High-throughput, combinatorial synthesis of multimetallic nanoclusters.
ABSTRACT: Multimetallic nanoclusters (MMNCs) offer unique and tailorable surface chemistries that hold great potential for numerous catalytic applications. The efficient exploration of this vast chemical space necessitates an accelerated discovery pipeline that supersedes traditional "trial-and-error" experimentation while guaranteeing uniform microstructures despite compositional complexity. Herein, we report the high-throughput synthesis of an extensive series of ultrafine and homogeneous alloy MMNCs, achieved by 1) a flexible compositional design by formulation in the precursor solution phase and 2) the ultrafast synthesis of alloy MMNCs using thermal shock heating (i.e., ?1,650 K, ?500 ms). This approach is remarkably facile and easily accessible compared to conventional vapor-phase deposition, and the particle size and structural uniformity enable comparative studies across compositionally different MMNCs. Rapid electrochemical screening is demonstrated by using a scanning droplet cell, enabling us to discover two promising electrocatalysts, which we subsequently validated using a rotating disk setup. This demonstrated high-throughput material discovery pipeline presents a paradigm for facile and accelerated exploration of MMNCs for a broad range of applications.
Project description:The catalytic activity of alloy nanoparticles depends on the particle size and composition ratio of different metals. Alloy nanoparticles composed of Pd, Pt, and Au are widely used as catalysts for oxidation reactions. The catalytic activities of Pt and Au nanoparticles in oxidation reactions are known to increase as the particle size decreases and to increase on the metal-metal interface of alloy nanoparticles. Therefore, multimetallic nanoclusters (MNCs) around 1 nm in diameter have potential as catalysts for oxidation reactions. However, there have been few reports describing the preparation of uniform alloy nanoclusters. We report the synthesis of finely controlled MNCs (around 1 nm) using a macromolecular template with coordination sites arranged in a gradient of basicity. We reveal that Cu-Pt-Au MNCs supported on graphitized mesoporous carbon show catalytic activity that is 24 times greater than that of a commercially available Pt catalyst for aerobic oxidation of hydrocarbons. In addition, solvent-free aerobic oxidation of hydrocarbons to ketones at room temperature, using small amounts of a radical initiator, was achieved as a heterogeneous catalytic reaction for the first time.
Project description:Developing facial synthetic routes for fabrication of multimetallic nanocatalysts with open porous morphology, tunable composition and tailored crystalline structure is a big challenge for fabrication of low-cost electrocatalysts. Here we report on the synthesis of single-crystalline dendritic bimetallic and multimetallic nanocubes via a solvothermal co-reduction method. These cubes show highly porous, complex 3D inner connections but single-crystalline structure. Tuning the reduction kinetics of metal precursors and introducing galvanic reaction at the active sites during growth were believed to be the keys for the formation of such unique nanostructure. Electro-catalytic oxygen reduction (ORR) and methanol oxidation (MOR) on these catalysts showed dramatic enhancements for both cathodic and anodic electrocatalysis in fuel cells, which were attributed to their unique morphology and crystalline structure, as well as synergetic effect of the multi-metallic components. This work uncovers the formation mechanism of such complex single-crystalline dendritic multimetallic nanocrystals and offers a promising synthetic strategy for geometric and crystalline control of multimetallic nanocrystals with tailored physical and chemical properties, which will benefit the development of clean energy.
Project description:The elucidation of formation mechanisms is mandatory for understanding and planning of synthetic routes. For (bio-)organic and organometallic compounds, this has long been realized even for very complicated molecules, whereas the formation of ligand-free inorganic molecules has widely remained a black box to date. This is due to poor structural relationships between reactants and products and the lack of structurally related intermediates--due to the comparably high coordination flexibility of involved atoms. Here we report on investigations of the stepwise formation of multimetallic clusters, based on a series of crystal structures and complementary quantum-chemical studies of (Ge2As2)(2-), (Ge7As2)(2-), [Ta@Ge6As4](3-), [Ta@Ge8As4](3-) and [Ta@Ge8As6](3-). The study makes use of efficient quantum-chemical tools, enabling the first detailed screening of the energy hypersurface along the formation of ligand-free inorganic species for a semi-quantitative picture. The results can be generalized for an entire family of multimetallic clusters.
Project description:Multimetallic mesoporous spheres are successfully synthesized with ultra-large mesopores with the assistance of nonionic triblock copolymer (F127) as a structural directing agent. The kinetically controlled reduction rate of metal species and the concentration of F127 are critical to the formation of the large mesopores.
Project description:Controlling the nanostructures and chemical compositions of the electrochemical nanocatalysts has been recognized as two prominent means to kinetically promote the electrocatalytic performance. Herein, we report a general "dual"-template synthesis methodology for the formation of multimetallic hollow mesoporous nanospheres (HMSs) with an adjustable interior hollow cavity and cylindrically opened mesoporous shell as a highly efficient electrocatalyst for ethanol oxidation reaction. Three-dimensional trimetallic PdAgCu HMSs were synthesized via in situ coreduction of Pd, Ag, and Cu precursors on "dual"-template structural directing surfactant of dioctadecyldimethylammonium chloride in optimal synthesis conditions. Due to synergistic advantages on hollow mesoporous nanostructures and multimetallic compositions, the resultant PdAgCu HMSs exhibited significantly enhanced electrocatalytic performance toward ethanol oxidation reaction with a mass activity of 5.13 A mgPd -1 at a scan rate of 50 mV s-1 and operation stability (retained 1.09 A mgpd -1 after the electrocatalysis). The "dual"-template route will open a new avenue to rationally design multimetallic HMSs with controlled functions for broad applications.
Project description:A new modular [Fe(II)(Fe(III)L(2))(3)](PF(6))(2) species with discoid (disk-like) topology exhibits redox and surfactant properties and points to a new approach for multimetallic Langmuir film precursors.
Project description:Synthesis of biomimetic multimetallic clusters is sought after for applications such as efficient storage of solar energy and utilization of greenhouse gases. However, synthetic efforts are hampered by a dearth of ligands that are developed for multimetallic clusters due to current limitations in rational design and organic synthesis. Peptoids, a synthetic sequence-defined oligomer, enable a biomimetic strategy to rapidly synthesize and optimize large, multifunctional ligands by structural design and combinatorial screening. Here we discover peptoid oligomers (?7 residues) that fold into a single conformation to provide unprecedented tetra- and hexadentate chelation by carboxylates to a [Co4O4] cubane cluster. The structures of peptoid-bound cubanes were determined by 2D NMR spectroscopy, and their structures reveal key steric and side-chain-to-main chain interactions that work in concert to rigidify the peptoid ligand. This efficient ligand design strategy holds promise for creating new scaffolds for the abiotic synthesis and manipulation of multimetallic clusters.
Project description:The advent of transition-metal catalysed strategies for forming new carbon-carbon bonds has revolutionized the field of organic chemistry, enabling the efficient synthesis of ligands, materials, and biologically active molecules. In cases where a single metal fails to promote a selective or efficient transformation, the synergistic cooperation of two distinct catalysts--multimetallic catalysis--can be used instead. Many important reactions rely on multimetallic catalysis, such as the Wacker oxidation of olefins and the Sonogashira coupling of alkynes with aryl halides, but this approach has largely been limited to the use of metals with distinct reactivities, with only one metal catalyst undergoing oxidative addition. Here, we demonstrate that cooperativity between two group 10 metal catalysts--(bipyridine)nickel and (1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane)palladium--enables a general cross-Ullmann reaction (the cross-coupling of two different aryl electrophiles). Our method couples aryl bromides with aryl triflates directly, eliminating the use of arylmetal reagents and avoiding the challenge of differentiating between multiple carbon-hydrogen bonds that is required for direct arylation methods. Selectivity can be achieved without an excess of either substrate and originates from the orthogonal reactivity of the two catalysts and the relative stability of the two arylmetal intermediates. While (1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane)palladium reacts preferentially with aryl triflates to afford a persistent intermediate, (bipyridine)nickel reacts preferentially with aryl bromides to form a transient, reactive intermediate. Although each catalyst forms less than 5 per cent cross-coupled product in isolation, together they are able to achieve a yield of up to 94 per cent. Our results reveal a new method for the synthesis of biaryls, heteroaryls, and dienes, as well as a general mechanism for the selective transfer of ligands between two metal catalysts. We anticipate that this reaction will simplify the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, many of which are currently made with pre-formed organometallic reagents, and lead to the discovery of new multimetallic reactions.
Project description:We report on the correlation between the nanocrystal and surface alloy properties with the bimetallic composition of gold-platinum(AuPt) nanoparticles. The fundamental understanding of whether the AuPt nanocrystal core is alloyed or phase-segregated and how the surface binding properties are correlated with the nanoscale bimetallic properties is important not only for the exploitation of catalytic activity of the nanoscale bimetallic catalysts, but also to the general exploration of the surface or interfacial reactivities of bimetallic or multimetallic nanoparticles. The AuPt nanoparticles are shown to exhibit not only single-phase alloy character in the nanocrystal, but also bimetallic alloy property on the surface. The nanocrystal and surface alloy properties are directly correlated with the bimetallic composition. The FTIR probing of CO adsorption on the bimetallic nanoparticles supported on silica reveals that the surface binding sites are dependent on the bimetallic composition. The analysis of this dependence further led to the conclusion that the relative Au-atop and Pt-atop sites for the linear CO adsorption on the nanoparticle surface are not only correlated with the bimetallic composition, but also with the electronic effect as a result of the d-band shift of Pt in the bimetallic nanocrystals, which is the first demonstration of the nanoscale core-surface property correlation for the bimetallic nanoparticles over a wide range of bimetallic composition.
Project description:While the synthesis of biaryls has advanced rapidly in the past decades, cross-Ullman couplings of aryl chlorides, the most abundant aryl electrophiles, have remained elusive. Reported here is the first general cross-Ullman coupling of aryl chlorides with aryl triflates. The selectivity challenge associated with coupling an inert electrophile with a reactive one is overcome using a multimetallic strategy with the appropriate choice of additive. Studies demonstrate that LiCl is essential for effective cross-coupling by accelerating the reduction of Ni(II) to Ni(0) and counteracting autoinhibition of reduction at Zn(0) by Zn(II) salts. The modified conditions tolerate a variety of functional groups on either coupling partner (42 examples), and examples include a three-step synthesis of flurbiprofen.