Genetic and genomic analysis for cocoon yield traits in silkworm.
ABSTRACT: Domestic species provides a powerful model for examining genetic mechanisms in the evolution of yield traits. The domestic silkworm (Bombyx mori) is an important livestock species in sericulture. While the mechanisms controlling cocoon yield are largely unknown. Here, using B. mori and its wild relative B. mandarina as intercross parents, 100 BC1 individuals were sequenced by restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq). The linkage map contained 9,632 markers was constructed. We performed high-resolution quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for four cocoon yield traits. A total of 11 QTLs were identified, including one yield-enhancing QTL from wild silkworm. By integrating population genomics and transcriptomic analysis with QTLs, some favourable genes were revealed, including 14 domestication-related genes and 71 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the fifth-instar larval silk gland transcriptome between B. mori and B. mandarina. The relationships between the expression of two important candidate genes (KWMTBOMO04917 and KWMTBOMO12906) and cocoon yield were supported by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Our results provide some new insights into the molecular mechanisms of complex yield traits in silkworm. The combined method might be an efficient approach for identifying putative causal genes in domestic livestock and wild relatives.
Project description:The carotenoid-binding protein (CBP) of the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, a major determinant of cocoon color, is likely to have been substantially influenced by domestication of this species. We analyzed the structure of the CBP gene in multiple strains of B. mori, in multiple individuals of the wild silkworm, B. mandarina (the putative wild ancestor of B. mori), and in a number of other lepidopterans. We found the CBP gene copy number in genomic DNA to vary widely among B. mori strains, ranging from 1 to 20. The copies of CBP are of several types, based on the presence of a retrotransposon or partial deletion of the coding sequence. In contrast to B. mori, B. mandarina was found to possess a single copy of CBP without the retrotransposon insertion, regardless of habitat. Several other lepidopterans were found to contain sequences homologous to CBP, revealing that this gene is evolutionarily conserved in the lepidopteran lineage. Thus, domestication can generate significant diversity of gene copy number and structure over a relatively short evolutionary time.
Project description:Long-term domestication and selective breeding have increased the silk yield of the domestic silkworm (Bombyx mori) by several times the amount of the silk yield of its wild ancestor (Bombyx mandarina). However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind the increase in silk yield during domestication. Based on dynamic patterns of functional divergence in the silk gland between domestic and wild silkworms, we found that at early and intermediate stages of silk gland development, the up-regulated genes of the domestic silkworm were mainly involved in DNA integration, nucleic acid binding, and transporter activity, which are related to the division and growth of cells. This has led to the posterior silk gland (PSG) of the domestic silkworm having significantly more cells ("factories" of fibroin protein synthesis) than that of the wild silkworm. At the late stage of silk gland development, the up-regulated genes in the domestic silkworm was enriched in protein processing and ribosome pathways, suggesting protein synthesis efficiency is greatly improved during silkworm domestication. While there was an increase in fibroin protein synthesis, the production of sericin protein was simultaneously reduced in the silk gland of the domestic silkworm. This reflects that domestic and wild silkworms have been under different selection pressures. Importantly, we found that the network co-expressed with the silk-coding genes of the domestic silkworm was larger than that of the wild silkworm. Furthermore, many more genes co-expressed with silk-coding genes in the domestic silkworm were subjected to artificial selection than those in the wild silkworm. Our results revealed that the increase of silk yield during silkworm domestication is involved in improvement of a biological system which includes not only expansion of "factories" (cells of PSG) of protein synthesis, but also a high expression of silk-coding genes and silk production-related genes such as biological energy, transport, and ribosome pathway genes.
Project description:To investigate the patterns of nucleotide diversity in domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) and its wild relative, Chinese wild silkworm, Bombyx mandarina Moore, we sequenced nine nuclear genes. Neutrality test and coalescent simulation for these genes were performed to look at bottleneck intensity and selection signature; linkage disequilibrium (LD) within and between loci was employed to investigate allele association. As a result, B. mori lost 33-49% of nucleotide diversity relative to wild silkworm, which is similar to the loss levels found in major cultivated crops. Diversity of B. mori is significantly lower than that of B. mandarina measured as ?(total) (0.01166 vs. 0.1741) or ?(W)(0.01124 vs. 0.02206). Bottleneck intensity of domesticated silkworm is 1.5 (in terms of k = N(b) /d, N(b) -bottleneck population size; d-bottleneck duration) with different durations. Gene DefA showed signature of artificial selection by all analysis methods and might experience strong artificial selection in B. mori during domestication. For nine loci, both curves of LD decay rapidly within 200 bp and drop slowly when distance is > 200 bp, although that of B. mori decays slower than B. mandarina at loci investigated. However, LD could not be estimated at DefA in B. mori and at ER in both silkworms. Elevated LD observed in B. mori may be indicator of selection and demographic events.
Project description:Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) that infects the silkworm, B. mori, accounts for >50% of silk cocoon crop losses globally. We speculated that simultaneous targeting of several BmNPV essential genes in transgenic silkworm would elicit a stable defense against the virus. We introduced into the silkworm germline the vectors carrying short sequences of four essential BmNPV genes in tandem, either in sense or antisense or in inverted-repeat arrangement. The transgenic silkworms carrying the inverted repeat-containing transgene showed stable protection against high doses of baculovirus infection. Further, the antiviral trait was incorporated to a commercially productive silkworm strain highly susceptible to BmNPV. This led to combining the high-yielding cocoon and silk traits of the parental commercial strain and a very high level of refractoriness (>75% survival rate as compared to <15% in nontransgenic lines) to baculovirus infection conferred by the transgene. We also observed impaired infectivity of the occlusion bodies derived from the transgenic lines as compared to the wild-type ones. Currently, large-scale exploitation of these transgenic lines is underway to bring about economic transformation of sericulture.
Project description:The hypothesis that domestication leads to a relaxation of purifying selection on mitochondrial (mt) genomes was tested by comparative analysis of mt genes from dog, pig, chicken, and silkworm. The three vertebrate species showed mt genome phylogenies in which domestic and wild isolates were intermingled, whereas the domestic silkworm (Bombyx mori) formed a distinct cluster nested within its closest wild relative (Bombyx mandarina). In spite of these differences in phylogenetic pattern, significantly greater proportions of nonsynonymous SNPs than of synonymous SNPs were unique to the domestic populations of all four species. Likewise, in all four species, significantly greater proportions of RNA-encoding SNPs than of synonymous SNPs were unique to the domestic populations. Thus, domestic populations were characterized by an excess of unique polymorphisms in two categories generally subject to purifying selection: nonsynonymous sites and RNA-encoding sites. Many of these unique polymorphisms thus seem likely to be slightly deleterious; the latter hypothesis was supported by the generally lower gene diversities of polymorphisms unique to domestic populations in comparison to those of polymorphisms shared by domestic and wild populations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The insect olfactory system is a highly specific and sensitive chemical detector, which plays important roles in feeding, mating and finding an appropriate oviposition site. The ecological niche of Bombyx mori has changed greatly since domestication from B. mandarina, and its olfactory response to environmental odorants clearly decreased. However, the mechanisms that result in the olfactory impairment are largely unknown. RESULTS:The antennal transcriptomes were compared between the domestic and wild silkworms. Comparison of the same sex between the domestic and wild silkworms revealed 1410 and 1173 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in males and females, respectively. To understand the olfactory impairment, we mainly focused on the olfactory-related genes. In total, 30 olfactory genes and 19 odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs) showed differential expression in the two comparisons, in which 19 and 14 were down-regulated in the domestic silkworm, respectively. Based on population genomic data, the down-regulated odorant receptors (ORs) showed a higher ratio of unique non-synonymous polymorphisms to synonymous polymorphisms (N/S ratio) in the domestic populations than that in the wild silkworms. Furthermore, one deleterious mutation was found in OR30 of the domestic population, which was located in transmembrane helix 6 (TM6). CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggested that down-regulation of the olfactory-related genes and relaxed selection might be the major reasons for olfactory impairment of the domestic silkworm reared completely indoor environment. Reversely, wild silkworm may increase expression and remove deleterious polymorphisms of olfactory-related genes to retain sensitive olfaction.
Project description:The silk of silkworm consists of fibroin fiber coated by sericins. In addition, some nonprotein components were also identified in the sericin fraction. The presence of nonprotein components in the silk has not been well explained. In the present study, methods based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to identify the metabolites in the cocoon silk from a wild silkworm and two domestic silkworm strains. In total, 45 metabolites were in the cocoon silk, including organic acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, amino acids, and hydrocarbons. Comparative analyses revealed that 17 metabolites were significant more in the wild silkworm cocoon than in the domestic silkworm cocoon, including three organic acids, three fatty acids, three aldoses, four sugar alcohols, three hydrocarbons, and pyridine. Of them, citric acid in the wild silkworm cocoon is more than 40 times that in the domestic silkworm cocoon, which may have protective value against microbes. The carbohydrate, lipid, and the long-chain hydrocarbons may act as water repellent to make the pupa survive longer in the dry environment. Many metabolites in the cocoon silk may play roles to improve the silk resistance. Lots of nonprotein components were identified in the silk for the first time, providing useful data for understanding the biological function of the cocoon silk.
Project description:Bombyx mori was domesticated from the Chinese wild silkworm, Bombyx mandarina. Wild and domestic silkworms are good models in which to investigate genes related to silk protein synthesis that may be differentially expressed in silk glands, because their silk productions are very different. Here we used the mRNA deep sequencing (RNA-seq) approach to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the transcriptomes of the median/posterior silk glands of two domestic and two wild silkworms.The results indicated that about 58% of the total genes were expressed (reads per kilo bases per million reads (RPKM) ≥ 1) in each silkworm. Comparisons of the domestic and wild silkworm transcriptomes revealed 32 DEGs, of which 16 were up-regulated in the domestic silkworms compared with in the wild silkworms, and the other 16 were up-regulated in the wild silkworms compared with in the domestic silkworms. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed for 15 randomly selected DEGs in domestic versus wild silkworms. The qPCR results were mostly consistent with the expression levels determined from the RNA-seq data. Based on a Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis and manual annotation, five of the up-regulated DEGs in the wild silkworms were predicted to be involved in immune response, and seven of the up-regulated DEGs were related to the GO term "oxidoreductase activity", which is associated with antioxidant systems. In the domestic silkworms, the up-regulated DEGs were related mainly to tissue development, secretion of proteins and metabolism.The up-regulated DEGs in the two domestic silkworms may be involved mainly in the highly efficient biosynthesis and secretion of silk proteins, while the up-regulated DEGs in the two wild silkworms may play more important roles in tolerance to pathogens and environment adaptation. Our results provide a foundation for understanding the molecular mechanisms of the silk production difference between domestic and wild silkworms.
Project description:Silk is an important natural fiber of high economic value, and thus genetic study of the silkworm is a major area of research. Transcriptome analysis can provide guidance for genetic studies of silk yield traits. In this study, we performed a transcriptome comparison using multiple silkworms with different silk yields. A total of 22 common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in multiple strains and were mainly involved in metabolic pathways. Among these, seven significant common DEGs were verified by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and the results coincided with the findings generated by RNA sequencing. Association analysis showed that BGIBMGA003330 and BGIBMGA005780 are significantly associated with cocoon shell weight and encode uridine nucleosidase and small heat shock protein, respectively. Functional annotation of these genes suggest that these play a role in silkworm silk gland development or silk protein synthesis. In addition, we performed principal component analysis (PCA) in combination with wild silkworm analysis, which indicates that modern breeding has a stronger selection effect on silk yield traits than domestication, and imply that silkworm breeding induces aggregation of genes related to silk yield.
Project description:We reared a Telenomus species from eggs of Bombyx mandarina (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) and Bombyx mori (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) in Japan, and from eggs of B. mandarina in Taiwan. Morphological examination revealed that this Telenomus species is new to science. In this article, we describe it as Telenomus moricolus Matsuo et Hirose, sp. nov. Because B. mandarina is considered to be an ancestor of B. mori, a domestic insect, it is reasonable to assume that B. mandarina is an original host of T. moricolus. This is the second discovery of an egg parasitoid attacking wild and domesticated silkworms, following the first discovery of T. theophilae, a Chinese species. The significance of the discovery of T. moricolus is discussed in relation to examining the effects of host-insect domestication on egg parasitism.