Molecular Trajectory of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations.
ABSTRACT: Every cancer carries genomic mutations. Although almost all these mutations arise after fertilization, a minimal count of cancer predisposition mutations are already present at the time of genesis of germ cells. Of the cancer predisposition genes identified to date, BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been determined to be associated with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome. Such cancer predisposition genes have recently been attracting attention owing to the emergence of molecular genetics, thus, affecting the strategy of cancer prevention, diagnostics, and therapeutics. In this review, we summarize the molecular significance of these two BRCA genes. First, we provide a brief history of BRCA1 and BRCA2, including their identification as cancer predisposition genes and recognition as members in the Fanconi anemia pathway. Next, we describe the molecular function and interaction of BRCA proteins, and thereafter, describe the patterns of BRCA dysfunction. Subsequently, we present emerging evidence on mutational signatures to determine the effects of BRCA disorders on the mutational process in cancer cells. Currently, BRCA genes serve as principal targets for clinical molecular oncology, be they germline or sporadic mutations. Moreover, comprehensive cancer genome analyses enable us to not only recognize the current status of the known cancer driver gene mutations but also divulge the past mutational processes and predict the future biological behavior of cancer through the molecular trajectory of genomic alterations.
Project description:BRCA1/2 mutations play a significant role in cancer pathogenesis and predisposition particularly in breast, ovarian and prostate cancers. Thus, germline analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2 is essential for clinical management strategies aiming at the identification of recurrent and novel mutations that could be used as a first screening approach. We analyzed germline variants of BRCA1/2 genes for 2168 individuals who had cancer diagnosis or high risk assessment due to BRCAs related cancers, referred to 10 health care centers distributed across 7 regions covering the Turkish landscape. Overall, 68 and 157 distinct mutations were identified in BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively. Twenty-two novel variants were reported from both genes while BRCA2 showed higher mutational heterogeneity. We herein report the collective data as BRCA Turkish consortium that confirm the molecular heterogeneity in BRCAs among Turkish population, and also as the first study presenting the both geographical, demographical and gene based landscape of all recurrent and novel mutations which some might be a founder effect in comparison to global databases. This wider perspective leads to the most accurate variant interpretations which pave the way for the more precise and efficient management affecting the clinical and molecular aspects.
Project description:Hereditary cancers account for approximately 10 % of breast and ovarian cancers. Mutations of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, encoding two proteins involved in DNA repair, underlie most cases of such hereditary cancers. Women with BRCA mutations develop breast cancer in 50-80 % of cases and ovarian cancer in 10-40 % of cases. Assessing BRCA mutational status is needed to direct the clinical management of women with predisposition to these hereditary cancers. However, BRCA screening constitutes a bottleneck in terms of costs and time to deliver results. We developed a PCR-based assay using 73 primer pairs covering the entire coding regions of BRCA1 and BRCA2. PCR primers, containing at the 5' end the universal M13 primer sequences, were pre-spotted in 96-well plates. Following PCR, direct sequencing was performed using M13 primers, allowing to standardize the conditions. PCR amplification and sequencing were successful for each amplicon. We tested and validated the assay on 10 known gDNAs from patients with Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). Our strategy is a promising time and cost-effective method to detect BRCA mutations in the clinical setting, which is essential to formulate a personalized therapy for patients with HBOC.
Project description:Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 cause deficiencies in homologous recombination repair (HR), resulting in repair of DNA double-strand breaks by the alternative non-homologous end-joining pathway, which is more error prone. HR deficiency of breast tumors is important because it is associated with better responses to platinum salt therapies and PARP inhibitors. Among other consequences of HR deficiency are characteristic somatic-mutation signatures and gene-expression patterns. The term "BRCA-like" (or "BRCAness") describes tumors that harbor an HR defect but have no detectable germline mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2. A better understanding of the genes and molecular events associated with tumors being BRCA-like could provide mechanistic insights and guide development of targeted treatments. Using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) for 1101 breast-cancer patients, we identified individuals with a germline mutation, somatic mutation, homozygous deletion, and/or hypermethylation event in BRCA1, BRCA2, and 59 other cancer-predisposition genes. Based on the assumption that BRCA-like events would have similar downstream effects on tumor biology as BRCA1/BRCA2 germline mutations, we quantified these effects based on somatic-mutation signatures and gene-expression profiles. We reduced the dimensionality of the somatic-mutation signatures and expression data and used a statistical resampling approach to quantify similarities among patients who had a BRCA1/BRCA2 germline mutation, another type of aberration in BRCA1 or BRCA2, or any type of aberration in one of the other genes. Somatic-mutation signatures of tumors having a non-germline aberration in BRCA1/BRCA2 (n = 80) were generally similar to each other and to tumors from BRCA1/BRCA2 germline carriers (n = 44). Additionally, somatic-mutation signatures of tumors with germline or somatic events in ATR (n = 16) and BARD1 (n = 8) showed high similarity to tumors from BRCA1/BRCA2 carriers. Other genes (CDKN2A, CTNNA1, PALB2, PALLD, PRSS1, SDHC) also showed high similarity but only for a small number of events or for a single event type. Tumors with germline mutations or hypermethylation of BRCA1 had relatively similar gene-expression profiles and overlapped considerably with the Basal-like subtype; but the transcriptional effects of the other events lacked consistency. Our findings confirm previously known relationships between molecular signatures and germline or somatic events in BRCA1/BRCA2. Our methodology represents an objective way to identify genes that have similar downstream effects on molecular signatures when mutated, deleted, or hypermethylated.
Project description:The data on the phenotypes associated with some rare germline mutations in Chinese breast cancer patients are limited. The difference in somatic mutation profiles in breast cancer patients with germline BRCA and non-BRCA mutations remains unexplored. We interrogated the germline and somatic mutational profile of 524 Chinese breast cancer patients with various stages unselected for predisposing factors using a panel consisting of 520 cancer-related genes including 62 cancer susceptibility genes. We divided the patients into three groups according to germline mutations: Germline-BRCA1/2, Germline-others (non-BRCA) and Others (non-carriers). A total of 58 patients (11.1%) carried 76 likely pathogenic or pathogenic (LP/P) germline variants in 15 cancer predisposition genes. Germline BRCA1/2 mutations were detected from 29 (5.53%) patients; with 11 (2.10%) BRCA1 carriers and 18 (3.44%) BRCA2 carriers. In addition, LP/P germline mutations were detected in other genes including MUTYH (n=4), PALB2 (n=4), ATM (n=3), BRIP1 (n=3), CDH1 (n=3), RAD51C (n=3), CHEK2 (n=2), FANCA (n=2), PMS2 (n=2), TP53 (n=2), FANCI (n=1), FANCL (n=1) and PTEN (n=1). At least one variant of uncertain significance (VUS) was identified in 490 (93.5%) patients. Young age (P=0.011), premenopausal status (P=0.013), and breast/ovarian cancer family history (P=0.001) were correlated with germline mutations. Germline-BRCA1/2 group was detected with more missense (P=0.02) and less copy-number amplification (P=0.04) than Germline-others group. Meanwhile, Germline-others group and Others group are very similar (P>0.05). The mutation rates of AKT1, CCND1, FGFR1, and PIK3CA were different among the three groups. By investigating all breast and ovarian cancer-related genes listed in the US genetic guidelines, we identified 15 cancer susceptibility genes frequently mutated in the germline of our population and must be included in cancer predisposition screening. Our study contributed a better understanding of the tumor characteristics of patients with LP/P germline mutations.
Project description:Background:The spectrum of BRCA mutations that predispose to development of breast/ovarian cancer in Indian population remains unexplored. We report incidence and various types of pathogenic, likely pathogenic and variants of unknown significance (VUS) mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes observed at a tertiary cancer center in North India. Materials and methods:A total of 206 unrelated breast and/or ovarian cancer patients, who met the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines for genetic testing, were screened for germline BRCA1/BRCA 2 mutations on high-throughput sequencing platform; large genomic rearrangements were assessed by multiple ligation probe assay. Mutations were mined in mutational databases, PubMed, and discerned into classes. Furthermore, the clinicopathological correlation of BRCA mutation status with prognostic markers in breast cancer and tumor histology in ovarian cancer was performed. Results:In total, 45/206 and 17/206 cases showed positivity for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, respectively, whereas 1/206 was positive for a mutation in both the genes. Altogether, 33 distinct BRCA1 mutations were observed, among which 27 were deleterious (12 frameshifts, 8 nonsense, 1 missense, 3 splice-site variants, 2 big deletions and 1 large duplication) and 6 were VUS. Five novel BRCA1 mutations (c.541G>T, c.1681delT, c.2295delG, c.4915C>T and exon 23 deletion) were identified. Seven mutations (c.2214_2215insT, c.2295delG, c.3607C>T,c.4158_4162delCTCTC, c.4571C>A, splicesite_3 (C>T) and exon 21-23 duplication) occurred more than once, whereas 16 distinct BRCA2 mutations were noted - 9 were lethal (6 frameshifts, 2 nonsense and 1 big deletion) and 7 VUS. One unique pathogenic BRCA2 mutation (c.932_933insT) was recognized. Two mutations (c.9976A>T and c.10089A>G) recurred twice. No significant difference in hormone receptor status was observed among BRCA1 carriers, BRCA2 carriers and noncarriers. Conclusion:We have documented various pathogenic and VUS mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes observed in the cohort. Six novel mutations were identified. The knowledge shared would assist genetic testing in enabling more focused site-specific screening for mutations in biological relatives.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Genetic testing for BRCA1/2 genes is widely used as a strategy to reduce incidence and morbidity of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). The purpose of this study is to analyse the demographic and molecular characteristics of BRCA germline mutations in Navarra, Spain, and to investigate the clinical profile of hereditary and sporadic breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) in the Community. METHODS:The study includes 1246 individuals assessed for BRCA1/2 genetic testing in Navarra, during 2000-2016, and a cohort of BC (n?=?4384) and OC (n?=?561) from the population-based Navarra Cancer Registry. Distribution and molecular characteristics of BRCA1/2 mutations, as well as, comparative analysis of the clinical course, pathologic features and overall survival (OS) of patients in different risk groups were investigated. RESULTS:BRCA mutation detection rate was 16%, with higher proportion (63%) of BRCA2 families. Nineteen per cent of mutations were recurrent, one of which, BRCA2 c.6024dupG, showed high association to OC. BRCA carriers had double risk (95% CI?=?1.04-4.33) of developing multiple malignancies than low risk families and were diagnosed at a much earlier age (16.6 and 11.7?years difference for BC and OC, respectively) when compared to the general population. For BC, BRCA carriers showed a more advanced histological stage, higher risk of bilateral neoplasms (OR?=?4.3; 95% CI?=?1.3-11.4, for BRCA2 carriers) and worse OS rate at 5-, 10- and 15- years, than women with sporadic tumors. For OC, over 70% of patients of all risk groups showed advanced stages at diagnosis, with the highest among BRCA1 carriers (91%). Furthermore, they also had higher probability of developing ovarian bilateral tumors (OR?=?7.8, 95% CI?=?1.7-55.7, for BRCA1 carriers) than the general population. Five-year OS rate was worse among women with sporadic OC than BRCA carriers, but it levelled out over the 15-year period. CONCLUSIONS:In addition to national similarities in the HBOC-BRCA1/2 associated mutational spectrum, we identified a recurrent BRCA2 pathogenic variant (c.6024dupG), highly associated to OC in Navarra. Carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations showed a more severe BC and OC phenotype and had a worse overall prognosis when compared to a large cohort of women with sporadic counterpart tumors.
Project description:Approximately 5-10% of breast cancers are caused by germline mutations in high penetrance predisposition genes. Among these, BRCA1 and BRCA2, which are associated with the Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (HBOC) syndrome, are the most frequently affected genes. Recent studies confirm that gene rearrangements, especially in BRCA1, are responsible for a significant proportion of mutations in certain populations. In this study we determined the prevalence of BRCA rearrangements in 145 unrelated Brazilian individuals at risk for HBOC syndrome who had not been previously tested for BRCA mutations. Using Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) and a specific PCR-based protocol to identify a Portuguese founder BRCA2 mutation, we identified two (1,4%) individuals with germline BRCA1 rearrangements (c.547+240_5193+178del and c.4675+467_5075-990del) and three probands with the c.156_157insAlu founder BRCA2 rearrangement. Furthermore, two families with false positive MLPA results were shown to carry a deleterious point mutation at the probe binding site. This study comprises the largest Brazilian series of HBOC families tested for BRCA1 and BRCA2 rearrangements to date and includes patients from three regions of the country. The overall observed rearrangement frequency of 3.44% indicates that rearrangements are relatively uncommon in the admixed population of Brazil.
Project description:Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is a recently described method for detecting gross deletions or duplications of DNA sequences, aberrations which are commonly overlooked by standard diagnostic analysis. To determine the incidence of copy number variants in cancer predisposition genes from families in the Wessex region, we have analysed the hMLH1 and hMSH2 genes in patients with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), BRCA1 and BRCA2 in families with hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (BRCA) and APC in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis coli (FAP). Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (n=162) and FAP (n=74) probands were fully screened for small mutations, and cases for which no causative abnormality were found (HNPCC, n=122; FAP, n=24) were screened by MLPA. Complete or partial gene deletions were identified in seven cases for hMSH2 (5.7% of mutation-negative HNPCC; 4.3% of all HNPCC), no cases for hMLH1 and six cases for APC (25% of mutation negative FAP; 8% of all FAP). For BRCA1 and BRCA2, a partial mutation screen was performed and 136 mutation-negative cases were selected for MLPA. Five deletions and one duplication were found for BRCA1 (4.4% of mutation-negative BRCA cases) and one deletion for BRCA2 (0.7% of mutation-negative BRCA cases). Cost analysis indicates it is marginally more cost effective to perform MLPA prior to point mutation screening, but the main advantage gained by prescreening is a greatly reduced reporting time for the patients who are positive. These data demonstrate that dosage analysis is an essential component of genetic screening for cancer predisposition genes.
Project description:The presence of germline and somatic deleterious mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes has important clinical consequences for breast cancer (BC) patients. Analysis of the mutational status in BRCA genes is not yet common in public Latin American institutions; thus, our objective was to implement high-performance technology with highly reliable results with the possibility of analyzing several patients simultaneously, therefore reducing cost and work time. A prospective cohort of 252 unrelated sporadic breast cancer patients from the Mexican-mestizo population were analyzed using next generation sequencing (NGS) based on ion semiconductor sequencing. We found 28 pathogenic mutations (25 in BRCA1 and 13 in BRCA2), 11 of which had not been reported previously in Hispanic or Latin American populations. A total of 38 patients were positive for a pathogenic mutation representing 15% of our Mexican women cohort with breast cancer; 25 for BRCA1; and 13 for BRCA2. Our results revealed that there are mutations not analyzed by mutations panels, and our findings support the suitability of massive sequencing approaches in the public institutions of developing countries. Hence, BRCA screening should be offered to patients with breast cancer regardless of their family history of cancer in order to identify unaffected family carriers.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The contribution of BRCA germline mutational status to breast cancer patients' prognosis is unclear. We aimed to systematically review and perform meta-analysis of the available evidence of effects of BRCA germline mutations on multiple survival outcomes of breast cancer patients as a whole and in specific subgroups of interest, including those with triple negative breast cancer, those with Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry, and patients with stage I-III disease.<h4>Methods</h4>Sixty studies met all inclusion criteria and were considered for this meta-analysis. These studies involved 105,220 breast cancer patients, whose 3588 (3.4%) were BRCA mutations carriers. The associations between BRCA genes mutational status and overall survival (OS), breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were evaluated using random-effect models.<h4>Results</h4>BRCA1 mutation carriers have worse OS than BRCA-negative/sporadic cases (hazard ratio, HR 1.30, 95% CI: 1.11-1.52) and worse BCSS than sporadic/BRCA-negative cases among patients with stage I-III breast cancer (HR 1.45, 95% CI: 1.01-2.07). BRCA2 mutation carriers have worse BCSS than sporadic/BRCA-negative cases (HR 1.29, 95% CI: 1.03-1.62), although they have similar OS. Among triple negative breast cancer, BRCA1/2 mutations carriers had better OS than BRCA-negative counterpart (HR 0.49, 95% CI: 0.26-0.92). Among Ashkenazi Jewish women, BRCA1/2 mutations carriers presented higher risk of death from breast cancer (HR 1.44, 95% CI: 1.05-1.97) and of distant metastases (HR 1.82, 95% CI: 1.05-3.16) than sporadic/BRCA-negative patients.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our results support the evaluation of BRCA mutational status in patients with high risk of harboring BRCA germline mutations to better define the prognosis of breast cancer in these patients.