Keratinocytes costimulate naive human T cells via CD2: a potential target to prevent the development of proinflammatory Th1 cells in the skin.
ABSTRACT: The interplay between keratinocytes and immune cells, especially T cells, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory skin diseases. During psoriasis, keratinocytes attract T cells by releasing chemokines, while skin-infiltrating self-reactive T cells secrete proinflammatory cytokines, e.g., IFN? and IL-17A, that cause epidermal hyperplasia. Similarly, in chronic graft-versus-host disease, allogenic IFN?-producing Th1/Tc1 and IL-17-producing Th17/Tc17 cells are recruited by keratinocyte-derived chemokines and accumulate in the skin. However, whether keratinocytes act as nonprofessional antigen-presenting cells to directly activate naive human T cells in the epidermis remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that under proinflammatory conditions, primary human keratinocytes indeed activate naive human T cells. This activation required cell contact and costimulatory signaling via CD58/CD2 and CD54/LFA-1. Naive T cells costimulated by keratinocytes selectively differentiated into Th1 and Th17 cells. In particular, keratinocyte-initiated Th1 differentiation was dependent on costimulation through CD58/CD2. The latter molecule initiated STAT1 signaling and IFN? production in T cells. Costimulation of T cells by keratinocytes resulting in Th1 and Th17 differentiation represents a new explanation for the local enrichment of Th1 and Th17 cells in the skin of patients with a chronic inflammatory skin disease. Consequently, local interference with T cell-keratinocyte interactions may represent a novel strategy for the treatment of Th1 and Th17 cell-driven skin diseases.
Project description:The RAS signaling pathway is constitutively activated in psoriatic keratinocytes. We expressed activated H-RAS(V12G) in suprabasal keratinocytes of adult mice and observed rapid development of a psoriasis-like skin phenotype characterized by basal keratinocyte hyperproliferation, acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, intraepidermal neutrophil microabscesses, and increased T helper type 1 (Th1)/Th17 and T cell type 1 (Tc1)/Tc17 skin infiltration. The majority of skin-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells coexpressed IFN-? and IL-17A. When RAS was expressed on a Rag1-/- background, microabscess formation, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and keratinocyte hyperproliferation were suppressed. Depletion of CD8(+), but not CD4(+), T cells reduced cutaneous and systemic inflammation, the RAS-induced increase in cutaneous Th17 and IL-17(+) ?? T cells, and epidermal hyperproliferation to levels similar to a Rag1-/- background. Reconstitution of Rag1-/- inducible RAS mice with purified CD8(+) T cells restored microabscess formation and epidermal hyperproliferation. Neutralization of IFN-?, but not of IL-17A, in CD8(+) T-cell-reconstituted Rag1-/- mice expressing RAS blocked CD8-mediated skin inflammation, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and keratinocyte hyperproliferation. These results show that CD8(+) T cells can orchestrate skin inflammation with psoriasis-like pathology in response to constitutive RAS activation in keratinocytes, and this is primarily mediated through IFN-?.
Project description:Psoriasis vulgaris is an inflammatory skin disease mediated by Th1 and Th17 cytokines, yet the relative contribution of interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-22 on disease pathogenesis is still unknown.In this study, we sought to identify the cytokines produced by skin-resident T cells in normal skin, localize the receptors for these cytokines, and examine how these cytokines alter gene expression profiles of the cells bearing cognate receptors.We used intracellular cytokine staining and flow cytometry to evaluate T cell cytokine production, and immunohistochemistry and double-label immunofluorescence to localize cytokine receptors in skin. Gene array analysis of cytokine-treated keratinocytes was performed using moderated paired t-test controlling for false discovery rate using the Benjamini-Hochberg procedure.We demonstrate that T-helper cells producing IL-17, IL-22 and/or IFN-gamma, as well as the cells bearing cognate cytokine receptors, are present in normal human skin. Keratinocytes stimulated with IL-17 expressed chemokines that were different from those induced by IFN-gamma, probably contributing to the influx of neutrophils, dendritic cells and memory T cells into the psoriatic lesion. In contrast, IL-22 downregulated genes associated with keratinocyte differentiation and caused epidermal alterations in an organotypic skin model.Our results suggest that the Th17 cytokines IL-17 and IL-22 mediate distinct downstream pathways that contribute to the psoriatic phenotype: IL-17 is more proinflammatory, while IL-22 retards keratinocyte differentiation.
Project description:Psoriasis is a chronic Th1/Th17 lymphocytes-mediated inflammatory skin disease, in which epidermal keratinocytes exhibit a peculiar senescent state, resistance to apoptosis and the acquisition of senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). SASP consists of the release of soluble factors, including IGFBPs, that exert extracellular and intracellular functions in IGF-dependent or independent manner.In this report, we investigated the expression and function of IGFBP2 in senescent keratinocytes isolated from the skin of patients with plaque psoriasis. We found that IGFBP2 is aberrantly expressed and released by these cells in vivo, as well as in vitro in keratinocyte cultures undergoing progressive senescence, and it associates with the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p16 expression. For the first time, we provide evidence for a dual action of IGFBP2 in psoriatic keratinocytes during growth and senescence processes. While extracellular IGFBP2 counter-regulates IGF-induced keratinocyte hyper-proliferation, intracellular IGFBP2 inhibits apoptosis by interacting with p21 and protecting it from ubiquitin-dependent degradation. Indeed, we found that cytoplasmic p21 sustains anti-apoptotic processes, by inhibiting pro-caspase 3 cleavage and JNK phosphorylation in senescent psoriatic keratinocytes. As a consequence, abrogation of p21, as well as that of IGFBP2, found to stabilize cytoplasmic p21 levels, lead to the restoration of apoptosis mechanisms in psoriatic keratinocytes, commonly observed in healthy cells.
Project description:CD58 is an adhesion molecule that is known to play a critical role in costimulation of effector cells and is intrinsic to immune synapse structure. Herein, we describe a virally encoded gene that inhibits CD58 surface expression. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL148 was necessary and sufficient to promote intracellular retention of CD58 during HCMV infection. Blocking studies with antagonistic anti-CD58 mAb and an HCMV UL148 deletion mutant (HCMV?UL148) with restored CD58 expression demonstrated that the CD2/CD58 axis was essential for the recognition of HCMV-infected targets by CD8+ HCMV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Further, challenge of peripheral blood mononuclear cells ex vivo with HCMV?UL148 increased both CTL and natural killer (NK) cell degranulation against HCMV-infected cells, including NK-driven antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, showing that UL148 is a modulator of the function of multiple effector cell subsets. Our data stress the effect of HCMV immune evasion functions on shaping the immune response, highlighting the capacity for their potential use in modulating immunity during the development of anti-HCMV vaccines and HCMV-based vaccine vectors.
Project description:The classical Th1/Th2 paradigm previously defining atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis has recently been challenged with the discovery of Th17 T cells that synthesize IL-17 and IL-22. Although it is becoming evident that many Th1 diseases including psoriasis have a strong IL-17 signal, the importance of Th17 T cells in AD is still unclear. We examined and compared skin biopsies from AD and psoriasis patients by gene microarray, RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. We found a reduced genomic expression of IL-23, IL-17, and IFN-gamma in AD compared with psoriasis. To define the effects of IL-17 and IL-22 on keratinocytes, we performed gene array studies with cytokine-treated keratinocytes. We found lipocalin 2 and numerous other innate defense genes to be selectively induced in keratinocytes by IL-17. IFN-gamma had no effect on antimicrobial gene-expression in keratinocytes. In AD skin lesions, protein and mRNA expression of lipocalin 2 and other innate defense genes (hBD2, elafin, LL37) were reduced compared with psoriasis. Although AD has been framed by the Th1/Th2 paradigm as a Th2 polar disease, we present evidence that the IL-23/Th17 axis is largely absent, perhaps accounting for recurrent skin infections in this disease.
Project description:CD58 and CD2 have long been known as a pair of reciprocal adhesion molecules involved in the immune modulations of CD8+ T and NK-mediated cellular immunity in humans and several other mammals. However, the functional roles of CD58 and CD2 in CD4+ T-mediated adaptive humoral immunity remain poorly defined. Moreover, the current functional observations of CD58 and CD2 were mainly acquired from in vitro assays, and in vivo investigation is greatly limited due to the absence of a Cd58 homology in murine models. In this study, we identified cd58 and cd2 homologs from the model species zebrafish (Danio rerio). These two molecules share conserved structural features to their mammalian counterparts. Functionally, cd58 and cd2 were significantly upregulated on antigen-presenting cells and Cd4+ T cells upon antigen stimulation. Blockade or knockdown of Cd58 and Cd2 dramatically impaired the activation of antigen-specific Cd4+ T and mIgM+ B cells, followed by the inhibition of antibody production and host defense against bacterial infections. These results indicate that CD58/CD2 interaction was required for the full activation of CD4+ T-mediated adaptive humoral immunity. The interaction of Cd58 with Cd2 was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and functional competitive assays by introducing a soluble Cd2 protein. This study highlights a new costimulatory mechanism underlying the regulatory network of adaptive immunity and makes zebrafish an attractive model organism for the investigation of CD58/CD2-mediated immunology and disorders. It also provides a cross-species understanding of the evolutionary history of costimulatory signals from fish to mammals as a whole.
Project description:Effector and memory T cells may cross-react with allogeneic Ags to mediate graft rejection. Whereas the costimulation properties of Th1 cells are well studied, relatively little is known about the costimulation requirements of microbe-elicited Th17 cells. The costimulation blocker CTLA-4 Ig has been ineffective in the treatment of several Th17-driven autoimmune diseases and is associated with severe acute rejection following renal transplantation, leading us to investigate whether Th17 cells play a role in CD28/CTLA-4 blockade-resistant alloreactivity. We established an Ag-specific model in which Th1 and Th17 cells were elicited via Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Candida albicans immunization, respectively. C. albicans immunization elicited a higher frequency of Th17 cells and conferred resistance to costimulation blockade following transplantation. Compared with the M. tuberculosis group, C. albicans-elicited Th17 cells contained a higher frequency of IL-17(+)IFN-?(+) producers and a lower frequency of IL-10(+) and IL-10(+)IL-17(+) cells. Importantly, Th17 cells differentially regulated the CD28/CTLA-4 pathway, expressing similarly high CD28 but significantly greater amounts of CTLA-4 compared with Th1 cells. Ex vivo blockade experiments demonstrated that Th17 cells are more sensitive to CTLA-4 coinhibition and therefore less susceptible to CTLA-4 Ig. These novel insights into the differential regulation of CTLA-4 coinhibition on CD4(+) T cells have implications for the immunomodulation of pathologic T cell responses during transplantation and autoimmunity.
Project description:The nuclear hormone receptor retinoic acid receptor-related-orphan-receptor-gamma t (RORγt) is the key transcription factor required for Th17 cell differentiation and for production of IL-17 family cytokines by innate and adaptive immune cells. Dysregulated Th17 immune responses have been associated with the pathogenesis of several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. In this article, we describe the <i>in vitro</i> pharmacology of a potent and selective low molecular weight RORγt inhibitor identified after a structure-based hit-to-lead optimization effort. The compound interfered with co-activator binding to the RORγt ligand binding domain and impaired the transcriptional activity of RORγt as evidenced by blocked IL-17A secretion and RORE-mediated transactivation of a luciferase reporter gene. The inhibitor effectively reduced IL-17A production by human naive and memory T-cells and attenuated transcription of pro-inflammatory Th17 signature genes, such as <i>IL17F, IL22, IL26, IL23R</i>, and <i>CCR6</i>. The compound selectively suppressed the Th17/IL-17 pathway and did not interfere with polarization of other T helper cell lineages. Furthermore, the inhibitor was selective for RORγt and did not modify the transcriptional activity of the closely related family members RORα and RORβ. Using human keratinocytes cultured with supernatants from compound treated Th17 cells we showed that pharmacological inhibition of RORγt translated to suppressed IL-17-regulated gene expression in keratinocyte cell cultures. Furthermore, in <i>ex vivo</i> immersion skin cultures our RORγt inhibitor suppressed IL-17A production by Th17-skewed skin resident cells which correlated with reduced human β defensin 2 expression in the skin. Our data suggests that inhibiting RORγt transcriptional activity by a low molecular weight inhibitor may hold utility for the treatment of Th17/IL-17-mediated skin pathologies.
Project description:Neonatal CD4(+) T cells have traditionally been viewed as deficient in their capacity to produce Th1 cytokines in response to polyclonal or Ag-specific stimuli. Thus, defining unique aspects of CD4(+) T cell activation and development into Th1 effector cells in neonates is essential to the successful development of novel vaccines and immunotherapies to protect infants from intracellular pathogens. Using highly purified naive CD4(+) T cells derived from cord and adult peripheral blood, we compared the impact of anti-CD3 stimulation plus costimulation through TLR-2 performed in the absence of APC on CD4(+) T cell cytokine production, proliferation, and expression of activation markers. In both age groups, TLR-2 costimulation elicited activation of naive CD4(+) T cells, characterized by robust production of IL-2 as well as key Th1-type cytokines IFN-? and TNF-?. TLR-2 costimulation also dramatically reduced naive T cell production of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10. We observed that neonatal naive CD4(+) T cells are uniquely sensitive to TLR-2-mediated costimulation, which enabled them to produce equivalent amounts of IFN-? and more IL-2 when compared with adult responses. Thus, neonatal CD4(+) T cells have a distinctive propensity to use TLR-2-mediated costimulation for development into proinflammatory Th1 effectors, and interventions that target CD4(+) T cell TLR-2-mediated responses may be exploited to enhance neonatal adaptive immunity.
Project description:We compared the methylated and non-methylated regions in the genome of ex vivo-isolated naive CD4+ T cells, Th1 cells, Th17 cells and regulatory T cells by methyl-CpG binding domain protein sequencing (MBD-seq). Naive T cells and Th1 cells share more methylated regions than naive T cells and Th17 cells or Th1 and Th17 cells. However, analysis of the non-methylated regions revealed the highest similarity between Th1 and Th17 cells. Another aim was the analysis of the Th17 lineage on the basis of the methylome. We searched for regions absent in the methylome of Th17 but present in naive T cells, Th1 cells and regulatory T cells. Here, we identified differential methylation in the loci of Il17a, Chn2, Dpp4 and Dclk1. CD4+ T effector cells were prepared ex vivo, stimulated with PMA/Ionomycin, subjected to a comercially available cytokine secretion kit (IL-17A and IFNg), stained by adding fluorescence-labeled antibodies against CD3, CD4 and CD45RB and sorted by flow cytometry. We sorted naive CD4+ T cells (CD3+CD4+CD45RB_high), Th1 cells (CD3+CD4+CD45RB_low_IFNg+IL17A-), Th17 cells (CD3+CD4+CD45RB_low_IFNg-IL17A+) and regulatory T cells (CD3+CD4+CD25++).