Transition of the Bacterial Community and Culturable Chitinolytic Bacteria in Chitin-treated Upland Soil: From Streptomyces to Methionine-auxotrophic Lysobacter and Other Genera.
ABSTRACT: Chitin amendment is an agricultural management strategy for controlling soil-borne plant disease. We previously reported an exponential decrease in chitin added to incubated upland soil. We herein investigated the transition of the bacterial community structure in chitin-degrading soil samples over time and the characteristics of chitinolytic bacteria in order to elucidate changes in the chitinolytic bacterial community structure during chitin degradation. The addition of chitin to soil immediately increased the population of bacteria in the genus Streptomyces, which is the main decomposer of chitin in soil environments. Lysobacter, Pseudoxanthomonas, Cellulosimicrobium, Streptosporangium, and Nonomuraea populations increased over time with decreases in that of Streptomyces. We isolated 104 strains of chitinolytic bacteria, among which six strains were classified as Lysobacter, from chitin-treated soils. These results suggested the involvement of Lysobacter as well as Streptomyces as chitin decomposers in the degradation of chitin added to soil. Lysobacter isolates required yeast extract or casamino acid for significant growth on minimal agar medium supplemented with glucose. Further nutritional analyses demonstrated that the six chitinolytic Lysobacter isolates required methionine (Met) to grow, but not cysteine or homocysteine, indicating Met auxotrophy. Met auxotrophy was also observed in two of the five type strains of Lysobacter spp. tested, and these Met auxotrophs used d-Met as well as l-Met. The addition of Met to incubated upland soil increased the population of Lysobacter. Met may be a factor increasing the population of Lysobacter in chitin-treated upland soil.
Project description:The effects of agricultural-improvement treatments on the chitinolytic activity and diversity of a microbial community were investigated within an upland pasture. The treatments of interest were lime and treated sewage sludge, both commonly applied to pasture land to improve fertility. Burial of chitin-containing litter bags at the field site resulted in enrichment of bacteria according to 16S rRNA fingerprinting. Chitinolytic-activity measurements showed that the highest activity occurred in those bags recovered from sludge-amended plots, which correlated well with increased counts of actinobacteria in samples from these chitin bags. Our findings suggest that sewage sludge increases the fertility of the soil in terms of chitinase activity. Ten clone libraries were constructed from family 18 subgroup A chitinases, PCR amplified from litter bags buried in soil in July 2000 or in September 2000, in a separate study. Analysis of these libraries by restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing showed that they were dominated by actinobacterium-like chitinase sequences. This suggests that actinobacteria have an important chitinolytic function in this soil ecosystem. Our findings showed that sludge application increased chitinolytic activity but decreased the diversity of chitinases present.
Project description:Among the bacteria, members of the order Actinomycetales are considered quintessential degraders of complex polysaccharides in soils. However, studies examining complex polysaccharide degradation by Actinomycetales (other than Streptomyces spp.) in soils are limited. Here, we examine the lignocellulolytic and chitinolytic potential of 112 Actinomycetales strains, encompassing 13 families, isolated from a semiarid grassland of the Colorado Plateau in Utah. Members of the Streptomycetaceae, Pseudonocardiaceae, Micromonosporaceae, and Promicromonosporaceae families exhibited robust activity against carboxymethyl cellulose, xylan, chitin, and pectin substrates (except for low/no pectinase activity by the Micromonosporaceae). When incubated in a hydrated mixture of blended Stipa and Hilaria grass biomass over a 5-week period, Streptomyces and Saccharothrix (a member of the Pseudonocardiaceae) isolates produced high levels of extracellular enzyme activity, such as endo- and exocellulase, glucosidase, endo- and exoxylosidase, and arabinofuranosidase. These characteristics make them well suited to degrade the cellulose and hemicellulose components of grass cell walls. On the basis of the polysaccharide degradation profiles of the isolates, relative abundance of Actinomycetales sequences in 16S rRNA gene surveys of Colorado Plateau soils, and analysis of genes coding for polysaccharide-degrading enzymes among 237 Actinomycetales genomes in the CAZy database and 5 genomes from our isolates, we posit that Streptomyces spp. and select members of the Pseudonocardiaceae and Micromonosporaceae likely play an important role in the degradation of hemicellulose, cellulose, and chitin substances in dryland soils.IMPORTANCE Shifts in the relative abundance of Actinomycetales taxa have been observed in soil microbial community surveys during large, manipulated climate change field studies. However, our limited understanding of the ecophysiology of diverse Actinomycetales taxa in soil systems undermines attempts to determine the underlying causes of the population shifts or their impact on carbon cycling in soil. This study combines a systematic analysis of the polysaccharide degradation potential of a diverse collection of Actinomycetales isolates from surface soils of a semiarid grassland with analysis of genomes from five of these isolates and publicly available Actinomycetales genomes for genes encoding polysaccharide-active enzymes. The results address an important gap in knowledge of Actinomycetales ecophysiology-identification of key taxa capable of facilitating lignocellulose degradation in dryland soils. Information from this study will benefit future metagenomic studies related to carbon cycling in dryland soils by providing a baseline linkage of Actinomycetales phylogeny with lignocellulolytic functional potential.
Project description:Background:The biodegradation of chitin is an important part of the carbon and nitrogen cycles in nature. Speeding up the biotransformation of chitin substrates can not only reduce pollution, but also produce high value-added products. However, this process is strictly regulated by the catalytic efficiency of the chitinolytic machinery. Therefore, it is necessary to study the mode of action and compound mechanisms of different chitin-degrading enzymes in depth to improve the catalytic efficiency of the chitinolytic machinery. Results:The thermophilic bacterium Streptomyces sp. F-3 showed comparatively high chitin degradation activities. To elucidate the mechanism underlying chitin hydrolysis, six chitin degradation-related enzymes were identified in the extracellular proteome of Streptomyces sp. F-3, including three chitinases (SsChi18A, SsChi18B, and SsChi18C) from the GH18 family, one GH19 chitinase (SsChi19A), one GH20 β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (SsGH20A), and one lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (SsLPMO10A) from the AA10 family. All were upregulated by chitin. The heterologously expressed hydrolases could withstand temperatures up to 70 °C and were stable at pH values of 4 to 11. Biochemical analyses displayed that these chitin degradation-related enzymes had different functions and thus showed synergistic effects during chitin degradation. Furthermore, based on structural bioinformatics data, we speculated that the different action modes among the three GH18 chitinases may be caused by loop differences in their active site architectures. Among them, SsChi18A is probably processive and mainly acts on polysaccharides, while SsChi18B and SsChi18C are likely endo-non-processive and displayed higher activity on the degradation of chitin oligosaccharides. In addition, proteomic data and synergy experiments also indicated the importance of SsLPMO10A, which could promote the activities of the hydrolases and increase the monosaccharide content in the reaction system, respectively. Conclusions:In this article, the chitinolytic machinery of a thermophilic Streptomyces species was studied to explore the structural basis for the synergistic actions of chitinases from different GH18 subfamilies. The elucidation of the degradation mechanisms of these thermophilic chitinases will lay a theoretical foundation for the efficient industrialized transformation of natural chitin.
Project description:Biodegradation of lobster shells by chitinolytic microorganisms are an environment safe approach to utilize lobster processing wastes for chitin derivation. In this study, we report degradation activities of two microbes, "S223" and "S224" isolated from soil samples that had the highest rate of deproteinization, demineralization and chitinolysis among ten microorganisms screened. Isolates S223 and S224 had 27.3 and 103.8 protease units mg-1 protein and 12.3 and 11.2 ?g ml-1 of calcium in their samples, respectively, after 1 week of incubation with raw lobster shells. Further, S223 contained 23.8 ?g ml-1 of N-Acetylglucosamine on day 3, while S224 had 27.3 ?g ml-1 on day 7 of incubation with chitin. Morphological observations and 16S rDNA sequencing suggested both the isolates were Streptomyces. The culture conditions were optimized for efficient degradation of lobster shells and chitinase (?30 kDa) was purified from crude extract by affinity chromatography. The digested lobster shell extracts induced disease resistance in Arabidopsis by induction of defense related genes (PR1 > 500-fold, PDF1.2 > 40-fold) upon Pseudomonas syringae and Botrytis cinerea infection. The study suggests that soil microbes aid in sustainable bioconversion of lobster shells and extraction of chitin derivatives that could be applied in plant protection.
Project description:Chitin is one of the most abundant biomolecules on earth, and its partially de-N-acetylated counterpart, chitosan, is one of the most promising biotechnological resources due to its diversity in structure and function. Recently, chitin and chitosan modifying enzymes (CCMEs) have gained increasing interest as tools to engineer chitosans with specific functions and reliable performance in biotechnological and biomedical applications. In a search for novel CCME, we isolated chitinolytic and chitosanolytic microorganisms from soils with more than ten-years history of chitin and chitosan exposure and screened them for chitinase and chitosanase isoenzymes as well as for their patterns of oligomeric products by incubating their secretomes with chitosan polymers. Of the 60 bacterial strains isolated, only eight were chitinolytic and/or chitosanolytic, while 20 out of 25 fungal isolates were chitinolytic and/or chitosanolytic. The bacterial isolates produced rather similar patterns of chitinolytic and chitosanolytic enzymes, while the fungal isolates produced a much broader range of different isoenzymes. Furthermore, diverse mixtures of oligosaccharides were formed when chitosan polymers were incubated with the secretomes of select fungal species. Our study indicates that soils with a history of chitin and chitosan exposure are a good source of novel CCME for chitosan bioengineering.
Project description:Here, we report on the construction of a metagenomic library from a chitin-amended disease-suppressive agricultural soil and its screening for genes that encode novel chitinolytic enzymes. The library, constructed in fosmids in an Escherichia coli host, comprised 145,000 clones containing inserts of sizes of 21 to 40 kb, yielding a total of approximately 5.8 GB of cloned soil DNA. Using genetic screenings by repeated PCR cycles aimed to detect gene sequences of the bacterial chitinase A-class (hereby named chi A genes), we identified and characterized five fosmids carrying candidate genes for chitinolytic enzymes. The analysis thus allowed access to the genomic (fosmid-borne) context of these genes. Using the chiA-targeted PCR, which is based on degenerate primers, the five fosmids all produced amplicons, of which the sequences were related to predicted chitinolytic enzyme-encoding genes of four different host organisms, including Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Sequencing and de novo annotation of the fosmid inserts confirmed that each one of these carried one or more open reading frames that were predicted to encode enzymes active on chitin, including one for a chitin deacetylase. Moreover, the genetic contexts in which the putative chitinolytic enzyme-encoding genes were located were unique per fosmid. Specifically, inserts from organisms related to Burkholderia sp., Acidobacterium sp., Aeromonas veronii, and the chloroflexi Nitrolancetus hollandicus and/or Ktedonobacter racemifer were obtained. Remarkably, the S. maltophilia chiA-like gene was found to occur in two different genetic contexts (related to N. hollandicus/K. racemifer), indicating the historical occurrence of genetic reshufflings in this part of the soil microbiota. One fosmid containing the insert composed of DNA from the N. hollandicus-like organism (denoted 53D1) was selected for further work. Using subcloning procedures, its putative gene for a chitinolytic enzyme was successfully brought to expression in an E. coli host. On the basis of purified protein preparations, the produced protein was characterized as a chitobiosidase of 43.6 kDa, with a pI of 4.83. Given its activity spectrum, it can be typified as a halotolerant chitobiosidase.
Project description:Actinobacteria, a large group of Gram-positive bacteria, secrete a wide range of extracellular enzymes involved in the degradation of organic compounds and biopolymers including the ubiquitous aminopolysaccharides chitin and chitosan. While chitinolytic enzymes are distributed in all kingdoms of life, actinobacteria are recognized as particularly good decomposers of chitinous material and several members of this taxon carry impressive sets of genes dedicated to chitin and chitosan degradation. Degradation of these polymers in actinobacteria is dependent on endo- and exo-acting hydrolases as well as lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases. Actinobacterial chitinases and chitosanases belong to nine major families of glycosyl hydrolases that share no sequence similarity. In this paper, the distribution of chitinolytic actinobacteria within different ecosystems is examined and their chitinolytic machinery is described and compared to those of other chitinolytic organisms.
Project description:Chitinolytic microorganisms secrete a range of chitin modifying enzymes, which can be exploited for production of chitin derived products or as fungal or pest control agents. Here, we explored the potential of 11 marine bacteria (Pseudoalteromonadaceae, Vibrionaceae) for chitin degradation using in silico and phenotypic assays. Of 10 chitinolytic strains, three strains, Photobacterium galatheae S2753, Pseudoalteromonas piscicida S2040 and S2724, produced large clearing zones on chitin plates. All strains were antifungal, but against different fungal targets. One strain, Pseudoalteromonas piscicida S2040, had a pronounced antifungal activity against all seven fungal strains. There was no correlation between the number of chitin modifying enzymes as found by genome mining and the chitin degrading activity as measured by size of clearing zones on chitin agar. Based on in silico and in vitro analyses, we cloned and expressed two ChiA-like chitinases from the two most potent candidates to exemplify the industrial potential.
Project description:One of the major proteins secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a 43-kDa protein, which is cleaved by elastase into smaller fragments, including a 30-kDa and a 23-kDa fragment. The N-terminal 23-kDa fragment was previously suggested as corresponding to a staphylolytic protease and was designated LasD (S. Park and D. R. Galloway, Mol. Microbiol. 16:263-270, 1995). However, the sequence of the gene encoding this 43-kDa protein revealed that the N-terminal half of the protein is homologous to the chitin-binding proteins CHB1 of Streptomyces olivaceoviridis and CBP21 of Serratia marcescens and to the cellulose-binding protein p40 of Streptomyces halstedii. Furthermore, a short C-terminal fragment shows homology to a part of chitinase A of Vibrio harveyi. The full-length 43-kDa protein could bind chitin and was thereby protected against the proteolytic activity of elastase, whereas the degradation products did not bind chitin. The purified 43-kDa chitin-binding protein had no staphylolytic activity, and comparison of the enzymatic activities in the extracellular medium of a wild-type strain and a chitin-binding protein-deficient mutant indicated that the 43-kDa protein supports neither chitinolytic nor staphylolytic activity. We conclude that the 43-kDa protein, which was found to be produced by many clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa, is a chitin-binding protein, and we propose to name it CbpD (chitin-binding protein D).
Project description:Functionally important proteins at the interface of cell and soil are of potentially low abundance when compared with commonly recovered intracellular proteins. A novel approach was developed and used to extract the metaexoproteome, the subset of proteins found outside the cell, in the context of a soil enriched with the nitrogen-containing recalcitrant polymer chitin. The majority of proteins recovered was of bacterial origin and localized to the outer membrane or extracellular milieu. A wide variety of transporter proteins were identified, particularly those associated with amino-acid and phosphate uptake. The metaexoproteome extract retained chitinolytic activity and we were successful in detecting Nocardiopsis-like chitinases that correlated with the glycoside hydrolase family 18 (GH18) chi gene data and metataxonomic analysis. Nocardiopsis-like chitinases appeared to be solely responsible for chitinolytic activity in soil. This is the first study to detect and sequence bacterial exoenzymes with proven activity in the soil enzyme pool.