Phages bearing affinity peptides to severe acute respiratory syndromes-associated coronavirus differentiate this virus from other viruses.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Transmission of SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is now well controlled, nevertheless, it is important to develop effective methods to identify this virus from other pathogens. OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this study was to identify potential ligands and develop a novel diagnostic test to SARS-CoV using phage display technology. STUDY DESIGN:The SARS-CoV spike 1 (S1) protein containing the receptor binding region (RBD) was used as an immobilized target followed by incubation with a 12-mer phage display random peptide library. After four rounds of biopanning, 10 monoclonal phages with specific binding activity to the S1-RBD protein were obtained and subjected to binding and diagnostic assays. RESULTS:DNA sequencing showed that two phage displayed peptides HHKTWHPPVMHL (phage-H) and SQWHPRSASYPM (phage-S) that were specific ligands to the S1 protein. Moreover, the selected phage-H and phage-S were capable of differentiating SARS-CoV from other coronaviruses in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. CONCLUSION:The peptides identified in this study are useful reagents for detection of SARS-CoV.
Project description:Multiple vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2 based on viral spike protein are under development. However, there is limited information on the quality of antibody responses generated with these vaccine modalities. To better understand antibody responses induced by spike protein-based vaccines, we performed a qualitative study by immunizing rabbits with various SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antigens: S ectodomain (S1+S2; amino acids 16 to 1213), which lacks the cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains (CT-TM), the S1 domain (amino acids 16 to 685), the receptor binding domain (RBD) (amino acids 319 to 541), and the S2 domain (amino acids 686 to 1213, lacking the RBD, as control). Resulting antibody quality and function were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), RBD competition assay, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) against different spike proteins in native conformation, and neutralization assays. All three antigens (S1+S2 ectodomain, S1 domain, and RBD), but not S2, generated strong neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Vaccination-induced antibody repertoire was analyzed by SARS-CoV-2 spike genome fragment phage display libraries (SARS-CoV-2 GFPDL), which identified immunodominant epitopes in the S1, S1-RBD, and S2 domains. Furthermore, these analyses demonstrated that the RBD immunogen elicited a higher antibody titer with five-fold higher affinity antibodies to native spike antigens compared with other spike antigens, and antibody affinity correlated strongly with neutralization titers. These findings may help guide rational vaccine design and facilitate development and evaluation of effective therapeutics and vaccines against COVID-19 disease.
Project description:The worldwide spread of COVID-19 highlights the need for an efficient approach to rapidly develop therapeutics and prophylactics against SARS-CoV-2. The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, containing the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and S1 subunit involved in receptor engagement, is a potential therapeutic target. We describe the development of a phage-displayed single-domain antibody library by grafting naive complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) into framework regions of a human germline immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IGHV) allele. Panning this library against SARS-CoV-2 RBD and S1 subunit identified fully human single-domain antibodies targeting five distinct epitopes on SARS-CoV-2 RBD with subnanomolar to low nanomolar affinities. Some of these antibodies neutralize SARS-CoV-2 by targeting a cryptic epitope located in the spike trimeric interface. Collectively, this work presents a versatile platform for rapid antibody isolation and identifies promising therapeutic anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies as well as the diverse immogneic profile of the spike protein.
Project description:The COVID-19 pandemic caused by novel SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in an unprecedented loss of lives and economy around the world. In this study, search for potential inhibitors against two of the best characterized SARS-CoV-2 drug targets: S1 glycoprotein receptor-binding domain (RBD) and main protease (3CL<sup>Pro</sup>), was carried out using the soy cheese peptides. A total of 1,420 peptides identified from the cheese peptidome produced using <i>Lactobacillus delbrueckii</i> WS4 were screened for antiviral activity by employing the web tools, AVPpred, and meta-iAVP. Molecular docking studies of the selected peptides revealed one potential peptide "KFVPKQPNMIL" that demonstrated strong affinity toward significant amino acid residues responsible for the host cell entry (RBD) and multiplication (3CL<sup>pro</sup>) of SARS-CoV-2. The peptide was also assessed for its ability to interact with the critical residues of S1 RBD and 3CL<sup>pro</sup> of other ?-coronaviruses. High binding affinity was observed toward critical amino acids of both the targeted proteins in SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and HCoV-HKU1. The binding energy of KFVPKQPNMIL against RBD and 3CL<sup>pro</sup> of the four viruses ranged from -8.45 to -26.8 kcal/mol and -15.22 to -22.85 kcal/mol, respectively. The findings conclude that cheese, produced by using <i>Lb. delbrueckii</i> WS4, could be explored as a prophylactic food for SARS-CoV-2 and related viruses. In addition, the multi-target inhibitor peptide, which effectively inhibited both the viral proteins, could further be used as a terminus a quo for the <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> function against SARS-CoV-2.
Project description:A phage library displaying 10<sup>10</sup> variants of the fibronectin type III (FN3) domain was affinity selected with the biotinylated form of the receptor binding domain (RBD, residues 319-541) of the SARS-CoV-2 virus spike protein. Nine binding FN3 variants (i.e. monobodies) were recovered, representing four different primary structures. Soluble forms of the monobodies bound to several different preparations of the RBD and the S1 spike subunit, with affinities ranging from 3 to 14?nM as measured by bio-layer interferometry. Three of the four monobodies bound selectively to the RBD of SARS-CoV-2, with the fourth monobody showing slight cross-reactivity to the RBD of SARS-CoV-1 virus. Examination of binding to the spike fragments and its trimeric form revealed that the monobodies recognise at least three overlapping epitopes on the RBD of SARS-CoV-2. While pairwise tests failed to identify a monobody pair that could bind simultaneously to the RBD, one monobody could simultaneously bind to the RBD with the ectodomain of the cellular receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). All four monobodies successfully bound the RBD after overexpression in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells as fusions to the Fc domain of human IgG1.
Project description:Since it was first reported in Wuhan, China, in 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a pandemic outbreak resulting in a tremendous global threat due to its unprecedented rapid spread and an absence of a prophylactic vaccine or therapeutic drugs treating the virus. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is a key player in the viral entry into cells through its interaction with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor protein, and the RBD has therefore been crucial as a drug target. In this study, we used phage display to develop human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that neutralize SARS-CoV-2. A human synthetic Fab phage display library was panned against the RBD of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (SARS-2 RBD), yielding ten unique Fabs with moderate apparent affinities (<i>EC</i><sub>50</sub> = 19-663 nM) for the SARS-2 RBD. All of the Fabs showed no cross-reactivity to the MERS-CoV spike protein, while three Fabs cross-reacted with the SARS-CoV spike protein. Five Fabs showed neutralizing activities in in vitro assays based on the Fabs' activities antagonizing the interaction between the SARS-2 RBD and ACE2. Reformatting the five Fabs into immunoglobulin Gs (IgGs) greatly increased their apparent affinities (<i>K</i><sub>D</sub> = 0.08-1.0 nM), presumably due to the effects of avidity, without compromising their non-aggregating properties and thermal stability. Furthermore, two of the mAbs (D12 and C2) significantly showed neutralizing activities on pseudo-typed and authentic SARS-CoV-2. Given their desirable properties and neutralizing activities, we anticipate that these human anti-SARS-CoV-2 mAbs would be suitable reagents to be further developed as antibody therapeutics to treat COVID-19, as well as for diagnostics and research tools.
Project description:The spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV), a type I transmembrane envelope glycoprotein, consists of S1 and S2 domains responsible for virus binding and fusion, respectively. The S1 contains a receptor-binding domain (RBD) that can specifically bind to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the receptor on target cells. Here we show that a recombinant fusion protein (designated RBD-Fc) containing 193-amino acid RBD (residues 318-510) and a human IgG1 Fc fragment can induce highly potent antibody responses in the immunized rabbits. The antibodies recognized RBD on S1 domain and completely inhibited SARS-CoV infection at a serum dilution of 1:10,240. Rabbit antisera effectively blocked binding of S1, which contains RBD, to ACE2. This suggests that RBD can induce highly potent neutralizing antibody responses and has potential to be developed as an effective and safe subunit vaccine for prevention of SARS.
Project description:The novel highly transmissible human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus far, there is no approved therapeutic drug specifically targeting this emerging virus. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a panel of human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies targeting the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD). These antibodies were selected from a phage display library constructed using peripheral circulatory lymphocytes collected from patients at the acute phase of the disease. These neutralizing antibodies are shown to recognize distinct epitopes on the viral spike RBD. A subset of the antibodies exert their inhibitory activity by abrogating binding of the RBD to the human ACE2 receptor. The human monoclonal antibodies described here represent a promising basis for the design of efficient combined post-exposure therapy for SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Project description:SARS-CoV-2, previously named 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), has been associated with the global pandemic of acute respiratory distress syndrome. First reported in December 2019 in the Wuhan province of China, this new RNA virus has several folds higher transmission among humans than its other family member (SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV). The SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) is the region mediating the binding of the virus to host cells via Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a critical step of viral. Here in this study, we have utilized <i>in silico</i> approach for the virtual screening of antiviral library extracted from the Asinex database against the Receptor binding domain (RBD) of the S1 subunit of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein. Further, the molecules were ranked based on their binding affinity against RBD, and the top 15 molecules were selected. The affinity of these selected molecules to interrupt the ACE2-Spike interaction was also studied. It was found that the chosen molecules were demonstrating excellent binding affinity against spike protein, and these molecules were also very effectively interrupting the ACE2-RBD interaction. Furthermore, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies were utilized to investigate the top 3 selected molecules' stability in the ACE2-RBD complexes. This is the first study where molecules' inhibitory potential against the Receptor binding domain (RBD) of the S1 subunit of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein and their inhibitory potential against the ACE2-Spike has been studied. We believe that these compounds can be further tested as a potential therapeutic option against COVID-19.
Project description:Human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were selected from semisynthetic antibody phage display libraries by using whole irradiated severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) virions as target. We identified eight human MAbs binding to virus and infected cells, six of which could be mapped to two SARS-CoV structural proteins: the nucleocapsid (N) and spike (S) proteins. Two MAbs reacted with N protein. One of the N protein MAbs recognized a linear epitope conserved between all published human and animal SARS-CoV isolates, and the other bound to a nonlinear N epitope. These two N MAbs did not compete for binding to SARS-CoV. Four MAbs reacted with the S glycoprotein, and three of these MAbs neutralized SARS-CoV in vitro. All three neutralizing anti-S MAbs bound a recombinant S1 fragment comprising residues 318 to 510, a region previously identified as the SARS-CoV S receptor binding domain; the nonneutralizing MAb did not. Two strongly neutralizing anti-S1 MAbs blocked the binding of a recombinant S fragment (residues 1 to 565) to SARS-CoV-susceptible Vero cells completely, whereas a poorly neutralizing S1 MAb blocked binding only partially. The MAb ability to block S1-receptor binding and the level of neutralization of the two strongly neutralizing S1 MAbs correlated with the binding affinity to the S1 domain. Finally, epitope mapping, using recombinant S fragments (residues 318 to 510) containing naturally occurring mutations, revealed the importance of residue N479 for the binding of the most potent neutralizing MAb, CR3014. The complete set of SARS-CoV MAbs described here may be useful for diagnosis, chemoprophylaxis, and therapy of SARS-CoV infection and disease.
Project description:Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a pathogen of swine that causes severe diarrhea and dehydration resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality in newborn piglets. Phage display is a technique with wide application, in particular, the identification of key antigen epitopes for the development of therapeutic and diagnostic reagents and vaccines. To identify antigen epitopes with specificity for PEDV, a monoclonal antibody (MAb-5E12) against the immunodominant region of the PEDV Spike protein (S1) was used as the target for biopanning a 12-mer phage display, random peptide library. After multiple rounds of biopanning and stringent washing, three phage-displayed peptides, designated L, W and H, were identified that recognize MAb-5E12. Sequence analysis showed that the one or more of the peptides exhibited partial sequence similarity to the native S1 sequence 'MQYVYTPTYYML' (designated peptide M) at position 201-212. In combination with software analysis for the prediction of B cell epitopes, aa 201-212 exhibited characteristics of a linear epitope on the PEDV S1 protein. In contrast to peptide M, a consensus motif 'PxxY' was identified on both peptides L and W, and on the S1 protein, but not on peptide H. Peptide M and the MAb-5E12-recognizing peptides L and W significantly inhibited the adsorption of PEDV on the cell surface as monitored through plaque-reduction assays. Furthermore, data from real-time PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assays were consistent with the ability of peptides M, L and W to block viral protein expression and thereby function as antiviral agents for PEDV.