 3 and 4 hours (58/403, 14.4%), 48 spent between 4 and 5 hours (48/403, 11.9%), 29 spent between 5 and 7 hours (29/403, 7.2%), 36 spent between 7 and 9 hours (36/403, 8.9%), and 24 spent more than 10 hours (24/403, 6.0%). The eigenvalues and scree plot supported a 3-factorial nature of the translated questionnaire. The NMP-Q showed an overall Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.95 (0.94, 0.89, and 0.88 for the three factors). The first factor explained up to 23.32% of the total variance, while the second and third factors explained up to 23.91% and 18.67% of the variance, respectively. The total NMP-Q score correlated with the number of hours spent on a mobile phone.The Italian version of the NMP-Q proved to be reliable.
Project description:Mobile phones are changing behaviour, relationships, communication and the dynamics of physical environments. As such, reliance on the device for everyday activities has increased. Consequently, "nomophobia", defined as the fear of being without one's mobile phone, has emerged as a new phobia. The current study aimed to determine if nomophobia can increase the likelihood of problematic dependent, prohibited and dangerous mobile phone use. The sample comprised 2838 participants (males n = 1337 females n = 1501) recruited from various online platforms. The instrument used to measure nomophobia was the Nomophobia Questionnaire (NMP-Q), while problematic mobile phone use was measured using the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire (PMPUQ-R). The findings revealed a strong positive correlation between nomophobia and all three problematic use factors. In addition to nomophobia, regression models revealed younger age and more time spent on a mobile phone per day significantly increased problematic dependency, prohibited use and dangerous use. Males were more likely to engage in prohibited and dangerous use, while no significant gender differences were found in dependent use. These findings support the need for further research into the relationship between nomophobia and specific aspects of problematic mobile phone use, such as using a mobile phone while driving.
Project description:The 40-item Quality of Recovery (QoR-40) questionnaire is well validated for measuring self-assessed postoperative recovery. The Swedish version of the 40-item Quality of Recovery (QoR-40) has been developed into a Web-based questionnaire, the Swedish Web version of the Quality of Recovery (SwQoR) questionnaire, adapted for use in a mobile app, Recovery Assessment by Phone Points, or RAPP.The aim of this study was to test the validity, reliability, responsiveness, and clinical acceptability and feasibility of SwQoR.We conducted a prospective psychometric evaluation study including 494 patients aged ?18 years undergoing day surgery at 4 different day-surgery departments in Sweden. SwQoR was completed daily on postoperative days 1 to 14.All a priori hypotheses were confirmed, supporting convergent validity. There was excellent internal consistency (Cronbach alpha range .91-.93), split-half reliability (coefficient range .87-.93), and stability (ri=.99, 95% CI .96-.99; P<.001). Cohen d effect size was 1.00, with a standardized response mean of 1.2 and a percentage change from baseline of 59.1%. An exploratory factor analysis found 5 components explaining 57.8% of the total variance. We noted a floor effect only on postoperative day 14; we found no ceiling effect.SwQoR is valid, has excellent reliability and high responsiveness, and is clinically feasible for the systematic follow-up of patients' postoperative recovery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The increasing concern about the adverse effects of overuse of smartphones during clinical practicum implies the need for policies restricting smartphone use while attending to patients. It is important to educate health personnel about the potential risks that can arise from the associated distraction. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the level of nomophobia and the distraction associated with smartphone use among nursing students during their clinical practicum. METHODS:A cross-sectional study was carried out on 304 nursing students. The nomophobia questionnaire (NMP-Q) and a questionnaire about smartphone use, the distraction associated with it, and opinions about phone restriction policies in hospitals were used. RESULTS:A positive correlation between the use of smartphones and the total score of nomophobia was found. In the same way, there was a positive correlation between opinion about smartphone restriction polices with each of the dimensions of nomophobia and the total score of the questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS:Nursing students who show high levels of nomophobia also regularly use their smartphones during their clinical practicum, although they also believe that the implementation of policies restricting smartphone use while working is necessary.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A mobile app is a programmed system designed to be used by a target user on a mobile device. The usability of such a system refers not only to the extent to which product can be used to achieve the task that it was designed for, but also its effectiveness and efficiency, as well as user satisfaction. The System Usability Scale is one of the most commonly used questionnaires used to assess the usability of a system. The original 10-item version of System Usability Scale was developed in English and thus needs to be adapted into local languages to assess the usability of a mobile apps developed in other languages. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study is to translate and validate (with cross-cultural adaptation) the English System Usability Scale questionnaire into Malay, the main language spoken in Malaysia. The development of a translated version will allow the usability of mobile apps to be assessed in Malay. METHODS:Forward and backward translation of the questionnaire was conducted by groups of Malay native speakers who spoke English as their second language. The final version was obtained after reconciliation and cross-cultural adaptation. The content of the Malay System Usability Scale questionnaire for mobile apps was validated by 10 experts in mobile app development. The efficacy of the questionnaire was further probed by testing the face validity on 10 mobile phone users, followed by reliability testing involving 54 mobile phone users. RESULTS:The content validity index was determined to be 0.91, indicating good relevancy of the 10 items used to assess the usability of a mobile app. Calculation of the face validity index resulted in a value of 0.94, therefore indicating that the questionnaire was easily understood by the users. Reliability testing showed a Cronbach alpha value of .85 (95% CI 0.79-0.91) indicating that the translated System Usability Scale questionnaire is a reliable tool for the assessment of usability of a mobile app. CONCLUSIONS:The Malay System Usability Scale questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool to assess the usability of mobile app in Malaysia.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Problematic mobile phone use (PMPU) has become a public health issue in China, particularly in adolescents and young adults. The Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire-Short Version (PMPUQ-SV) is a validated instrument that measures multiple aspects of PMPU. The current study aimed to test the psychometric characteristics of a Chinese adaption of the PMPUQ-SV and examine its measurement invariance across gender. METHODS:A total of 2086 participants were recruited form nine schools (six undergraduate colleges and three vocational colleges) through an online platform. Measures included socio-demographic variables, patterns of mobile phone use, the Chinese version of the PMPUQ-SV (C-PMPUQ-SV), the Chinese version of the Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (C-SAPS), and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). RESULTS:Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses conducted in two independent subsamples confirmed that the postulated dimensions fit the data well. Four items, judged as either outdated or not adapted to the Chinese context, performed poorly and were removed, resulting in a shorter 11-item scale. Convergent validity was established through correlations between emotional symptoms and the C-PMPUQ-SV and addictive smartphone use. Additional measurement invariance analyses showed that the scale performed largely similarly in male and female participants. CONCLUSIONS:The present study demonstrated that the C-PMPUQ-SV is an adequate instrument to study various types of PMPU in Chinese adolescents and young adults. The updated 11-item scale shortens the evaluation time and is adapted to assess contemporary smartphone use.
Project description:The use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is generating the emergence of new pathologies such as nomophobia. The aim of this research was to analyze the prevalence of nomophobia among young people, as well as to check whether the level of nomophobia is higher in males or females and in those students who claim to have less healthy nutrition due to the use of their mobile phones. The research method was based on a correlational and predictive design with a quantitative methodology. The measurement tool used is the Nomophobia Questionnaire (NMP-Q). The participating sample was 1743 students between 12 and 20 years old from different educational stages of the Autonomous City of Ceuta (Spain). The results show that highest rates of nomophobia were found in relation to the inability to communicate and contact others immediately. About gender, women have higher rates of nomophobia than men. In relation to age, no significant differences were found; thus, the problem may affect all ages equally. Finally, students who think that their smartphone use is detrimental to their good nutrition show higher levels on the scale provided.
Project description:Objective:To assess the psychometric properties of the short form Community Attitudes toward Mentally Illness (SF-CAMI) scale among medical students and primary healthcare workers in China. Methods:Original English version CAMI was translated following a standard procedure. and then short-form CAMI developed through the multistage procedure. The psychometric properties were tested among two separate samples which contained 1,092 primary healthcare workers and 1,228 medical students. Reliability was assessed by internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability. Exploratory factor and confirmatory factor analyses were performed to determine the structure and to assess the validity of the scale. Results:The Chinese version of SF-CAMI consists of 20 items and with three subscales: Benevolence, Fear and Exclusion, and Support and Tolerance. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated good fitting models for medical students and primary healthcare workers. The Cronbach ? of total scale for both samples was good (0.82 for medical students and 0.85 for primary healthcare workers), and acceptable test-retest reliability was found (intraclass correlation coefficient is 0.62 for medical students and 0.60 for primary healthcare workers). Conclusion:The Chinese version of SF-CAMI performed good reliability and validity among both primary healthcare workers and medical students, provide more feasible and available tools for assessing the effect of mental health service programs in China.
Project description:The increasing incidence of thyroid cancer worldwide has drawn attention to the needs for assessing and managing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of thyroid cancer survivors. We conducted this study to validate the Korean version of the thyroid cancer-specific quality of life (THYCA-QoL) questionnaire.Data obtained from 227 thyroid cancer survivors were analyzed using standard validity and reliability analysis techniques. Reliability was assessed by measuring internal consistency via Cronbach ? coefficient, and validity was assessed by determining the Pearson correlation coefficient between the THYCA-QoL questionnaire and the following relevant assessment tools: the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), the Korean version of Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI-K), the Korean version of Brief Encounter Psychosocial Instrument (BEPSI-K), Goldberg Short Screening Scale for Anxiety and Depression, and a nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). A multitrait scaling analysis was performed to assess each item's convergent and discriminant validity.The reliability of the THYCA-QoL questionnaire was confirmed by Cronbach ? coefficients for multiple-item scales which ranged from 0.54 (sensory) to 0.82 (psychological). Except for a single item (sexual interest), the questionnaire's validity was established by significant correlation observed between scales in the THYCA-QoL questionnaire and scales used in other assessment tools. A multitrait scaling analysis confirmed that all scales met the recommended psychometric standards.The Korean version of the THYCA-QoL questionnaire is a reliable and valid assessment tool that can be used in combination with the EORTC QLQ-C30 to assess the HRQoL of thyroid cancer survivors in Korea.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Work addiction is a significant public health problem with a growing prevalence. The Work Addiction Risk Test (WART) is the gold standard questionnaire to detect workaholism. OBJECTIVE:The main objective of this study was to validate the French version of the WART. METHODS:Questionnaires were proposed to voluntary French workers using the WittyFit software. There were no exclusion criteria. The questionnaire was administered anonymously for initial validity testing and readministered one week later for test-retest reliability. We also assessed the workers' sociodemographic characteristics, as well as other measurements for external validity, such as stress, well-being, and coaddictions to tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis. Several psychometric properties of the French-WART were explored: acceptability, reliability (internal consistency [Cronbach alpha coefficient] and reproducibility [Lin concordance coefficient]), construct validity (correlation coefficients and principal component analysis), and external validity (correlation coefficients). RESULTS:Among the 1580 workers using WittyFit, 187 (11.83%) agreed to complete the WART questionnaire. Of those, 128 completed the test-retest survey (68.4%). Acceptability found that all respondents had fully completed the questionnaire, with few floor or ceiling effects. Reliability was very good with a Cronbach alpha coefficient at .90 (internal consistency) and Lin concordance coefficient at .90 (95% CI .87-.94] with a difference on the retest of .04 (SD 4.9) (95% CI -9.6 to 9.7) (reproducibility). We identified three main dimensions (construct validity). Relationships between WART and stress and well-being confirmed its external validity. CONCLUSIONS:The French version of the WART is a valid and reliable instrument to assess work addiction with satisfactory psychometric properties. Used in occupational medicine, this tool would allow the diagnosis of work addiction and can be easily implemented in current practice.