Impact of community piped water coverage on re-infection with urogenital schistosomiasis in rural South Africa.
ABSTRACT: Previously, we demonstrated that coverage of piped water in the seven years preceding a parasitological survey was strongly predictive of Schistosomiasis haematobium infection in a nested cohort of 1976 primary school children (Tanser, 2018). Here, we report on the prospective follow up of infected members of this nested cohort (N = 333) for two successive rounds following treatment. Using a negative binomial regression fitted to egg count data, we found that every percentage point increase in piped water coverage was associated with 4.4% decline in intensity of re-infection (incidence rate ratio = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.93-0.98, p=0.004) among the treated children. We therefore provide further compelling evidence in support of the scaleup of piped water as an effective control strategy against Schistosoma haematobium transmission.
Project description:Recent work has estimated that sub-Saharan Africa could lose US$3.5 billion of economic productivity every year as a result of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. One of the main interventions to control schistosomiasis is the provision of safe water to limit the contact with infected water bodies and break the cycle of transmission. To date, a rigorous quantification of the impact of safe water supplies on schistosomiasis is lacking. Using data from one of Africa's largest population-based cohorts, we establish the impact of the scale-up of piped water in a typical rural South African population over a seven-year time horizon. High coverage of piped water in the community decreased a child's risk of urogenital schistosomiasis infection eight-fold (adjusted odds ratio = 0.12, 95% CI 0.06-0.26, p<0.001). The provision of safe water could drive levels of urogenital schistosomiasis infection to low levels of endemicity in rural African settings.
Project description:Appendicitis is a common surgical condition for children. However, environmental effects, such as piped water supply, on pediatric appendicitis risk remain unclear. This longitudinal, nationwide, cohort study aimed to compare the risk of appendicitis among children with different levels of piped water supply. Using data from Taiwan Water Resource Agency and National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 119,128 children born in 1996?2010 from areas of the lowest piped water supply (prevalence 51.21% to 63.06%) as the study cohort; additional 119,128 children of the same period in areas of the highest piped water supply (prevalence 98.97% to 99.63%) were selected as the controls. Both cohorts were propensity-score matched by baseline variables. We calculated the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of appendicitis in the study cohort compared to the controls by Cox proportional hazards regression. The study cohort had a raised overall incidence rates of appendicitis compared to the control cohort (12.8 vs. 8.7 per 10,000 person-years). After covariate adjustment, the risk of appendicitis was significantly increased in the study cohort (adjusted HR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.35, 1.58, p < 0.001). Subgroup and sensitivity analyses showed consistent results that children with low piped water supply had a higher risk of appendicitis than those with high piped water supply. This study demonstrated that children with low piped water supply were at an increased risk of appendicitis. Enhancement of piped water availability in areas lacking adequate, secure, and sanitized water supply may protect children against appendicitis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In 2014, a study in Munyenge revealed a high prevalence of urogenital schistosomiasis (UGS) among pregnant women. This study investigated he prevalence and risk factors of UGS in pregnancy following scale-up of piped water sources from 2014 to 2017. Secondly, we compared stream usage, stream contact behaviour, infection rate and intensity with the findings of 2014. METHODS:Consenting pregnant women reporting for antenatal care (ANC) in the different health facilities were enrolled consecutively between November 2016 and January 2018. Information on age, gravidity status, residence, marital status, educational level, occupation, household water source, frequency of contact with water and stream activities were obtained using a semi-structured questionnaire. Urine samples were examined for the presence of microhaematuria and S. haematobium ova using test strip and filtration/microscopy methods respectively. Data were analysed using univariate and multivariate regression analyses and relative risk reductions calculated. RESULTS:Of the 368 women enrolled, 22.3% (82) were diagnosed with UGS. Marital status (single) (aOR = 2.24, 95% CI: 1.04-4.79), primary - level of education (aOR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.04-3.85) and domestic activity and bathing in the stream (aOR = 3.3; 95% CI: 1.83-6.01) increased risk of S. haematobium infection. Meanwhile, fewer visits (< 3 visits/week) to stream (aOR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.17-0.74) reduced exposure to infection. Piped water usage was associated with reduced stream usage and eliminated the risk of infection among women who used safe water only. Compared with the findings of 2014, stream usage (RRR = 23 95% CI: 19-28), frequency (≥ 3 visits) (RRR = 69 95% CI: 59-77) and intensity of contact with water (RRR = 37 95% CI = 22-49) has reduced. Similarly, we observed a decrease in infection rate (RRR = 52, 95% CI = 40-62) and prevalence of heavy egg intensity (RRR = 71, 95% CI = 53-81). CONCLUSION:Following increased piped water sources in Munyenge, S. haematobium infection has declined due to reduced stream contact. This has important implication in the control of UGS in pregnancy.
Project description:The problem of intermittent piped water supplies that exists in low- and middle-income countries is particularly severe in the slums of sub-Saharan Africa. However, little is known about whether there is deterioration of the microbiological quality of the intermittent piped water supply at a household level and whether it is a factor in reducing or increasing the occurrence of acute diarrhea among under-five children in slums of Addis Ababa. This study aimed to determine the association of intermittent piped water supplies and point-of-use (POU) contamination of household stored water by Escherichia coli (E. coli) with acute diarrhea among under-five children in slums of Addis Ababa.A community-based matched case-control study was conducted from November to December, 2014. Cases were defined as under-five children with acute diarrhea during the two weeks before the survey. Controls were matched by age and neighborhood with cases by individual matching. Data were collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire and E. coli analysis of water from piped water supplies and household stored water. A five-tube method of Most Probable Number (MPN)/100 ml standard procedure was used for E. coli analysis. Multivariable conditional logistic regression with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used for data analysis by controlling potential confounding effects of selected socio-demographic characteristics.During the two weeks before the survey, 87.9% of case households and 51.0% of control households had an intermittent piped water supply for an average of 4.3 days and 3.9 days, respectively. POU contamination of household stored water by E. coli was found in 83.3% of the case households, and 52.1% of the control households. In a fully adjusted model, a periodically intermittent piped water supply (adjusted matched odds ratio (adjusted mOR) = 4.8; 95% CI: 1.3-17.8), POU water contamination in household stored water by E. coli (adjusted mOR = 3.3; 95% CI: 1.1-10.1), water retrieved from water storage containers using handle-less vessels (adjusted mOR = 16.3; 95% CI: 4.4-60.1), and water retrieved by interchangeably using vessels both with and without handle (adjusted mOR = 5.4; 95% CI: 1.1-29.1) were independently associated with acute diarrhea.We conclude that provision of continuously available piped water supplies and education of caregivers about proper water retrieval methods of household stored water can effectively reduce POU contamination of water at the household level and thereby reduce acute diarrhea among under-five children in slums of Addis Ababa. Promotion of household water treatment is also highly encouraged until the City's water authority is able to deliver continuously available piped water supplies.
Project description:Schistosomiasis remains a major public health concern in Sudan, particularly Schistosoma haematobium infection. This study presents the disease-reduction outcomes of an integrated control program for schistosomiasis in Al Jabalain locality of White Nile State, Sudan from 2009 through 2011.The total population of the project sites was 482,902, and the major target group for intervention among them was 78,615 primary school students. For the cross-sectional study of the prevalence, urine and stool specimens were examined using the urine sedimentation method and the Kato cellophane thick smear method, respectively. To assess the impacts of health education for students and a drinking water supply facility at Al Hidaib village, questionnaire survey was done.The overall prevalence for S. haematobium and S. mansoni at baseline was 28.5% and 0.4%, respectively. At follow-up survey after 6-9 months post-treatment, the prevalence of S. haematobium infection was reduced to 13.5% (95% CI?=?0.331-0.462). A higher reduction in prevalence was observed among girls, those with moderately infected status (around 20%), and residents in rural areas, than among boys, those with high prevalence (>40%), and residents in urban areas. After health education, increased awareness about schistosomiasis was checked by questionnaire survey. Also, a drinking water facility was constructed at Al Hidaib village, where infection rate was reduced more compared to that in a neighboring village within the same unit. However, we found no significant change in the prevalence of S. mansoni infection between baseline and follow-up survey (95% CI?=?0.933-6.891).At the end of the project, the prevalence of S. haematobium infection was reduced by more than 50% in comparison with the baseline rate. Approximately 200,000 subjects had received either praziquantel therapy, health education, or supply of clean water. To consolidate the achievements of this project, the integrated intervention should be adapted continuously.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Several studies have been conducted quantifying the impact of schistosome infections on health and development in school-aged children. In contrast, relatively little is known about morbidity levels in preschool-aged children (? 5 years) who have been neglected in terms of schistosome research and control. The aim of this study was to compare the utility of available point-of-care (POC) morbidity diagnostic tools in preschool versus primary school-aged children (6-10 years) and determine markers which can be used in the field to identify and quantify Schistosoma haematobium-related morbidity. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the performance of currently available POC morbidity diagnostic tools on Zimbabwean children aged 1-5 years (n=104) and 6-10 years (n=194). Morbidity was determined using the POC diagnostics questionnaire-based reporting of haematuria and dysuria, clinical examination, urinalysis by dipsticks, and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR). Attributable fractions were used to quantify the proportion of morbidity attributable to S. haematobium infection. Based on results of attributable fractions, UACR was identified as the most reliable tool for detecting schistosome-related morbidity, followed by dipsticks, visual urine inspection, questionnaires, and lastly clinical examination. The results of urine dipstick attributes showed that proteinuria and microhaematuria accounted for most differences between schistosome egg-positive and negative children (T=-50.1; p<0.001). These observations were consistent in preschool vs. primary school-aged children. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:Preschool-aged children in endemic areas can be effectively screened for schistosome-related morbidity using the same currently available diagnostic tools applicable to older children. UACR for detecting albuminuria is recommended as the best choice for rapid assessment of morbidity attributed to S. haematobium infection in children in the field. The use of dipstick microhaematuria and proteinuria as additional indicators of schistosome-related morbidity would improve the estimation of disease burden in young children.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In Mozambique, schistosomiasis is highly endemic across the whole country. The Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE) coordinates a five-year study that has been implemented in various African countries, including Mozambique. The overall goal of SCORE was to better understand how to best apply preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel (PZQ) for schistosomiasis control by evaluating the impact of alternative treatment approaches. METHODS:This was a cluster-randomised trial that compared the impact of different treatment strategies in study areas with prevalence among school children of ?21% S. haematobium infection by urine dipstick. Each village was randomly allocated to one of six possible combinations of community-wide treatment (CWT), school-based treatment (SBT), and/or drug holidays over a period of four years, followed by final data collection in the fifth year. The most intense intervention arm involved four years of CWT, while the least intensive arm involved two years of SBT followed by two consecutive years of PZQ holiday. Each study arm included 25 villages randomly assigned to one of the six treatment arms. The primary outcome of interest was change in prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium among 100 children aged 9-to-12-years that were sampled each year in every village. In addition to children aged 9-to-12 years, 100 children aged 5-8 years in their first-year of school and 50 adults (aged 20-55 years) were tested in the first and final fifth year of the study. Prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium infection was evaluated by two filtrations, each of 10mL, from a single urine specimen. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:In total, data was collected from 81,167 individuals across 149 villages in ten districts of Cabo Delgado province, Northern Mozambique. Overall PZQ treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the prevalence of S. haematobium infection from Year 1 to Year 5, where the average prevalence went from 60.5% to 38.8%, across all age groups and treatment arms. The proportion of those heavily infected also reduced from 17.6% to 11.9% over five years. There was a significantly higher likelihood of males being infected than females at baseline, but no significant difference between the sexes in their response to treatment. The only significant response based on a study arm was seen in both the 9-to-12-year-old and first-year cross sections, where two consecutive treatment holidays resulted in a significantly higher final prevalence of S. haematobium than no treatment holidays. When the arms were grouped together, four rounds of treatment (regardless of whether it was CWT or SBT), however, did result in a significantly greater reduction in S. haematobium prevalence than two rounds of treatment (i.e. with two intermittent or consecutive holiday years) over a five-year period. CONCLUSIONS:Although PC was successful in reducing the burden of active infection, even among those heavily infected, annual CWT did not have a significantly greater impact on disease prevalence or intensity than less intense treatment arms. This may be due to extremely high starting prevalence and intensity in the study area, with frequent exposure to reinfection, or related to challenges in achieving high treatment coverage More frequent treatment had a greater impact on prevalence and intensity of infection when arms were grouped by number of treatments, however, cost efficiency was greater in arms only receiving two treatments. Finally, a significant reduction in prevalence of S. haematobium was seen in adults even in the SBT arms implying the rate of transmission in the community had been decreased, even where only school children have been treated, which has significant logistical and cost-saving implications for a national control programme in justifying CWT.
Project description:In Sub-Saharan Africa, urogenital schistosomiasis remains a significant public health problem, causing 150.000 deaths/year with approximately 112 million cases diagnosed. The Niakhar district is a disease hotspot in central Senegal where transmission occurs seasonally with high prevalences. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of annual treatment over 3 years on the seasonal transmission dynamics of S. haematobium in 9 villages in the Niakhar district. Adults and children aged between 5 and 60 years were surveyed from 2011 to 2014. Urine samples were collected door-to-door and examined for S. haematobium eggs at baseline in June 2011, and all participants were treated in August 2011 with PZQ (40 mg/kg). After this initial examination, evaluations were conducted at 3 successive time points from September 2011 to March 2014, to measure the efficacy of the annual treatments and the rates of reinfection. Each year, during the transmission period, from July to November-December, malacological surveys were also carried out in the fresh water bodies of each village to evaluate the infestation of the snail intermediate hosts. At baseline, the overall prevalence of S. haematobium infection was 57.7%, and the proportion of heavy infection was 45.3%, but one month after the first treatment high cure rates (92.9%) were obtained. The overall infection prevalence and proportion of heavy infection intensities were drastically reduced to 4.2% and 2.3%, respectively. The level of the first reinfection in February-March 2012 was 9.5%. At follow-up time points, prevalence levels varied slightly between reinfection and treatment from 9.5% in June 2012 to 0.3% in March 2013, 11.2 in June 2013, and 10.1% April 2014. At the end of the study, overall prevalence was significantly reduced from 57.7% to 10.1%. The overall rate of infested Bulinid snails was reduced after repeated treatment from 0.8% in 2012 to 0.5% in 2013. Repeated annual treatments are suggested to have a considerable impact on the transmission dynamics of S. haematobium in Niakhar, due to the nature of the epidemiological system with seasonal transmission. Thus, to maintain this benefit and continue to reduce the morbidity of urogenital schistosomiasis, other approaches should be integrated into the strategy plans of the National program to achieve the goal of urogenital schistosomiasis elimination in seasonal foci in Senegal.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Open defecation is widespread in rural India, and few households have piped water connections. While government and other efforts have increased toilet coverage in India, and evaluations found limited immediate impacts on health, longer-term effects have not been rigorously assessed. METHODS:We conducted a matched cohort study to assess the longer-term effectiveness of a combined household-level piped water and sanitation intervention implemented by Gram Vikas (an Indian NGO) in rural Odisha, India. Forty-five intervention villages were randomly selected from a list of those where implementation was previously completed at least 5?years before, and matched to 45 control villages. We conducted surveys and collected stool samples between June 2015 and October 2016 in households with a child <5 years of age (n?=?2398). Health surveillance included diarrhoea (primary outcome), acute respiratory infection (ARI), soil-transmitted helminth infection, and anthropometry. RESULTS:Intervention villages had higher improved toilet coverage (85% vs 18%), and increased toilet use by adults (74% vs 13%) and child faeces disposal (35% vs 6%) compared with control villages. There was no intervention association with diarrhoea [adjusted OR (aOR): 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74-1.20] or ARI. Compared with controls, children in intervention villages had lower helminth infection (aOR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.18, 1.00) and improved height-for-age z scores (HAZ) (+0.17, 95% CI: 0.03-0.31). CONCLUSIONS:This combined intervention, where household water connections were contingent on community-wide household toilet construction, was associated with improved HAZ, and reduced soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection, though not reduced diarrhoea or ARI. Further research should explore the mechanism through which these heterogenous effects on health may occur.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem and interruption of transmission in selected areas are targets set by WHO for 2025. Our aim was to assess biannual mass drug administration (MDA) applied alone or with complementary snail control or behaviour change interventions for the reduction of Schistosoma haematobium prevalence and infection intensity in children from Zanzibar and to compare the effect between the clusters. METHODS:In a 5-year repeated cross-sectional cluster-randomised trial, 90 shehias (small administrative regions; clusters) in Zanzibar eligible owing to available natural open freshwater bodies and public primary schools were randomly allocated (ratio 1:1:1) to receive one of three interventions: biannual MDA with praziquantel alone (arm 1) or in combination with snail control (arm 2), or behaviour change activities (arm 3). Neither participants nor field or laboratory personnel were blinded to the intervention arms. From 2012 to 2017, annually, a single urine sample was collected from approximately 100 children aged 9-12 years in the main public primary school of each shehia. The primary outcome was S haematobium infection prevalence and intensity in 9-12-year-old children after 5 years of follow-up. This study is completed and was registered with the ISRCTN, number 48837681. FINDINGS:The trial was done from Nov 1, 2011, through to Dec 31, 2017 and recruitment took place from Nov 2, 2011, until May 17, 2017. At baseline we enrolled 8278 participants, of whom 2899 (35%) were randomly allocated to arm 1, 2741 (33%) to arm 2, and 2638 (32%) to arm 3. 120 (4·2%) of 2853 in arm 1, 209 (7·8%) of 2688 in arm 2, and 167 (6·4%) of 2613 in arm 3 had S haematobium infections at baseline. Heavy infections (≥50 eggs per 10 mL of urine) were found in 126 (1·6%) of 8073 children at baseline. At the 5-year endline survey, 46 (1·4%) of 3184 in arm 1, 56 (1·7%) of 3217 (odds ratio [OR] 1·2 [95% CI 0·6-2·7] vs arm 1) in arm 2, and 58 (1·9%) of 3080 (1·3 [0·6-2·9]) in arm 3 had S haematobium infections. Heavy infections were detected in 33 (0·3%) of 9462 children. INTERPRETATION:Biannual MDA substantially reduced the S haematobium prevalence and infection intensity but was insufficient to interrupt transmission. Although snail control or behaviour change activities did not significantly boost the effect of MDA in our study, they might enhance interruption of transmission when tailored to focal endemicity and applied for a longer period. It is now necessary to focus on reducing prevalence in remaining hotspot areas and to introduce new methods of surveillance and public health response so that the important gains can be maintained and advanced. FUNDING:University of Georgia Research Foundation Inc and Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.