OsVPE3 Mediates GA-induced Programmed Cell Death in Rice Aleurone Layers via Interacting with Actin Microfilaments.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs) have been identified as the enzymes that regulate vacuole-mediated programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. The mechanism that VPE regulates the PCD in rice aleurone layers remains unknown. RESULTS:The aleurone layers treated with distilled water exerted caspase-1 and VPE activity, both of which were inhibited by the caspase-1 specific inhibitor Ac-YVAD-CMK but not by the caspase-3 specific inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO. However, the caspase-1 and caspase-3 inhibitors weakened the activity of caspase-3. Combined with the effects of endogenous gibberellin (GA) on the induction of OsVPEs, we suggest that the OsVPE3 in the aleurone layers, which exhibits caspase-1-like activity, is a key molecule in GA-induced PCD via regulating the protease with caspase-3-like activity. Many studies have confirmed that vacuolar fusion is an important feature of vacuole-mediated PCD in plants. In this experiment, the process of vacuole fusion was accompanied by changes in the structure of actin filaments (AFs), specifically, their depolymerization and polymerization. The process of vacuolar fusion was accelerated or delayed by the promotion or inhibition of the depolymerization of AFs, respectively. Here, the inhibition of OsVPE3 blocked the depolymerization of AFs and delayed the fusion of vacuoles, indicating that OsVPE3 can regulate the fusion of vacuoles in rice aleurone layers via mediating AFs. Furthermore, the depolymerization of AFs contributed to the up-regulation of OsVPE3 gene expression and VPE activity, resulting in accelerated PCD in rice aleurone layers. However, the inhibitor of VPE reversed the effects of AF depolymerization on the activity of VPE, then postponing the process of PCD, implying that AF can involve in GA-induced PCD of rice aleurone layers by mediating OsVPE3. CONCLUSIONS:Together, activation of OsVPE3 and depolymerization of AFs shortened the process of vacuolation and PCD in rice aleurone layers, and OsVPE3 interacted with AFs during regulation.
Project description:Vacuole fusion is a necessary process for the establishment of a large central vacuole, which is the central location of various hydrolytic enzymes and other factors involved in death at the beginning of plant programmed cell death (PCD). In our report, the fusion of vacuoles has been presented in two ways: i) small vacuoles coalesce to form larger vacuoles through membrane fusion, and ii) larger vacuoles combine with small vacuoles when small vacuoles embed into larger vacuoles. Regardless of how fusion occurs, a large central vacuole is formed in rice (Oryza sativa) aleurone cells. Along with the development of vacuolation, the rupture of the large central vacuole leads to the loss of the intact plasma membrane and the degradation of the nucleus, resulting in cell death. Stabilizing or disrupting the structure of actin filaments (AFs) inhibits or promotes the fusion of vacuoles, which delays or induces PCD. In addition, the inhibitors of the vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) and cathepsin B (CathB) block the occurrence of the large central vacuole and delay the progression of PCD in rice aleurone layers. Overall, our findings provide further evidence for the rupture of the large central vacuole triggering the PCD in aleruone layers.
Project description:Cereal aleurone layers undergo a gibberellin (GA)-regulated process of programmed cell death (PCD) following germination. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is known as a rate-liming enzyme in the degradation of heme to biliverdin IX?, carbon monoxide (CO), and free iron ions (Fe(2+)). It is a critical component in plant development and adaptation to environment stresses. Our previous studies confirmed that HO-1 inducer hematin (Ht) promotes the germination of rice seeds in drought (20% polyethylene glycol-6000, PEG) conditions, but the corresponding effects of HO-1 on the alleviation of germination-triggered PCD in GA-treated rice aleurone layers remain unknown. The present study has determined that GA co-treated with PEG results in lower HO-1 transcript levels and HO activity, which in turn results in the development of vacuoles in aleurone cells, followed by PCD. The pharmacology approach illustrated that up- or down-regulated HO-1 gene expression and HO activity delayed or accelerated GA-induced PCD. Furthermore, the application of the HO-1 inducer Ht and nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) not only activated HO-1 gene expression, HO activity, and endogenous NO content, but also blocked GA-induced rapid vacuolation and accelerated aleurone layers PCD under drought stress. However, both HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) and NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl0-4, 4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-l-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO) reserved the effects of Ht and SNP on rice aleurone layer PCD under drought stress by down-regulating endogenous HO-1 and NO, respectively. The inducible effects of Ht and SNP on HO-1 gene expression, HO activity, and NO content were blocked by cPTIO. Together, these results clearly suggest that HO-1 is involved in the alleviation of GA-induced PCD of drought-triggered rice aleurone layers by associating with NO.
Project description:Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a reactive oxygen species (ROS) that plays a dual role in plant cells. Here, we discovered that drought (20% polyethylene glycol-6000, PEG)-triggered decreases of HO-1 transcript expression and HO activity. However, exogenous H2O2 contributed toward the increase in HO-1 gene expression and activity of the enzyme under drought stress. Meanwhile, the HO-1 inducer hematin could mimic the effects of the H2O2 scavengers ascorbic acid (AsA) and dimethylthiourea (DMTU) and the H2O2 synthesis inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) for scavenging or diminishing drought-induced endogenous H2O2. Conversely, the zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX), an HO-1-specific inhibitor, reversed the effects of hematin. We further analyzed the endogenous H2O2 levels and HO-1 transcript expression levels of aleurone layers treated with AsA, DMTU, and DPI in the presence of exogenous H2O2 under drought stress, respectively. The results showed that in aleurone layers subjected to drought stress, when the endogenous H2O2 level was inhibited, the effect of exogenous H2O2 on the induction of HO-1 was enhanced. Furthermore, exogenous H2O2-activated HO-1 effectively enhanced amylase activity. Application of 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP) (the membrane permeable cGMP analog) promoted the effect of exogenous H2O2-delayed PCD of aleurone layers in response to drought stress. More importantly, HO-1 delayed the programmed cell death (PCD) of aleurone layers by cooperating with nitric oxide (NO), and the delayed effect of NO on PCD was achieved via mediation by cGMP under drought stress. In short, in rice aleurone layers, exogenous H2O2 (as a signaling molecule) triggered HO-1 and delayed PCD via cGMP which possibly induced amylase activity under drought stress. In contrast, as a toxic by-product of cellular metabolism, the drought-generated H2O2 promoted cell death.
Project description:H2S is a signaling molecule in plants and animals. Here we investigated the effects of H2S on programmed cell death (PCD) in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) aleurone layers. The H2S donor NaHS significantly delayed PCD in aleurone layers isolated from imbibed embryoless barley grain. NaHS at 0.25?mM effectively reduced the accumulation of superoxide anion (·O2 (-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and malondialdehyde (MDA), promoted the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and decreased those of lipoxygenase (LOX) in isolated aleurone layers. Quantitative-PCR showed that NaHS treatment of aleurone tissue led to enhanced transcript levels of the antioxidant genes HvSOD1, HvAPX, HvCAT1, and HvCAT2 and repressed transcript levels of HvLOX (lipoxygenase gene) and of two cysteine protease genes HvEPA and HvCP3-31. NaHS treatment in gibberellic acid- (GA-) treated aleurone layers also delayed the PCD process, reduced the content of ·O2 (-), and increased POD activity while decreasing LOX activity. Furthermore, ?-amylase secretion in barley aleurone layers was enhanced by NaHS treatment regardless of the presence or absence of GA. These data imply that H2S acted as an antioxidant in delaying PCD and enhances ?-amylase secretion regardless of the presence of GA in barley aleurone layers.
Project description:Programmed cell death (PCD) induced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in various plant physiological processes, yet its mechanism is still elusive. An activation of caspase-3-like enzymatic activity was clearly demonstrated but the role of the two known plant proteases with caspase-3-like activity, cathepsin B and proteasome subunit PBA1, remains to be established. Both genetic downregulation and chemical inhibition were used to investigate the function of cathepsin B and PBA1 in ER-stress-induced PCD (ERSID). Transcript level and activity labelling of cathepsin B were used to assess activation. To study tonoplast rupture, a plant PCD feature, both confocal and electronic microscopies were used. Cathepsin B downregulation reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and ERSID without affecting the induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR), but downregulation of PBA1 increased UPR and ERSID. Tonoplast rupture was not altered in the cathepsin B mutant and cathepsin B activation was independent of vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE). VPE activity was independent of cathepsin B. ERSID is regulated positively by cathepsin B and negatively by PBA1, revealing a complex picture behind caspase-3-like activity in plants. Cathepsin B may execute its function after tonoplast rupture and works in parallel with VPE.
Project description:Prolonged endoplasmic reticulum and osmotic stress synergistically activate the stress-induced N-rich protein-mediated signaling that transduces a cell death signal by inducing GmNAC81 (GmNAC6) in soybean. To identify novel regulators of the stress-induced programmed cell death (PCD) response, we screened a two-hybrid library for partners of GmNAC81. We discovered another member of the NAC (NAM-ATAF1,2-CUC2) family, GmNAC30, which binds to GmNAC81 in the nucleus of plant cells to coordinately regulate common target promoters that harbor the core cis-regulatory element TGTG[TGC]. We found that GmNAC81 and GmNAC30 can function either as transcriptional repressors or activators and cooperate to enhance the transcriptional regulation of common target promoters, suggesting that heterodimerization may be required for the full regulation of gene expression. Accordingly, GmNAC81 and GmNAC30 display overlapping expression profiles in response to multiple environmental and developmental stimuli. Consistent with a role in PCD, GmNAC81 and GmNAC30 bind in vivo to and transactivate hydrolytic enzyme promoters in soybean protoplasts. A GmNAC81/GmNAC30 binding site is located in the promoter of the caspase-1-like vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) gene, which is involved in PCD in plants. We demonstrated that the expression of GmNAC81 and GmNAC30 fully transactivates the VPE gene in soybean protoplasts and that this transactivation was associated with an increase in caspase-1-like activity. Collectively, our results indicate that the stress-induced GmNAC30 cooperates with GmNAC81 to activate PCD through the induction of the cell death executioner VPE.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs) are cysteine proteinases that act as crucial mediators of programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. In rice, however, the role of VPEs in abiotic stress-induced PCD remains largely unknown. In this study, we generated OsVPE3 overexpression and suppression transgenic lines to elucidate the function of this gene in rice. RESULTS:Survival rate and chlorophyll retention analyses showed that suppression of OsVPE3 clearly enhanced salt stress tolerance in transgenic rice compared with wild type. Furthermore, fragmentation of genomic DNA was inhibited in plants with down-regulated OsVPE3. Vital staining studies indicated that vacuole rupture occurred prior to plasma membrane collapse during salt-induced PCD. Notably, overexpression of OsVPE3 promoted vacuole rupture, whereas suppression of OsVPE3 attenuated or delayed the disintegration of vacuolar membranes. Moreover, we found that suppression of OsVPE3 caused decreased leaf width and guard cell length in rice. CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, these results indicated that suppression of OsVPE3 enhances salt tolerance by attenuating vacuole rupture during PCD. Therefore, we concluded that OsVPE3 plays a crucial role in vacuole-mediated PCD and in stomatal development in rice.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of developing rice endosperm at seven days after flowering comparing aleurone layers with central starchy endosperm. Cereal productivity is dependent on the accumulation of storage compounds in the endosperm, a nutritive tissue that is composed of aleurone cells in the outermost regions and starchy endosperm in the inner region. The transcriptional analyses provides clues to the molecular basis for different metabolic pathways in response to the spatial and nutritional differences between rice aleurone cells and starchy endosperm. Two-condition experiment, Aleurone layers vs. central starchy endosperm. 3 biological replicates with color swap for each biological replicate
Project description:<i>Fusarium oxysporum</i> f. sp. <i>cubense</i> tropical race 4 (<i>Foc</i>TR4) is a destructive necrotrophic fungal pathogen afflicting global banana production. Infection process involves the activation of programmed cell death (PCD). In this study, seven <i>Musa acuminata vacuolar processing enzyme</i> (<i>MaVPE1</i>-<i>MaVPE7</i>) genes associated with PCD were successfully identified. Phylogenetic analysis and tissue-specific expression categorized these MaVPEs into the seed and vegetative types. <i>Foc</i>TR4 infection induced the majority of <i>MaVPE</i> expressions in the susceptible cultivar "Berangan" as compared to the resistant cultivar "Jari Buaya." Consistently, upon <i>Foc</i>TR4 infection, high caspase-1 activity was detected in the susceptible cultivar, while low level of caspase-1 activity was recorded in the resistant cultivar. Furthermore, inhibition of MaVPE activities <i>via</i> caspase-1 inhibitor in the susceptible cultivar reduced tonoplast rupture, decreased lesion formation, and enhanced stress tolerance against <i>Foc</i>TR4 infection. Additionally, the <i>Arabidopsis VPE</i>-null mutant exhibited higher tolerance to <i>Foc</i>TR4 infection, indicated by reduced sporulation rate, low levels of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> content, and high levels of cell viability. Comparative proteomic profiling analysis revealed increase in the abundance of cysteine proteinase in the inoculated susceptible cultivar, as opposed to cysteine proteinase inhibitors in the resistant cultivar. In conclusion, the increase in vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE)-mediated PCD played a crucial role in modulating susceptibility response during compatible interaction, which facilitated <i>Foc</i>TR4 colonization in the host.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Since their discovery, vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs) have consistently been investigated as programmed cell death (PCD) initiators and participants in plant development and responses to biotic or abiotic stresses, in part due to similarities with the apoptosis regulator caspase-1. However, recent studies show additional functions of VPE in tomatoes, specifically in sucrose accumulation and fruit ripening.<h4>Results</h4>Herein, we evaluated the functions of VPE from sweetpotato, initially in expression pattern analyses of IbVPE1 during development and senescence. Subsequently, we identified physiological functions by overexpressing IbVPE1 in Arabidopsis thaliana, and showed reduced leaf sizes and numbers and early flowering, and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The present data demonstrate functions of the VPE gene family in development and senescence and in regulation of flowering times, leaf sizes and numbers, and senescence phenotypes in Arabidopsis thaliana.