Cardiac magnetic resonance for asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular high risk (CATCH): a pilot study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to screen for silent myocardial ischaemia in asymptomatic high risk patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) has never been performed, and its effectiveness is unknown. Our aim was to determine the feasibility of a screening programme using stress CMR by obtaining preliminary data on the prevalence of silent ischaemia caused by obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) and quantify myocardial perfusion in asymptomatic high risk patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS:In this prospective cohort study, we recruited 63 asymptomatic DM patients (mean age 66 years?±?4.4 years; 77.8% male); with Framingham risk score???20% from 3 sites from June 2017 to August 2018. Normal volunteers were recruited to determine normal global myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRI). Adenosine stress CMR and global MPRI was performed and measured in all subjects. Positive stress CMR cases were referred for catheter coronary angiography (CCA) with/without fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurements. Positive CCA was defined as an FFR???0.8 or coronary narrowing???70%. Patients were followed up for major adverse cardiovascular events. Prevalence is presented as patient numbers and percentage. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare global MPRI between patients and normal volunteers. RESULTS:13 patients had positive stress CMR with positive CCA (20.6% of patient population), while 9 patients with positive stress CMR examinations had a negative CCA. 5 patients (7.9%) had infarcts detected of which 2 patients had no stress perfusion defects. 12 patients had coronary artery stents inserted, whilst 1 patient declined stent placement. DM patients had lower global MPRI than normal volunteers (n?=?7) (1.43?±?0.27 vs 1.83?±?0.31 respectively; p?
Project description:BACKGROUND:In patients with angina and nonobstructive coronary artery disease (NOCAD), confirming symptoms due to coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) remains challenging. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) assesses myocardial perfusion with high spatial resolution and is widely used for diagnosing obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). OBJECTIVES:The goal of this study was to validate CMR for diagnosing microvascular angina in patients with NOCAD, compared with patients with obstructive CAD and correlated to the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) during invasive coronary angiography. METHODS:Fifty patients with angina (65 ± 9 years of age) and 20 age-matched healthy control subjects underwent adenosine stress CMR (1.5- and 3-T) to assess left ventricular function, inducible ischemia (myocardial perfusion reserve index [MPRI]; myocardial blood flow [MBF]), and infarction (late gadolinium enhancement). During subsequent angiography within 7 days, 28 patients had obstructive CAD (fractional flow reserve [FFR] ?0.8) and 22 patients had NOCAD (FFR >0.8) who underwent 3-vessel IMR measurements. RESULTS:In patients with NOCAD, myocardium with IMR <25 U had normal MPRI (1.9 ± 0.4 vs. controls 2.0 ± 0.3; p = 0.49); myocardium with IMR ?25 U had significantly impaired MPRI, similar to ischemic myocardium downstream of obstructive CAD (1.2 ± 0.3 vs. 1.2 ± 0.4; p = 0.61). An MPRI of 1.4 accurately detected impaired perfusion related to CMD (IMR ?25 U; FFR >0.8) (area under the curve: 0.90; specificity: 95%; sensitivity: 89%; p < 0.001). Impaired MPRI in patients with NOCAD was driven by impaired augmentation of MBF during stress, with normal resting MBF. Myocardium with FFR >0.8 and normal IMR (<25 U) still had blunted stress MBF, suggesting mild CMD, which was distinguishable from control subjects by using a stress MBF threshold of 2.3 ml/min/g with 100% positive predictive value. CONCLUSIONS:In angina patients with NOCAD, CMR can objectively and noninvasively assess microvascular angina. A CMR-based combined diagnostic pathway for both epicardial and microvascular CAD deserves further clinical validation.
Project description:Adenosine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) can accurately quantify myocardial perfusion reserve. While regadenoson is increasingly employed due to ease of use, imaging protocols have not been standardized. We sought to determine the optimal regadenoson CMR protocol for quantifying myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRi) - more specifically, whether regadenoson stress imaging should be performed before or after rest imaging.Twenty healthy subjects underwent CMR perfusion imaging during resting conditions, during regadenoson-induced hyperemia (0.4 mg), and after 15 min of recovery. In 10/20 subjects, recovery was facilitated with aminophylline (125 mg). Myocardial time-intensity curves were used to obtain left ventricular cavity-normalized myocardial up-slopes. MPRi was calculated in two different ways: as the up-slope ratio of stress to rest (MPRi-rest), and the up-slope ratio of stress to recovery (MPRi-recov).In all 20 subjects, MPRi-rest was 1.78 ± 0.60. Recovery up-slope did not return to resting levels, regardless of aminophylline use. Among patients not receiving aminophylline, MPRi-recov was 36?±?16% lower than MPRi-rest (1.13?±?0.38 vs. 1.82?±?0.73, P?=?0.001). In the 10 patients whose recovery was facilitated with aminophylline, MPRi-recov was 20?±?24% lower than MPRi-rest (1.40?±?0.35 vs. 1.73?±?0.43, P?=?0.04), indicating incomplete reversal. In 3 subjects not receiving aminophylline and 4 subjects receiving aminophylline, up-slope at recovery was greater than at stress, suggesting delayed maximal hyperemia.MPRi measurements from regadenoson CMR are underestimated if recovery perfusion is used as a substitute for resting perfusion, even when recovery is facilitated with aminophylline. True resting images should be used to allow accurate MPRi quantification. The delayed maximal hyperemia observed in some subjects deserves further study.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00871260.
Project description:Background:Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) derived myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRI) has recently been shown to detect coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) in women with signs and symptoms of ischemia and no obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to determine the inter-scan reproducibility of MPRI in this patient group in order to assess its diagnostic robustness in serial scans and assess its utility as a marker of potential therapies for CMD. Methods:Rest/stress perfusion CMR was performed at 1.5T using a standardized protocol in 17 women with signs and symptoms of ischemia and no obstructive CAD on two separate days (within 90 days of each other). The same pharmacological stress agent (adenosine/regadenoson) was used for both scans. MPRI was calculated from time-intensity curves of the whole myocardium and blood pool at stress and rest. One experienced observer, blinded to clinical data, performed all measurements. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), coefficient of variation (CoV), and Bland-Altman plots were determined. Results:Mean age was 53±10 years old and BMI 28±7 kg/m2; 47% had hypertension, 4% diabetes, 9% hyperlipidemia and 10% family history of CAD. Mean MPRI for the 17 women was higher for scan 2 compared to scan 1 (1.98±0.3 vs. 1.65±0.78, respectively, p<0.001); and this relationship persisted even when corrected for resting rate pressure product (RPP) (2.42±0.81 vs. 1.97±0.92, respectively, 0.002), The mean bias for MPRI between sequential scans was 0.34 (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.49, limits of agreement: -0.31, 0.98 and when corrected for resting RPP it was 0.45 (95% CI: 0.21 to 0.68, limits of agreement: -0.52, 1.41), ICC and CoV also indicated modest inter-scan reproducibility (ICC 0.57; CoV 20.3%), but both measures were comparable to values seen in prior studies in CAD populations and healthy volunteers. Conclusion:Inter-scan reproducibility of CMRI-derived MPRI in women with suspected CMD is modest, with relatively wide limits of agreement. This variability is similar to that seen in other populations, suggesting that some caution must be exercised when using absolute MPRI cut-offs in isolation for the diagnosis of CMD or repeated measures of MPRI to track response to therapy. Additional work is ongoing to improve reproducibility from both biological and technological standpoints.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Coronary endothelial function testing using acetylcholine is not routinely available, while non-pharmacological cold pressor testing (CPT) is considered an endothelial stressor. Noninvasive cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRI) can detect coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD). We evaluated if CPT stress CMRI MPRI could detect invasive coronary endothelial dysfunction. METHODS:Coronary reactivity testing was performed in 189 women with symptoms and signs of ischemic but no obstructive coronary artery disease as previously described plus CPT stress. Subjects also underwent pharmacologic and CPT stress during CMRI (1.5 T). Statistical analysis comparing CPT MPRI between groups was performed by Welch`s t-test and Mann-Whitney where appropriate. Anderson-Darling test and Levene test were considered to verify the normality and homogeneity of variances assumptions. Correlation analyses between CPT MPRI and both invasive and noninvasive measures of CMD were performed using Spearman correlation. RESULTS:While CPT MPRI correlated with pharmacological stress MPRI, it did not correlate with invasive measures of CMD including invasively measured responses to intracoronary (IC) adenosine, IC acetylcholine, CPT, or IC nitroglycerin. Additionally CPT MPRI was not significantly different between subjects with normal compared to abnormal pharm stress MPRI or normal compared to abnormal invasive CMD parameters. CONCLUSION:Despite correlation with pharmacological stress MPRI, non-invasive CPT MPRI does not appear to be useful for detecting CMD in symptomatic women.
Project description:Background:Diabetic patients often have coronary artery disease (CAD) without symptoms. It is known that females tend to have silent or less chest pain and worse prognoses when they develop acute coronary syndrome. Thus, sex differences may impact long-term outcomes in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with silent myocardial ischemia (SMI). The present study aimed to assess the influence of sex on long-term outcomes in DM patients with SMI. Methods:A total of 461 consecutive asymptomatic and self-sufficient DM patients seen at our hospital from 2011 to 2017 were prospectively reviewed. Patients underwent an ergometer exercise test. When the exercise test was positive or the patient could not achieve 90% of their target heart rate, coronary angiography was performed. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs), including death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and stroke. Results:SMI was diagnosed in 81 patients. The median follow-up duration from diagnosis was 35 (15-57) months. The incidence of SMI was similar in females and males [34/170 (20%) vs. 47/291 (16.2%), p = 0.36]. Enrolled patients were divided into four groups according to sex and the presence/absence of SMI. Female patients with SMI showed worse clinical outcomes. After adjustment for age and coronary risk factors, female SMI was independently associated with MACCEs [hazard ratio 2.59, 95% confidence interval 1.07-5.68, p = 0.024], while male SMI was not. Conclusions:Female SMI was associated with worse long-term outcomes in DM patients. Early diagnosis of potential SMI and appropriate care are required in female DM patients. (UMIN000038340).
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Perfusion analysis from first-pass contrast enhancement kinetics requires modeling tissue contrast exchange. This study presents a new approach for numerical implementation of the tissue homogeneity model, incorporating flexible distance steps along the capillary (NTHf).<h4>Methods</h4>The proposed NTHf model considers contrast exchange in fluid packets flowing along the capillary, incorporating flexible distance steps, thus allowing more efficient and stable calculations of the transit of tracer through the tissue. We prospectively studied 8 patients (62 ± 13 years old) with suspected CAD, who underwent first-pass perfusion CMR imaging at rest and stress prior to angiography. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRI) were estimated using both the NTHf and the conventional adiabatic approximation of the TH models. Coronary artery lesions detected at angiography were clinically assigned to one of three categories of stenosis severity ('insignificant', 'mild to moderate' and 'severe') and related to corresponding myocardial territories.<h4>Results</h4>The mean MBF (ml/g/min) at rest/stress and MPRI were 0.80 ± 0.33/1.25 ± 0.45 and 1.68 ± 0.54 in the insignificant regions, 0.74 ± 0.21/1.09 ± 0.28 and 1.54 ± 0.46 in the mild to moderate regions, and 0.79 ± 0.28/0.63 ± 0.34 and 0.85 ± 0.48 in the severe regions, respectively. The correlation coefficients of MBFs at rest/stress and MPRI between the NTHf and AATH models were r = 0.97/0.93 and r = 0.91, respectively.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The proposed NTHf model allows efficient quantitative analysis of the transit of tracer through tissue, particularly at higher flow. Results of initial application to MRI of myocardial perfusion in CAD are encouraging.
Project description:Angina, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) are more common in women and are associated with adverse cardiovascular prognosis. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) is established for assessment of left ventricular (LV) morphology and systolic function and is increasingly used to assess myocardial perfusion and diastolic function. Indeed, stress CMRI allows measurement of myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRI) using semi-quantitative techniques, and quantification of LV volumetric filling patterns provides valuable insight into LV diastolic function. The utility of these two techniques remains limited, because reference control values for MPRI and LV diastolic function in asymptomatic middle-aged, women have not previously been established. To address this limitation, we recruited twenty women, without clinical cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors, with normal maximal Bruce protocol exercise treadmill testing. Subjects underwent CMRI (1.5 tesla) using a standardized protocol of adenosine stress and rest perfusion and LV cinematic imaging. Commercially available with automated CMRI segmentation was used for calculation of MPRI, LV filling profiles, and ejection fraction. Mean age was 54±9 years and mean body mass index was 25±4 kg/m(3). The exercise treadmill testing results demonstrated a normotensive group with normal functional capacity and hemodynamic response. We report reference control values for semi-quantitative MPRI as well as measures of LV systolic and diastolic function including ejection fraction, stroke volume, peak filling rate (PFR), PFR adjusted for end-diastolic volume (EDV) and stroke volume, time to PFR, and EDV index. The data herein provide reference values for MPRI and diastolic function in a cohort of healthy, middle-aged of women. These reference values may be used for comparison with a variety of patient populations, including women with CMD and HFpEF.
Project description:The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of T1 mapping at rest and during adenosine stress as a novel method for ischemia detection without the use of gadolinium contrast.In chronic coronary artery disease (CAD), accurate detection of ischemia is important because targeted revascularization improves clinical outcomes. Myocardial blood volume (MBV) may be a more comprehensive marker of ischemia than myocardial blood flow. T1 mapping using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is highly sensitive to changes in myocardial water content, including MBV. We propose that T1 mapping at rest and during adenosine vasodilatory stress can detect MBV changes in normal and diseased myocardium in CAD.Twenty normal controls (10 at 1.5-T; 10 at 3.0-T) and 10 CAD patients (1.5-T) underwent conventional CMR to assess for left ventricular function (cine), infarction (late gadolinium enhancement [LGE]) and ischemia (myocardial perfusion reserve index [MPRI] on first-pass perfusion imaging during adenosine stress). These were compared to novel pre-contrast stress/rest T1 mapping using the Shortened Modified Look-Locker Inversion recovery technique, which is heart rate independent. T1 values were derived for normal myocardium in controls and for infarcted, ischemic, and remote myocardium in CAD patients.Normal myocardium in controls (normal wall motion, MPRI, no LGE) showed normal resting T1 (954 ± 19 ms at 1.5-T; 1,189 ± 34 ms at 3.0-T) and significant positive T1 reactivity during adenosine stress compared to baseline (6.2 ± 0.5% at 1.5-T; 6.3 ± 1.1% at 3.0-T; all p < 0.0001). Infarcted myocardium showed the highest resting T1 of all tissue classes (1,442 ± 84 ms), without significant T1 reactivity (0.2 ± 1.5%). Ischemic myocardium showed elevated resting T1 compared to normal (987 ± 17 ms; p < 0.001) without significant T1 reactivity (0.2 ± 0.8%). Remote myocardium, although having comparable resting T1 to normal (955 ± 17 ms; p = 0.92), showed blunted T1 reactivity (3.9 ± 0.6%; p < 0.001).T1 mapping at rest and during adenosine stress can differentiate between normal, infarcted, ischemic, and remote myocardium with distinctive T1 profiles. Stress/rest T1 mapping holds promise for ischemia detection without the need for gadolinium contrast.
Project description:The mechanistic basis of the symptoms and signs of myocardial ischaemia in patients without obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) and evidence of coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) is unclear. The aim of this study was to mechanistically test short-term late sodium current inhibition (ranolazine) in such subjects on angina, myocardial perfusion reserve index, and diastolic filling.Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, mechanistic trial in subjects with evidence of CMD [invasive coronary reactivity testing or non-invasive cardiac magnetic resonance imaging myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRI)]. Short-term oral ranolazine 500-1000 mg twice daily for 2 weeks vs. placebo. Angina measured by Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ) and SAQ-7 (co-primaries), diary angina (secondary), stress MPRI, diastolic filling, quality of life (QoL). Of 128 (96% women) subjects, no treatment differences in the outcomes were observed. Peak heart rate was lower during pharmacological stress during ranolazine (-3.55 b.p.m., P < 0.001). The change in SAQ-7 directly correlated with the change in MPRI (correlation 0.25, P = 0.005). The change in MPRI predicted the change in SAQ QoL, adjusted for body mass index (BMI), prior myocardial infarction, and site (P = 0.0032). Low coronary flow reserve (CFR <2.5) subjects improved MPRI (P < 0.0137), SAQ angina frequency (P = 0.027), and SAQ-7 (P = 0.041).In this mechanistic trial among symptomatic subjects, no obstructive CAD, short-term late sodium current inhibition was not generally effective for SAQ angina. Angina and myocardial perfusion reserve changes were related, supporting the notion that strategies to improve ischaemia should be tested in these subjects.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01342029.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Diabetes mellitus (DM) causes macro- and microvasculopathy, but data on cardiac microvascular changes in large animals are scarce. We sought to determine the effect of DM on macro- and microvascular changes in diabetic pigs and humans. METHODS:Eight domestic pigs (4 with type I diabetes and 4 controls) underwent coronary angiography with optical coherence tomography (OCT; at baseline and 1 and 2 months), coronary computed tomography angiography, cardiac magnet resonance (CMR) imaging, and histologic examination. RESULTS:The diabetic pigs had more irregular capillaries with acellular capillaries and a smaller capillary diameter (11.7 ± 0.33 μm vs. 13.5 ± 0.53 μm; P < 0.001) than those of the control pigs. The OCT showed no significant epicardial stenosis in either group; however diabetic pigs had a greater intima-media thickness. CMR results showed that diabetic pigs had a lower relative upslope at rest (31.3 ± 5.9 vs. 37.9 ± 8.1; P = 0.011) and during stress (18.0 ± 3.0 vs. 21.6 ± 2.8; P = 0.007) than the control pigs, implying decreased myocardial perfusion. Among the 79 patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction, 25 had diabetes and they had lower myocardial perfusion on CMR as well. CONCLUSION:DM causes microvascular remodeling and a decrease in myocardial perfusion in large animals at a very early stage of the disease course. Early and effective interventions are necessary to interrupt the progression of vascular complications in diabetic patients.