Distribution Patterns of DNA N6-Methyladenosine Modification in Non-coding RNA Genes.
ABSTRACT: N6-methyladenosine (6mA) DNA modification played an important role in epigenetic regulation of gene expression. And the aberrational expression of non-coding genes, as important regular elements of gene expression, was related to many diseases. However, the distribution and potential functions of 6mA modification in non-coding RNA (ncRNA) genes are still unknown. In this study, we analyzed the 6mA distribution of ncRNA genes and compared them with protein-coding genes in four species (Arabidopsis thaliana, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and Homo sapiens) using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing data. The results indicated that the consensus motifs of short nucleotides at 6mA location were highly conserved in four species, and the non-coding gene was less likely to be methylated compared with protein-coding gene. Especially, the 6mA-methylated lncRNA genes were expressed significant lower than genes without methylation in A. thaliana (p = 3.295e-4), D. melanogaster (p = 3.439e-11), and H. sapiens (p = 9.087e-3).. The detection and distribution profiling of 6mA modification in ncRNA regions from four species reveal that 6mA modifications may have effects on their expression level.
Project description:N 6-methyladenine (6mA) DNA modification has been detected in several eukaryotic organisms, where it plays important roles in gene regulation and epigenetic memory maintenance. However, the genome-wide distribution patterns and potential functions of 6mA DNA modification in woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) remain largely unknown. Here, we examined the 6mA landscape in the F. vesca genome by adopting single-molecule real-time sequencing technology and found that 6mA modification sites were broadly distributed across the woodland strawberry genome. The pattern of 6mA distribution in the long non-coding RNA was significantly different from that in protein-coding genes. The 6mA modification influenced the gene transcription and was positively associated with gene expression, which was validated by computational and experimental analyses. Our study provides new insights into the DNA methylation in F. vesca.
Project description:N6-methyladenine (6mA or m6dA) is a DNA modification that has long been known to play an important role in a variety of biological functions in prokaryotes. This modification has only recently been described in eukaryotes, where it seems to have evolved species-specific functions ranging from nucleosome positioning to transposon repression. In Drosophila, 6mA has been shown to be important for enforcing the tissue specificity of neuronal genes in the brain and suppressing transposable element expression in the ovaries. In this study, we have analyzed the raw signal data from nanopore sequencing to identify 6mA positions in the D. melanogaster genome at single-base resolution. We find that this modification is enriched upstream from transcription start sites, within the introns and 3' UTRs of genes, as well as in simple repeats. These 6mA positions are enriched for sequence motifs that are recognized by known transcriptional activators involved in development, such as Bicoid and Caudal, and the genes that carry this modification are enriched for functions involved in development, regulation of transcription, and neuronal activity. These genes show high expression specificity in a variety of tissues besides the brain, suggesting that this modification may play a more general role in enforcing the specificity of gene expression across many tissues, throughout development, and between the sexes.
Project description:Transposable element activity can be harmful to the host's genome integrity, but it can also provide selective advantages. One strategy to cope with transposons is epigenetic control through DNA base modifications. We report the non-canonic DNA modification dynamics of fig (<i>Ficus carica</i> L.) by exploiting high-quality genome reference and related N4-methylcytosine (4mC) and N6-methyladenine (6mA) data. Overall, 1.49% of transposon nucleotides showed either 4mC or 6mA modifications: the 4mC/6mA ratio was similar in Class I and Class II transposons, with a prevalence of 4mC, which is comparable to coding genes. Different percentages of 4mC or 6mA were observed among LTR-retrotransposon lineages and sub-lineages. Furthermore, both the <i>Copia</i> and <i>Gypsy</i> retroelements showed higher modification rates in the LTR and coding regions compared with their neighbour regions. Finally, the unconventional methylation of retrotransposons is unrelated to the number of close genes, suggesting that the 4mC and 6mA frequency in LTR-retrotransposons should not be related to transcriptional repression in the adjacency of the element. In conclusion, this study highlighted unconventional DNA modification patterns in fig transposable elements. Further investigations will focus on functional implications, in regards to how modified retroelements affect the expression of neighbouring genes, and whether these epigenetic markers can spread from repeats to genes, shaping the plant phenotype.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Filamentous plant pathogen genomes often display a bipartite architecture with gene-sparse, repeat-rich compartments serving as a cradle for adaptive evolution. The extent to which this two-speed genome architecture is associated with genome-wide DNA modifications is unknown. RESULTS:We show that the oomycetes Phytophthora infestans and Phytophthora sojae possess functional adenine N6-methylation (6mA) methyltransferases that modulate patterns of 6mA marks across the genome. In contrast, 5-methylcytosine could not be detected in these species. Methylated DNA IP sequencing (MeDIP-seq) of each species reveals 6mA is depleted around the transcription start sites (TSSs) and is associated with lowly expressed genes, particularly transposable elements. Genes occupying the gene-sparse regions have higher levels of 6mA in both genomes, possibly implicating the methylome in adaptive evolution. All six putative adenine methyltransferases from P. infestans and P. sojae, except PsDAMT2, display robust enzymatic activities. Surprisingly, single knockouts in P. sojae significantly reduce in vivo 6mA levels, indicating that the three enzymes are not fully redundant. MeDIP-seq of the psdamt3 mutant reveals uneven 6mA methylation reduction across genes, suggesting that PsDAMT3 may have a preference for gene body methylation after the TSS. Furthermore, transposable elements such as DNA elements are more active in the psdamt3 mutant. A large number of genes, particularly those from the adaptive genomic compartment, are differentially expressed. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings provide evidence that 6mA modification is potentially an epigenetic mark in Phytophthora genomes, and complex patterns of 6mA methylation may be associated with adaptive evolution in these important plant pathogens.
Project description:Mammalian cells contain copious amounts of RNA including both coding and non-coding RNA (ncRNA). Generally the ncRNAs function to regulate gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Among ncRNA, the long ncRNA and small ncRNA can affect histone modification, DNA methylation targeting and gene silencing. Here we show that endogenous DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) co-purifies with inhibitory ncRNAs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) binds directly to DNMT1 with high affinity. The binding of miRNAs, such as miR-155, leads to inhibition of DNMT1 enzyme activity. Exogenous miR-155 in cells induces aberrant DNA methylation of the genome, resulting in hypomethylation of low to moderately methylated regions. And small shift of hypermethylation of previously hypomethylated region was also observed. Furthermore, hypomethylation led to activation of genes. Based on these observations, we propose that overexpression of specific miRNAs in human cancer may lead to aberrant DNA methylation and altered gene-expression. Examine of the DNA methylation and mRNA profile of HCT 116 cells transfected by random 23-mer or miR-155 RNA
Project description:Mammalian cells contain copious amounts of RNA including both coding and noncoding RNA (ncRNA). Generally the ncRNAs function to regulate gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Among ncRNA, the long ncRNA and small ncRNA can affect histone modification, DNA methylation targeting and gene silencing. Here we show that endogenous DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) co-purifies with inhibitory ncRNAs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) bind directly to DNMT1 with high affinity. The binding of miRNAs, such as miR-155-5p, leads to inhibition of DNMT1 enzyme activity. Exogenous miR-155-5p in cells induces aberrant DNA methylation of the genome, resulting in hypomethylation of low to moderately methylated regions. And small shift of hypermethylation of previously hypomethylated region was also observed. Furthermore, hypomethylation led to activation of genes. Based on these observations, overexpression of miR-155-5p resulted in aberrant DNA methylation by inhibiting DNMT1 activity, resulting in altered gene expression.
Project description:BACKGROUND:DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification. Recently the developed single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology provided an efficient way to detect DNA N6-methyladenine (6mA) modification that played an important role in epigenetic and positively regulated gene expression. In addition, the gene expression was also regulated by genetic variation. However, the relationship between DNA 6mA modification and variation is still unknown. RESULTS:We collected the SMRT long-reads DNA, Illumina short reads DNA and RNA datasets from the young leaves of Herrania umbratica, and used them to detect 35,654 6mA modification sites, 829,894 DNA variations and 60,672 RNA variations respectively, among which, there are 303 DNA variations and 19 RNA variations with 6mA modification, and 57,468 transmitted genetic variations from DNA to RNA. The results illustrated that the genes with 6mA modification were significant disadvantage to mutate than those genes without modification (p-value<?4.9e-08). And result from the linear regression model showed the 6mA densities of genes were associated with the transmitted variations type 0/1 to 1/1 (p-value <?0.001). CONCLUSIONS:The variations of DNA and RNA in genes with 6mA modification were significant less than those in unmodified genes. Furthermore, the variations in 6mA modified genes were easily transmitted from DNA to RNA, especially the transmitted variation from DNA heterozygote to RNA homozygote.
Project description:Nearly all classes of coding and non-coding RNA undergo post-transcriptional modification, as more than 150 distinct modification types have been reported. Since RNA modifications were first described over 50 years ago, our understanding of their functional relevance in cellular control mechanisms and phenotypes has truly progressed only in the last 15 years due to advancements in detection and experimental techniques. Specifically, the phenomenon of RNA methylation in the context of ncRNA has emerged as a novel process in the arena of epitranscriptomics. Methylated ncRNA molecules may indeed contribute to a potentially vast functional panorama, from regulation of post-transcriptional gene expression to adaptive cellular responses. Recent discoveries have uncovered novel dynamic mechanisms and new layers of complexity, paving the way to a greater understanding of the role of such phenomena within the broader molecular cellular context of human disease.
Project description:Eukaryotic DNA methylation has been receiving increasing attention for its crucial epigenetic regulatory function. The recently developed single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology provides an efficient way to detect DNA N6-methyladenine (6mA) and N4-methylcytosine (4mC) modifications at a single-nucleotide resolution. The family Rosaceae contains horticultural plants with a wide range of economic importance. However, little is currently known regarding the genome-wide distribution patterns and functions of 6mA and 4mC modifications in the Rosaceae. In this study, we present an integrated DNA 6mA and 4mC modification database for the Rosaceae (MDR, http://mdr.xieslab.org). MDR, the first repository for displaying and storing DNA 6mA and 4mC methylomes from SMRT sequencing data sets for Rosaceae, includes meta and statistical information, methylation densities, Gene Ontology enrichment analyses, and genome search and browse for methylated sites in NCBI. MDR provides important information regarding DNA 6mA and 4mC methylation and may help users better understand epigenetic modifications in the family Rosaceae.
Project description:N6-methyladenine (6mA) is an important DNA modification form associated with a wide range of biological processes. Identifying accurately 6mA sites on a genomic scale is crucial for under-standing of 6mA's biological functions. However, the existing experimental techniques for detecting 6mA sites are cost-ineffective, which implies the great need of developing new computational methods for this problem. In this paper, we developed, without requiring any prior knowledge of 6mA and manually crafted sequence features, a deep learning framework named Deep6mA to identify DNA 6mA sites, and its performance is superior to other DNA 6mA prediction tools. Specifically, the 5-fold cross-validation on a benchmark dataset of rice gives the sensitivity and specificity of Deep6mA as 92.96% and 95.06%, respectively, and the overall prediction accuracy is 94%. Importantly, we find that the sequences with 6mA sites share similar patterns across different species. The model trained with rice data predicts well the 6mA sites of other three species: Arabidopsis thaliana, Fragaria vesca and Rosa chinensis with a prediction accuracy over 90%. In addition, we find that (1) 6mA tends to occur at GAGG motifs, which means the sequence near the 6mA site may be conservative; (2) 6mA is enriched in the TATA box of the promoter, which may be the main source of its regulating downstream gene expression.