Semisynthesis and Biological Evaluation of Platensimycin Analogues with Varying Aminobenzoic Acids.
ABSTRACT: Platensimycin (PTM) is an excellent natural product drug lead against various gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. In this study, twenty PTM derivatives with varying aminobenzoic acids were semisynthesized. In contrast to all the previous reported inactive aminobenzaote analogues, a few of them showed moderate antibacterial activities against S. aureus. Our study suggested that modification of the conserved aminobenzoic acid remains a viable approach to diversify the PTM scaffold.
Project description:Platensimycin (PTM), originally isolated from soil bacteria Streptomyces platensis, is a potent FabF inhibitor against many Gram-positive pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. However, the further clinical development of PTM is hampered by its poor pharmacokinetic properties. In this study, 20 PTM derivatives were prepared by Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions catalyzed by Pd (0)/C. Compared to PTM, 6-pyrenyl PTM (6t) showed improved antibacterial activity against MRSA in a mouse peritonitis model. Our results support the strategy to target the essential fatty acid synthases in major pathogens, in order to discover and develop new generations of antibiotics.
Project description:Platensimycin (PTM), produced by several strains of Streptomyces platensis, is a promising drug lead for infectious diseases and diabetes. The recent pilot-scale production of PTM from S. platensis SB12026 has set the stage for the facile semi-synthesis of a focused library of PTM analogues. In this study, gram-quantity of platensic acid (PTMA) was prepared by the sulfuric acid-catalyzed ethanolysis of PTM, followed by a mild hydrolysis in aqueous lithium hydroxide. Three PTMA esters were also obtained in near quantitative yields in a single step, suggesting a facile route to make PTMA aliphatic esters. 1-[Bis(dimethylamino)methylene]-1H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-b]pyridinium 3-oxid hexafluorophosphate (HATU)-catalyzed coupling of PTMA and 33 aminobenzoates resulted in the synthesis of 28 substituted aminobenzoate analogues of PTM, among which 26 of them were reported for the first time. Several of the PTM analogues showed weak antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Our study supported the potential utility to integrate natural product biosynthetic and semi-synthetic approaches for structure diversification.
Project description:Several sulfur-containing platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN) analogues, with activities comparable to the parent natural products, have recently been discovered from microorganisms, implying a biomimetic route to diversify the PTM and PTN scaffolds for structure-activity relationship study. We present here a substrate-directed and scaleable semisynthetic strategy to make PTM and PTN sulfur analogues with excellent diasteroselectivity, without using any chiral catalysts. Most of the sulfur analogues showed strong activities against clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates, with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.5-2 ?g mL-1. Density functional theory calculations were in agreement with the observed selectivity for these analogues and suggest that the conformation restraints of the terpene cages of PTM and PTN on the transition states determine the si-face attack selectivity.
Project description:A dozen oxime, hydrazine and hydrazide derivatives of platensimycin (PTM) analogues were synthesized, some of which showed strong antibacterial activities and were shown to be stable under the bioassay conditions. Docking analysis revealed that they have certain new interactions with ?-ketoacyl-[acyl carrier protein] synthase II (FabF), suggesting that Schiff base formation on its terpene scaffold is an effective strategy to diversify PTM structure.
Project description:Bacterial fatty acid synthases are promising antibacterial targets against multidrug-resistant pathogens. Platensimycin (PTM) is a potent FabB/FabF inhibitor, while its poor pharmacokinetics hampers the clinical development. In this study, a focused library of PTM derivatives was prepared through thiolysis of PTM oxirane (1), followed by various C-C cross-coupling reactions in high yields. Antibacterial screening of these compounds in vitro yielded multiple hits with improved anti-Staphylococcus activities over PTM. Among them, compounds A1, A3, A17, and A28 exhibited improved antibacterial activities over PTM against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a mouse peritonitis model. Compound A28 was further shown to be effective against MRSA infection in a mouse wound model, in comparison to mupirocin. Therefore, the facile preparation and screening of these PTM derivatives, together with their potent antibacterial activities in vivo, suggest a promising strategy to improve the antibacterial activity and pharmacokinetic properties of PTM.
Project description:The platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN) class of natural products are promising drug leads that target bacterial and mammalian fatty acid synthases. Natural congeners and synthetic analogues of PTM and PTN have been instrumental in determining their structure-activity relationships, with only a few analogues retaining the potencies of PTM and PTN. Here we describe the identification and isolation of two new sulfur-containing PTM congeners (3 and 5) from the engineered dual PTM-PTN overproducing Streptomyces platensis SB12029. Structure elucidation of platensimycin D1 (5), a sulfur-containing PTM pseudo-dimer, revealed the existence of its presumptive thioacid precursor (3). The unstable thioacid 3 was isolated and confirmed by structural characterization of its permethylated product (6). LC-MS analysis of crude extracts of SB12029 confirmed the presence of the thioacid analogue of PTN (4). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for 5 revealing retention of the strong antibacterial activity of PTM.
Project description:Inactivation of ptmB1, ptmB2, ptmT2, or ptmC in Streptomyces platensis SB12029, a platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN) overproducer, revealed that PTM and PTN biosynthesis features two distinct moieties that are individually constructed and convergently coupled to afford PTM and PTN. A focused library of PTM and PTN analogues was generated by mutasynthesis in the ?ptmB1 mutant S. platensis SB12032. Of the 34 aryl variants tested, 18 were incorporated with high titers.
Project description:Platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN), isolated from several strains of Streptomyces platensis are potent antibiotics against multi-drug resistant bacteria. PTM was also shown to have antidiabetic and antisteatotic activities in mouse models. Through a novel genome-mining method, we have recently identified six PTM and PTN dual-producing strains, and generated several mutants with improved production of PTM or PTN by inactivating the pathway-specific transcriptional repressor gene ptmR1. Among them, S. platensis SB12026 gave the highest titer of 310 mg/L for PTM. In this study, we now report titer improvement by medium and fermentation optimization and pilot-scale production and isolation of PTM from SB12026. The fermentation medium optimization was achieved by manipulating the carbon and nitrogen sources, as well as the inorganic salts. The highest titer of 1560 mg/L PTM was obtained in 15-L fermentors, using a formulated medium mainly containing soluble starch, soybean flour, morpholinepropanesulfonic acid sodium salt and CaCO3. In addition, a polyamide chromatographic step was applied to facilitate the purification and 45.14 g of PTM was successfully obtained from a 60 L scale fermentation. These results would speed up the future development of PTM as human medicine.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There is an urgent need for the discovery and development of new drugs against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, especially due to the recent emergence of multi-drug and extensively-drug resistant strains. Herein, we have examined the susceptibility of mycobacteria to the natural product platensimycin. METHODS AND FINDINGS:We have demonstrated that platensimycin has bacteriostatic activity against the fast growing Mycobacterium smegmatis (MIC = 14 microg/ml) and against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MIC = 12 microg/ml). Growth in the presence of paltensimycin specifically inhibited the biosynthesis of mycolic acids suggesting that the antibiotic targeted the components of the mycolate biosynthesis complex. Given the inhibitory activity of platensimycin against beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthases from Staphylococcus aureus, M. tuberculosis KasA, KasB or FabH were overexpressed in M. smegmatis to establish whether these mycobacterial KAS enzymes were targets of platensimycin. In M. smegmatis overexpression of kasA or kasB increased the MIC of the strains from 14 microg/ml, to 30 and 124 microg/ml respectively. However, overexpression of fabH on did not affect the MIC. Additionally, consistent with the overexpression data, in vitro assays using purified proteins demonstrated that platensimycin inhibited Mt-KasA and Mt-KasB, but not Mt-FabH. SIGNIFICANCE:Our results have shown that platensimycin is active against mycobacterial KasA and KasB and is thus an exciting lead compound against M. tuberculosis and the development of new synthetic analogues.
Project description:Platensimycin (PTM) is a recently discovered broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces platensis. It acts by selectively inhibiting the elongation-condensing enzyme FabF of the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in bacteria. We report here that PTM is also a potent and highly selective inhibitor of mammalian fatty acid synthase. In contrast to two agents, C75 and cerulenin, that are widely used as inhibitors of mammalian fatty acid synthase, platensimycin specifically inhibits fatty acid synthesis but not sterol synthesis in rat primary hepatocytes. PTM preferentially concentrates in liver when administered orally to mice and potently inhibits hepatic de novo lipogenesis, reduces fatty acid oxidation, and increases glucose oxidation. Chronic administration of platensimycin led to a net reduction in liver triglyceride levels and improved insulin sensitivity in db/+ mice fed a high-fructose diet. PTM also reduced ambient glucose levels in db/db mice. These results provide pharmacological proof of concept of inhibiting fatty acid synthase for the treatment of diabetes and related metabolic disorders in animal models.