Generation and characterization of bat-induced pluripotent stem cells.
ABSTRACT: Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were first generated from mouse embryonic fibroblasts in the year 2006. These cells resemble the typical morphology of embryonic stem cells, express pluripotency markers, and are able to transmit through germlines. To date, iPSCs of many species have been generated, whereas generation of bat iPSCs (biPSCs) has not been reported. To facilitate in-depth study of bats at the molecular and cellular levels, we describe the successful derivation of biPSCs with a piggyBac (PB) vector that contains eight reprogramming factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, Nanog, cMyc, Lin28, Nr5a2, and miR302/367. These biPSCs were cultured in media containing leukemia inhibitory factor and three small molecule inhibitors (CHIR99021, PD0325901, and A8301). They retained normal karyotype, displayed alkaline phosphatase activity, and expressed pluripotency markers Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, TBX3, and TRA-1-60. They could differentiate in vitro to form embryoid bodies and in vivo to form teratomas that contained tissue cells of all three germ layers. Generation of biPSCs will facilitate future studies on the mechanisms of antiviral immunity and longevity of bats at the cellular level.
Project description:Transcription factor-based cellular reprogramming has opened the way to converting somatic cells to a pluripotent state, but has faced limitations resulting from the requirement for transcription factors and the relative inefficiency of the process. We show here that expression of the miR302/367 cluster rapidly and efficiently reprograms mouse and human somatic cells to an iPSC state without a requirement for exogenous transcription factors. This miRNA-based reprogramming approach is two orders of magnitude more efficient than standard Oct4/Sox2/Klf4/Myc-mediated methods. Mouse and human miR302/367 iPSCs display similar characteristics to Oct4/Sox2/Klf4/Myc-iPSCs, including pluripotency marker expression, teratoma formation, and, for mouse cells, chimera contribution and germline contribution. We found that miR367 expression is required for miR302/367-mediated reprogramming and activates Oct4 gene expression, and that suppression of Hdac2 is also required. Thus, our data show that miRNA and Hdac-mediated pathways can cooperate in a powerful way to reprogram somatic cells to pluripotency.
Project description:Cellular reprogramming from somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be achieved through forced expression of the transcription factors Oct4, Klf4, Sox2, and c-Myc (OKSM) [1-4]. These factors, in combination with environmental cues, induce a stable intrinsic pluripotency network that confers indefinite self-renewal capacity on iPSCs. In addition to Oct4 and Sox2, the homeodomain-containing transcription factor Nanog is an integral part of the pluripotency network [5-11]. Although Nanog expression is not required for the maintenance of pluripotent stem cells, it has been reported to be essential for the establishment of both embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from blastocysts and iPSCs from somatic cells [10, 12]. Here we revisit the role of Nanog in direct reprogramming. Surprisingly, we find that Nanog is dispensable for iPSC formation under optimized culture conditions. We further document that Nanog-deficient iPSCs are transcriptionally highly similar to wild-type iPSCs and support the generation of teratomas and chimeric mice. Lastly, we provide evidence that the presence of ascorbic acid in the culture media is critical for overcoming the previously observed reprogramming block of Nanog knockout cells.
Project description:Zinc finger protein of the cerebellum (Zic)3, a member of Gli family of transcription factors (TFs), is essential for maintaining pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and has been reported to activate TF Nanog in an Oct4/Sox2-independent manner. Previously, we showed that Zic3 (Z), in combination with the Yamanka factors OCT4, SOX2, and KLF4 (OSK), induces neural progenitor-like cells from human fibroblasts. However, a similar combination of TFs (OSKZ) transduced in mouse embryonic fibroblasts resulted in enhanced induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) formation compared with OSK alone, but not neuroprogenitors. OSKZ-derived iPSCs are indistinguishable from mESCs in colony morphology, expression of alkaline phosphatase and pluripotency genes, and embryoid body and teratoma formation. Zic3 activates the transcription of Nanog, a key pluripotency regulator, as evidenced by a luciferase promoter assay. During the course of iPSC derivation, Zic3-mediated enhanced expression of Nanog and Tbx3, gene known to enhance iPSCs derivation, is observed. Not only does Zic3 enhance the reprogramming efficiency, but also reactivation of the endogenous Zic3 protein is essential for the generation of iPSCs, as knockdown of Zic3 during the iPSC generation with OSKM significantly reduced the number of colonies. Together, our result uncovers an important role of Zic3 in generating mouse iPSCs.
Project description:Cellular reprogramming of committed cells into a pluripotent state can be induced by ectopic expression of genes such as OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and MYC. Reprogrammed cells can be maintained by activating endogenous pluripotent networks without transgene expression. Although various research groups have attempted to generate pig induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), authentic iPSCs have not be obtained, instead showing dependence on transgene expression. In this study, iPSCs were derived from porcine fetal fibroblasts via drug-inducible vectors carrying human transcription factors (OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and MYC). Therefore, this study investigated characteristics of iPSCs and reprogramming mechanisms in pig. The iPSCs were stably maintained over an extended period with potential in vitro differentiation into three germ layers. In addition, the pluripotent state of iPSCs was regulated by modulating culture conditions. They showed naive- or primed-like pluripotent states in LIF or bFGF supplemented culture conditions, respectively. However, iPSCs could not be maintained without ectopic expression of transgenes. The cultured iPSCs expressed endogenous transcription factors such as OCT4 and SOX2, but not NANOG (a known gateway to complete reprogramming). Endogenous genes related to mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (DPPA2, CDH1, EPCAM, and OCLN) were not sufficiently reactivated, as measured by qPCR. DNA methylation analysis for promoters of OCT4, NANOG, and XIST showed that epigenetic reprogramming did not occur in female iPSCs. Based on our results, expression of exogenous genes could not sufficiently activate the essential endogenous genes and remodel the epigenetic milieu to achieve faithful pluripotency in pig. Accordingly, investigating iPSCs could help us improve and develop reprogramming methods by understanding reprogramming mechanisms in pig.
Project description:It has been suggested that the transcription factor Nanog is essential for the establishment of pluripotency during the derivation of embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). However, successful reprogramming to pluripotency with a growing list of divergent transcription factors, at ever-increasing efficiencies, suggests that there may be many distinct routes to a pluripotent state. Here, we have investigated whether Nanog is necessary for reprogramming murine fibroblasts under highly efficient conditions using the canonical-reprogramming factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and cMyc. In agreement with prior results, the efficiency of reprogramming Nanog (-/-) fibroblasts was significantly lower than that of control fibroblasts. However, in contrast to previous findings, we were able to reproducibly generate iPSCs from Nanog (-/-) fibroblasts that effectively contributed to the germline of chimeric mice. Thus, whereas Nanog may be an important mediator of reprogramming, it is not required for establishing pluripotency in the mouse, even under standard conditions.
Project description:Primordial germ cells (PGCs) share many properties with embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and innately express several key pluripotency-controlling factors, including OCT4, NANOG, and LIN28. Therefore, PGCs may provide a simple and efficient model for studying somatic cell reprogramming to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), especially in determining the regulatory mechanisms that fundamentally define pluripotency. Here, we report a novel model of PGC reprogramming to generate iPSCs via transfection with SOX2 and OCT4 using integrative lentiviral. We also show the feasibility of using nonintegrative approaches for generating iPSC from PGCs using only these two factors. We show that human PGCs express endogenous levels of KLF4 and C-MYC protein at levels similar to embryonic germ cells (EGCs) but lower levels of SOX2 and OCT4. Transfection with both SOX2 and OCT4 together was required to induce PGCs to a pluripotent state at an efficiency of 1.71%, and the further addition of C-MYC increased the efficiency to 2.33%. Immunohistochemical analyses of the SO-derived PGC-iPSCs revealed that these cells were more similar to ESCs than EGCs regarding both colony morphology and molecular characterization. Although leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) was not required for the generation of PGC-iPSCs like EGCs, the presence of LIF combined with ectopic exposure to C-MYC yielded higher efficiencies. Additionally, the SO-derived PGC-iPSCs exhibited differentiation into representative cell types from all three germ layers in vitro and successfully formed teratomas in vivo. Several lines were generated that were karyotypically stable for up to 24 subcultures. Their derivation efficiency and survival in culture significantly supersedes that of EGCs, demonstrating their utility as a powerful model for studying factors regulating pluripotency in future studies.
Project description:NANOG, OCT4 and SOX2 form the core network of transcription factors supporting embryonic stem (ES) cell self-renewal. While OCT4 and SOX2 expression is relatively uniform, ES cells fluctuate between states of high NANOG expression possessing high self-renewal efficiency, and low NANOG expression exhibiting increased differentiation propensity. NANOG, OCT4 and SOX2 are currently considered to activate transcription of each of the three genes, an architecture that cannot readily account for NANOG heterogeneity. Here, we examine the architecture of the Nanog-centred network using inducible NANOG gain- and loss-of-function approaches. Rather than activating itself, Nanog activity is autorepressive and OCT4/SOX2-independent. Moreover, the influence of Nanog on Oct4 and Sox2 expression is minimal. Using Nanog:GFP reporters, we show that Nanog autorepression is a major regulator of Nanog transcription switching. We conclude that the architecture of the pluripotency gene regulatory network encodes the capacity to generate reversible states of Nanog transcription via a Nanog-centred autorepressive loop. Therefore, cellular variability in self-renewal efficiency is an emergent property of the pluripotency gene regulatory network.
Project description:Human embryonic stem cells and human embryonal carcinoma cells have been studied extensively with respect to the transcription factors (OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG), epigenetic modulators and associated signalling pathways that either promote self-renewal or induce differentiation in these cells. The ACTIVIN/NODAL axis (SMAD2/3) of the TGFß signalling pathway coupled with FGF signalling maintains self-renewal in these cells, whilst the BMP (SMAD1,5,8) axis promotes differentiation. Here we show that miR-27, a somatic-enriched miRNA, is activated upon RNAi-mediated suppression of OCT4 function in human embryonic stem cells. We further demonstrate that miR-27 negatively regulates the expression of the pluripotency-associated ACTIVIN/NODAL axis (SMAD2/3) of the TGFß signalling pathway by targeting ACVR2A, TGFßR1 and SMAD2. Additionally, we have identified a number of pluripotency-associated genes such as NANOG, LIN28, POLR3G and NR5A2 as novel miR-27 targets. Transcriptome analysis revealed that miR-27 over-expression in human embryonal carcinoma cells leads indeed to a significant up-regulation of genes involved in developmental pathways such as TGFß- and WNT-signalling.
Project description:Nanog has an important role in pluripotency induction in bovines and snow leopards. To examine whether it was required for wild felids globally, we examined the induction of pluripotency in felids from Asia (Bengal tiger, Panthera tigris), Africa (serval, Leptailurus serval), and the Americas (jaguar, Panthera onca). Dermal fibroblasts were transduced with genes encoding the human transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC with or without NANOG. Both four- and five-factor induction resulted in colony formation at day 3 in all three species tested; however, we were not able to maintain colonies that were generated without NANOG beyond passage (P) 7. Five-factor induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) colonies from wild cats were expanded in vitro on feeder layers and were positive for alkaline phosphatase and protein expression of OCT-4, NANOG, and stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 at P4 and P14. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed that all five human transgenes were transcribed at P4; however, OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG transgenes were silenced by P14. Endogenous OCT4 and NANOG transcripts were detected at P4 and P14 in all cell lines confirming successful reprogramming. At P14, the iPSCs from all three species remained euploid and differentiated in vivo and in vitro into derivatives of the three germ layers. This study describes an effective method for inducing pluripotency in three endangered wild cats from across the globe and confirms Nanog as an essential factor in the reprogramming event. Efficient production of iPSC from endangered felids creates a unique opportunity for species preservation through gamete production, nuclear transfer, embryo complementation, and future novel technologies.
Project description:Although numbers of cancer cell lines have been shown to be successfully reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), reprogramming Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) to pluripotency in relation to its cancer cell type and the expression pattern of pluripotent genes under later passage remain unexplored. In our study, we reprogrammed and characterised H103 and H376 oral squamous carcinoma cells using retroviral OSKM mediated method. Reprogrammed cells were characterized for their embryonic stem cells (ESCs) like morphology, pluripotent gene expression via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), immunofluorescence staining, embryoid bodies (EB) formation and directed differentiation capacity. Reprogrammed H103 (Rep-H103) exhibited similar ESCs morphologies with flatten cells and clear borders on feeder layer. Reprogrammed H376 (Rep-H376) did not show ESCs morphologies but grow with a disorganized morphology. Critical pluripotency genes Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog were expressed higher in Rep-H103 against the parental counterpart from passage 5 to passage 10. As for Rep-H376, Nanog expression against its parental counterpart showed a significant decrease at passage 5 and although increased in passage 10, the level of expression was similar to the parental cells. Rep-H103 exhibited pluripotent signals (Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and Tra-1-60) and could form EB with the presence of three germ layers markers. Rep-H103 displayed differentiation capacity into adipocytes and osteocytes. The OSCC cell line H103 which was able to be reprogrammed into an iPSC like state showed high expression of Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog at late passage and may provide a potential iPSC model to study multi-stage oncogenesis in OSCC.