Detection and molecular characterization of sapoviruses in dogs.
ABSTRACT: Caliciviruses are important human and animal pathogens. Novel caliciviruses have been identified recently in dogs, raising questions about their pathogenic role and concerns regarding their zoonotic potential. By screening stool samples of young or juvenile dogs using RT-PCR assays, sapoviruses (SaVs) were found in 7/320 (2.2%) samples of animals with acute gastroenteritis while they were not detected in healthy animals (0/119). The sequence of a nearly 3kb portion at the 3' end of the genome, encompassing the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), the capsid region (ORF1) and the ORF2 were determined for three strains. A distinctive genetic feature in canine SaVs was a 4-nucleotide (nt) interval between the ORF1 and ORF2. Two strains (Bari/4076/07/ITA and Bari/253/07/ITA) were very closely related in the RdRp and capsid regions to the strain AN210D/09/USA (90.4-93.9% nt), while strain Bari/5020/07/ITA displayed only 71.0-72.0% nt identity to this group of canine SaVs and 76.0% to strain AN196/09/USA. Overall, these findings indicate that the canine SaVs detected in Italy may represent distinct capsid types, although all currently known SaVs segregate into the novel proposed genogroup, tentatively named as GXIII.
Project description:Alphatronlike (genogroup IV [GIV]) noroviruses (NoVs) have been recently identified in carnivores. By screening a collection of 183 fecal samples collected during 2007 from dogs with enteric signs, the overall NoV prevalence was found to be 2.2% (4/183). A unique strain, Bari/91/07/ITA, resembled GIV.2 NoVs in its ORF1 (polymerase complex), while it was genetically unrelated in its full-length ORF2 (capsid gene) to GIV animal and human NoVs (54.0 to 54.4% amino acid identity) and to any other NoV genogroup (<54.7% amino acid identity). It displayed the highest identity (58.1% amino acid identity) to unclassified human strain Chiba/040502/04/Jp. Interestingly, the very 5' end of ORF2 of the canine virus matched short noroviral sequences (88.9% nucleotide identity and 98.9% amino acid identity) identified from oysters in Japan, indicating that similar viruses may be common environmental contaminants.
Project description:By screening a collection of fecal samples from young dogs from different European countries, noroviruses (NoVs) were found in 13/294 (4.4%) animals with signs of enteritis whilst they were not detected in healthy dogs (0/42). An informative portion of the genome (3.4kb at the 3' end) was generated for four NoV strains. In the capsid protein VP1 region, strains 63.15/2015/ITA and FD53/2007/ITA were genetically related to the canine GVI.2 strain C33/Viseu/2007/PRT (97.4-98.6% nt and 90.3-98.6% aa). Strain FD210/2007/ITA displayed the highest identity to the GVI.1 canine strain Bari/91/2007/ITA (88.0% nt and 95.0% aa). Strain 5010/2009/ITA displayed only 66.6-67.6% nt and 75.5-81.6% aa identities to the GVI.1 canine strains FD210/2007/ITA and Bari/91/2007/ITA and the GVI feline strain M49-1/2012/JPN. Identity to the other canine/feline NoVs strains in the VP1 was lower than 67.6% nt and 62.7% aa. Based on the full-length VP1 amino acid sequence and the criteria proposed for distinction of NoV genotypes, the canine NoV 5010/2009/ITA could represent the prototype of a third GVI genotype, thus providing further evidence for the genetic heterogeneity of NoVs in carnivores.
Project description:Whether animals may act as reservoirs for human caliciviruses is unclear. By sequence analysis of a short fragment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) region, porcine sapovirus (SaV) strains that genetically resemble human SaVs have been detected in piglets, but more-informative sequences (capsid gene) were not available for a precise characterization. In this study, the 3' terminus (the 3' end of open reading frame 1 [ORF1], including the polymerase complex and the complete capsid; ORF2; and the 3' untranslated region) of one such human SaV-like strain, 43/06-18p3/2006/It, was determined, revealing that these viruses are more related genetically to human (47.4 to 54.9% amino acid identity) than to animal (35.2 to 44.7% amino acid identity) SaVs in the capsid gene. In addition, the recombination-prone RdRp-capsid junction region was highly conserved with those of human SaVs of genogroup GI. The presence of porcine viruses similar to human SaVs is a significant finding because of the potential for zoonotic infections or generation of porcine/human recombinants.
Project description:By screening a collection of fecal samples from young cats housed in three different shelters in South Italy, noroviruses (NoVs) were found in 3/48 (6.2%) specimens of animals with enteritis signs while they were not detected in samples collected from healthy cats (0/57). Upon sequence analysis of the short RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) region, the three strains displayed the highest nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) identities to the prototype GIV.2 strain lion/Pistoia/387/06/ITA (91.0-93.0% nt and 97.0-98.0% aa). The sequence of ~3.4-kb portion at the 3' end of the genome of a NoV strain, TE/77-13/ITA, was determined. In the full-length ORF2, encoding the VP1 capsid protein, the virus was genetically closest to the canine GVI.2 NoV strains C33/Viseu/2007/PRT and FD53/2007/ITA (81.0-84.0% nt and 93.0-94.0% aa identities), suggesting a recombination nature, with the cross-over site being mapped to the ORF1-ORF2 junction. Based on the full-length VP1 amino acid sequence, we classified the novel feline NoV, together with the canine strains Viseu and FD53, as a genotype 2, within the genogroup GVI. These findings indicate that, as observed for GIV NoV, GVI strains may infect both the canine and feline host. Unrestricted circulation of NoV strains in small carnivores may provide the basis for quick genetic diversification of these viruses by recombination. Interspecies circulation of NoVs in pets must also be considered when facing outbreaks of enteric diseases in these animals.
Project description:Infection by a novel canine astrovirus was associated with gastroenteritis in two dogs. The virus displayed 70.3 to 73.9% amino acid identity to other canine astroviruses in the full-length capsid. Specific antibodies were detected in the convalescent-phase sera of the dogs, indicating seroconversion. Also, the virus appeared weakly related antigenically to the prototype canine astrovirus isolate ITA/2008/Bari.
Project description:An outbreak of norovirus (NoV) infection was identified in a kennel. Sequence analysis of a short fragment in the polymerase complex indicated the clonal origin of the strains, which were similar to the prototype canine NoV strain GIV.2/Bari/170/07-4/ITA (94.7% nucleotide identity). The findings demonstrate that canine NoV circulates in dogs in Greece and that it can spread easily across a group of animals.
Project description:Vesiviruses have been detected in several animal species and as accidental contaminants of cells. We detected vesiviruses in asymptomatic kennel dogs (64.8%) and symptomatic (1.1%) and asymptomatic (3.5%) household dogs in Italy. The full-length genome of 1 strain, Bari/212/07/ITA, shared 89%-90% nt identity with vesiviruses previously detected in contaminated cells.
Project description:Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. We show that the second open reading frame (ORF) of the dicistronic genome is expressed via a frameshifting mechanism and that the sequences encoding the structural proteins map to both ORF2 and the 3' end of ORF1, downstream of the sequence that encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The genome organization and structural protein expression strategy resemble those of Acyrthosiphon pisum virus (APV), an aphid virus. The capsid protein that is encoded by the 3' end of ORF1 in SINV-3 and APV is predicted to have a jelly-roll fold similar to the capsid proteins of picornaviruses and caliciviruses. The capsid-extension protein that is produced by frameshifting, includes the jelly-roll fold domain encoded by ORF1 as its N-terminus, while the C-terminus encoded by the 5' half of ORF2 has no clear homology with other viral structural proteins. A third protein, encoded by the 3' half of ORF2, is associated with purified virions at sub-stoichiometric ratios. Although the structural proteins can be translated from the genomic RNA, we show that SINV-3 also produces a subgenomic RNA encoding the structural proteins. Circumstantial evidence suggests that APV may also produce such a subgenomic RNA. Both SINV-3 and APV are unclassified picorna-like viruses distantly related to members of the order Picornavirales and the family Caliciviridae. Within this grouping, features of the genome organization and capsid domain structure of SINV-3 and APV appear more similar to caliciviruses, perhaps suggesting the basis for a "Calicivirales" order.
Project description:Sapoviruses (SaVs) are emerging enteric pathogens that cause diarrhea in humans and animals. Human SaVs are genetically variable and have been classified into four genogroups (GI, -II, -IV, and -V). To date, only two genetically similar porcine SaV strains have been reported that belong to GIII. To investigate the genetic diversity of porcine SaVs and their genetic relatedness to human strains, we sequenced 286 nucleotides (nt) of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) region of nine porcine SaVs detected from field pig fecal samples collected in U.S. swine farms during the period from 1999 to 2003. One strain (Po/SaV/MI-QW19/2002/US) was most closely related to human GII SaVs. We also sequenced 3 kb of the viral genome, including the partial RdRp (766 to 790 nt), the complete capsid, the ORF2 and the 3'-untranslated region of four strains representative for the positive farms or for the distinct genetic clusters. From the sequence analysis of the complete capsid, we identified a potential new genogroup of porcine SaVs, with Po/SaV/OH-JJ681/00/US as the representative strain. Furthermore, two potential porcine SaV recombinants were identified. To our knowledge this is the first report of a porcine SaV strain more closely related genetically to human SaVs and the occurrence of porcine SaV recombinants. The presence of porcine SaVs more similar to human SaVs is a significant finding because of the potential for zoonotic infections or generation of porcine/human recombinants if intragenogroup human strains exist.
Project description:Vesiviruses in the family Caliciviridae infect a broad range of animal hosts including mammals, birds, fish, amphibians and reptiles. The vesivirus Cro1 strains were isolated from diseased snakes in the San Diego zoo in 1978 and reported as the first caliciviruses found in reptiles. The goal of this study was to characterize the Cro1 strain 780032I that was isolated in cell culture from a rock rattlesnake (Crotalus lepidus) in the original outbreak.We re-amplified the original virus stock in Vero cells, and determined its full-length genome sequence. The Cro1 genome is 8296 nucleotides (nt) in length and has a typical vesivirus organization, with three open reading frames (ORF), ORF1 (5643 nt), ORF2 (2121 nt), and ORF3 (348 nt) encoding a nonstructural polyprotein, the major capsid protein precursor, and a minor structural protein, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length genome sequence revealed that the Cro1 virus clustered most closely with the VESV species of the genus Vesivirus, but was genetically distinct (82-83% identities with closest strains).This is the first description of a full-length genome sequence from a reptile calicivirus (Cro1). The availability of the Cro1 genome sequence should facilitate investigation of the molecular mechanisms involved in Cro1 virus evolution and host range.