Nonstructural proteins NS7b and NS8 are likely to be phylogenetically associated with evolution of 2019-nCoV.
ABSTRACT: The seventh novel human infecting Betacoronavirus that causes pneumonia (2019 novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV) originated in Wuhan, China. The evolutionary relationship between 2019-nCoV and the other human respiratory illness-causing coronavirus is not closely related. We sought to characterize the relationship of the translated proteins of 2019-nCoV with other species of Orthocoronavirinae. A phylogenetic tree was constructed from the genome sequences. A cluster tree was developed from the profiles retrieved from the presence and absence of homologs of ten 2019-nCoV proteins. The combined data were used to characterize the relationship of the translated proteins of 2019-nCoV to other species of Orthocoronavirinae. Our analysis reliably suggests that 2019-nCoV is most closely related to BatCoV RaTG13 and belongs to subgenus Sarbecovirus of Betacoronavirus, together with SARS coronavirus and Bat-SARS-like coronavirus. The phylogenetic profiling cluster of homolog proteins of one annotated 2019-nCoV protein against other genome sequences revealed two clades of ten 2019-nCoV proteins. Clade 1 consisted of a group of conserved proteins in Orthocoronavirinae comprising Orf1ab polyprotein, Nucleocapsid protein, Spike glycoprotein, and Membrane protein. Clade 2 comprised six proteins exclusive to Sarbecovirus and Hibecovirus. Two of six Clade 2 nonstructural proteins, NS7b and NS8, were exclusively conserved among 2019-nCoV, BetaCoV_RaTG, and BatSARS-like Cov. NS7b and NS8 have previously been shown to affect immune response signaling in the SARS-CoV experimental model. Thus, we speculated that knowledge of the functional changes in the NS7b and NS8 proteins during evolution may provide important information to explore the human infective property of 2019-nCoV.
Project description:In December 2019, a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause was linked to a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan, China. A previously unknown betacoronavirus was discovered through the use of unbiased sequencing in samples from patients with pneumonia. Human airway epithelial cells were used to isolate a novel coronavirus, named 2019-nCoV, which formed a clade within the subgenus sarbecovirus, Orthocoronavirinae subfamily. Different from both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, 2019-nCoV is the seventh member of the family of coronaviruses that infect humans. Enhanced surveillance and further investigation are ongoing. (Funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China and the National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China.).
Project description:BACKGROUND:In late December 2019, Chinese health authorities reported an outbreak of pneumonia of unknown origin in Wuhan, Hubei Province. SUMMARY:A few days later, the genome of a novel coronavirus was released (http://viro-logical.org/t/novel-2019-coronavirus-genome/319; Wuhan-Hu-1, GenBank accession No. MN908947) and made publicly available to the scientific community. This novel coronavirus was provisionally named 2019-nCoV, now SARS-CoV-2 according to the Coronavirus Study Group of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the Coronaviridae family, Betacoronavirus genus, subgenus Sarbecovirus. Since its discovery, the virus has spread globally, causing thousands of deaths and having an enormous impact on our health systems and economies. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the epidemiology, phylogenesis, homology modeling, and molecular diagnostics of SARS-CoV-2. Key Messages: Phylogenetic analysis is essential to understand viral evolution, whereas homology modeling is important for vaccine strategies and therapies. Highly sensitive and specific diagnostic assays are key to case identification, contact tracing, identification of the animal source, and implementation of control measures.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) associated with human to human transmission and severe human infection has been recently reported from the city of Wuhan in China. Our objectives were to characterize the genetic relationships of the 2019-nCoV and to search for putative recombination within the subgenus of sarbecovirus. METHODS:Putative recombination was investigated by RDP4 and Simplot v3.5.1 and discordant phylogenetic clustering in individual genomic fragments was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. RESULTS:Our analysis suggests that the 2019-nCoV although closely related to BatCoV RaTG13 sequence throughout the genome (sequence similarity 96.3%), shows discordant clustering with the Bat_SARS-like coronavirus sequences. Specifically, in the 5'-part spanning the first 11,498 nucleotides and the last 3'-part spanning 24,341-30,696 positions, 2019-nCoV and RaTG13 formed a single cluster with Bat_SARS-like coronavirus sequences, whereas in the middle region spanning the 3'-end of ORF1a, the ORF1b and almost half of the spike regions, 2019-nCoV and RaTG13 grouped in a separate distant lineage within the sarbecovirus branch. CONCLUSIONS:The levels of genetic similarity between the 2019-nCoV and RaTG13 suggest that the latter does not provide the exact variant that caused the outbreak in humans, but the hypothesis that 2019-nCoV has originated from bats is very likely. We show evidence that the novel coronavirus (2019-nCov) is not-mosaic consisting in almost half of its genome of a distinct lineage within the betacoronavirus. These genomic features and their potential association with virus characteristics and virulence in humans need further attention.
Project description:The global spread of the 2019-nCoV is continuing and is fast moving, as indicated by the WHO raising the risk assessment to high. In this article, we provide a preliminary phylodynamic and phylogeographic analysis of this new virus. A Maximum Clade Credibility tree has been built using the 29 available whole genome sequences of 2019-nCoV and two whole genome sequences that are highly similar sequences from Bat SARS-like Coronavirus available in GeneBank. We are able to clarify the mechanism of transmission among the countries which have provided the 2019-nCoV sequence isolates from their patients. The Bayesian phylogeographic reconstruction shows that the 2019-2020 nCoV most probably originated from the Bat SARS-like Coronavirus circulating in the Rhinolophus bat family. In agreement with epidemiological observations, the most likely geographic origin of the new outbreak was the city of Wuhan, China, where 2019-nCoV time of the most recent common ancestor emerged, according to molecular clock analysis, around November 25th, 2019. These results, together with previously recorded epidemics, suggest a recurring pattern of periodical epizootic outbreaks due to Betacoronavirus. Moreover, our study describes the same population genetic dynamic underlying the SARS 2003 epidemic, and suggests the urgent need for the development of effective molecular surveillance strategies of Betacoronavirus among animals and Rhinolophus of the bat family.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In late December, 2019, patients presenting with viral pneumonia due to an unidentified microbial agent were reported in Wuhan, China. A novel coronavirus was subsequently identified as the causative pathogen, provisionally named 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). As of Jan 26, 2020, more than 2000 cases of 2019-nCoV infection have been confirmed, most of which involved people living in or visiting Wuhan, and human-to-human transmission has been confirmed. METHODS:We did next-generation sequencing of samples from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and cultured isolates from nine inpatients, eight of whom had visited the Huanan seafood market in Wuhan. Complete and partial 2019-nCoV genome sequences were obtained from these individuals. Viral contigs were connected using Sanger sequencing to obtain the full-length genomes, with the terminal regions determined by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Phylogenetic analysis of these 2019-nCoV genomes and those of other coronaviruses was used to determine the evolutionary history of the virus and help infer its likely origin. Homology modelling was done to explore the likely receptor-binding properties of the virus. FINDINGS:The ten genome sequences of 2019-nCoV obtained from the nine patients were extremely similar, exhibiting more than 99·98% sequence identity. Notably, 2019-nCoV was closely related (with 88% identity) to two bat-derived severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like coronaviruses, bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21, collected in 2018 in Zhoushan, eastern China, but were more distant from SARS-CoV (about 79%) and MERS-CoV (about 50%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 2019-nCoV fell within the subgenus Sarbecovirus of the genus Betacoronavirus, with a relatively long branch length to its closest relatives bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21, and was genetically distinct from SARS-CoV. Notably, homology modelling revealed that 2019-nCoV had a similar receptor-binding domain structure to that of SARS-CoV, despite amino acid variation at some key residues. INTERPRETATION:2019-nCoV is sufficiently divergent from SARS-CoV to be considered a new human-infecting betacoronavirus. Although our phylogenetic analysis suggests that bats might be the original host of this virus, an animal sold at the seafood market in Wuhan might represent an intermediate host facilitating the emergence of the virus in humans. Importantly, structural analysis suggests that 2019-nCoV might be able to bind to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor in humans. The future evolution, adaptation, and spread of this virus warrant urgent investigation. FUNDING:National Key Research and Development Program of China, National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shandong First Medical University.
Project description:A mysterious outbreak of atypical pneumonia in late 2019 was traced to a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan of China. Within a few weeks, a novel coronavirus tentatively named as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) was announced by the World Health Organization. We performed bioinformatics analysis on a virus genome from a patient with 2019-nCoV infection and compared it with other related coronavirus genomes. Overall, the genome of 2019-nCoV has 89% nucleotide identity with bat SARS-like-CoVZXC21 and 82% with that of human SARS-CoV. The phylogenetic trees of their orf1a/b, Spike, Envelope, Membrane and Nucleoprotein also clustered closely with those of the bat, civet and human SARS coronaviruses. However, the external subdomain of Spike's receptor binding domain of 2019-nCoV shares only 40% amino acid identity with other SARS-related coronaviruses. Remarkably, its orf3b encodes a completely novel short protein. Furthermore, its new orf8 likely encodes a secreted protein with an alpha-helix, following with a beta-sheet(s) containing six strands. Learning from the roles of civet in SARS and camel in MERS, hunting for the animal source of 2019-nCoV and its more ancestral virus would be important for understanding the origin and evolution of this novel lineage B betacoronavirus. These findings provide the basis for starting further studies on the pathogenesis, and optimizing the design of diagnostic, antiviral and vaccination strategies for this emerging infection.
Project description:The city of Wuhan, Hubei province, China, was the origin of a severe pneumonia outbreak in December 2019, attributed to a novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]), causing a total of 2761 deaths and 81109 cases (25 February 2020). SARS-CoV-2 belongs to genus Betacoronavirus, subgenus Sarbecovirus. The polyprotein 1ab (pp1ab) remains unstudied thoroughly since it is similar to other sarbecoviruses. In this short communication, we performed phylogenetic-structural sequence analysis of pp1ab protein of SARS-CoV-2. The analysis showed that the viral pp1ab has not changed in most isolates throughout the outbreak time, but interestingly a deletion of 8 aa in the virulence factor nonstructural protein 1 was found in a virus isolated from a Japanese patient that did not display critical symptoms. While comparing pp1ab protein with other betacoronaviruses, we found a 42 amino acid signature that is only present in SARS-CoV-2 (AS-SCoV2). Members from clade 2 of sarbecoviruses have traces of this signature. The AS-SCoV2 located in the acidic-domain of papain-like protein of SARS-CoV-2 and bat-SL-CoV-RatG13 guided us to suggest that the novel 2019 coronavirus probably emerged by genetic drift from bat-SL-CoV-RaTG13. The implication of this amino acid signature in papain-like protein structure arrangement and function is something worth to be explored.
Project description:Emerging infectious diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Zika virus disease, present a major threat to public health1-3. Despite intense research efforts, how, when and where new diseases appear are still a source of considerable uncertainty. A severe respiratory disease was recently reported in Wuhan, Hubei province, China. As of 25 January 2020, at least 1,975 cases had been reported since the first patient was hospitalized on 12 December 2019. Epidemiological investigations have suggested that the outbreak was associated with a seafood market in Wuhan. Here we study a single patient who was a worker at the market and who was admitted to the Central Hospital of Wuhan on 26 December 2019 while experiencing a severe respiratory syndrome that included fever, dizziness and a cough. Metagenomic RNA sequencing4 of a sample of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from the patient identified a new RNA virus strain from the family Coronaviridae, which is designated here 'WH-Human 1' coronavirus (and has also been referred to as '2019-nCoV'). Phylogenetic analysis of the complete viral genome (29,903 nucleotides) revealed that the virus was most closely related (89.1% nucleotide similarity) to a group of SARS-like coronaviruses (genus Betacoronavirus, subgenus Sarbecovirus) that had previously been found in bats in China5. This outbreak highlights the ongoing ability of viral spill-over from animals to cause severe disease in humans.
Project description:Coronovirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, which originated from Wuhan, China, has seized the whole world in its grasp and created a huge pandemic situation before humanity. Since December 2019, genomes of numerous isolates have been sequenced and analyzed for testing confirmation, epidemiology, and evolutionary studies. In the first half of this article, we provide a detailed review of the history and origin of COVID-19, followed by the taxonomy, nomenclature and genome organization of its causative agent Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-related Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). In the latter half, we analyze subgenus Sarbecovirus (167 SARS-CoV-2, 312 SARS-CoV, and 5 Pangolin CoV) genomes to understand their diversity, origin, and evolution, along with pan-genome analysis of genus Betacoronavirus members. Whole-genome sequence-based phylogeny of subgenus Sarbecovirus genomes reasserted the fact that SARS-CoV-2 strains evolved from their common ancestors putatively residing in bat or pangolin hosts. We predicted a few country-specific patterns of relatedness and identified mutational hotspots with high, medium and low probability based on genome alignment of 167 SARS-CoV-2 strains. A total of 100-nucleotide segment-based homology studies revealed that the majority of the SARS-CoV-2 genome segments are close to Bat CoV, followed by some to Pangolin CoV, and some are unique ones. Open pan-genome of genus Betacoronavirus members indicates the diversity contributed by the novel viruses emerging in this group. Overall, the exploration of the diversity of these isolates, mutational hotspots and pan-genome will shed light on the evolution and pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 and help in developing putative methods of diagnosis and treatment.
Project description:The novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV, has quickly spread across the world and pose serious threat to public health because it can infect people very easily. The major clinical symptoms of 2019-nCoV infection include fever, dry cough, myalgia, fatigue, and diarrhea. The 2019-nCoV belongs to the betacoronavirus family, and gene sequencing results demonstrate that it is a single-stranded RNA virus, closely related to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV). It has been observed that the virus invades human body mainly through binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors similar to SARS-CoV and the main protease (Mpro) acts as a critical protease for digesting the polyprotein into functional polypeptides during the replication and transcription process of 2019-nCoV. In this review, we summarized the real-time information of 2019-nCoV treatment methods and mainly focused on the chemical drugs including lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, arbidol, remdesivir, favipiravir and other potential innovative active molecules. Their potential targets, activity, clinical status and side effects are described. In addition, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Convalescent plasma therapy (CPT) and biological reagents available, as well as the promising vaccine candidates against 2019-nCoV are also discussed.