Quantitative proteomics analysis of differentially expressed proteins induced by astragaloside IV in cervical cancer cell invasion.
ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer remains the second leading cause of mortality in women in developing countries. While surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and vaccine therapy are being applied for its treatment, individually or in combination, the survival rate in advanced cervical cancer patients is still very low. Traditional Chinese medicine has been found to be effective in the treatment of cervical cancer. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), a compound belonging to Astragalus polysaccharides, shows anticancer activity through several cell signaling pathways. However, the detailed molecular mechanism governing the anticancer activity of AS-IV remains unknown. In our study, we performed tumor xenograft analysis, transwell cell migration and invasion assay, Western blot analysis, and iTRAQ combination by parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) analysis to study the molecular mechanism of AS-IV in the suppression of cervical cancer cell invasion. Our results showed that AS-IV suppressed cervical cancer cell invasion and induced autophagy in them, with the tumor growth curve increasing slowly. We also identified 32 proteins that were differentially expressed in the SiHa cells when treated with AS-IV, with 16 of them involved in the upregulation and 16 in the downregulation of these cells. These differentially expressed proteins, which were predominantly actin-myosin complexes, controlled cell proliferation and cell development by steroid binding and altering the composition of the cell cytoskeleton. DCP1A and TMSB4X, the two proteins regulating autophagy, increased in cervical cancer cells when treated with AS-IV. We conclude that AS-IV could inhibit cervical cancer invasion by inducing autophagy in cervical cancer cells. Since iTRAQ combination by PRM has been observed to be useful in identifying macromolecular target compounds, it may be considered as a novel strategy in the screening of anticancer compounds used in the treatment of cervical cancer.
Project description:Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represents a major health concern worldwide. We applied the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) to analyze paired normal (N) and tumor (T) samples from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma as well as liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis in HNSCC cell lines to identify tumor-associated biomarkers. Our results showed a number of proteins found to be over-expressed in HNSCC. We identified thymosin beta-4 X-linked (TMSB4X) is one of the most significant candidate biomarkers. Higher TMSB4X expression in the tumor was found by N/T-paired HNSCC samples at both RNA and protein level. Overexpression of TMSB4X was found significantly associated with poor prognosis of overall survival (OS, P?=?0.006) and recurrence-free survival (RFS, P?=?0.013) in HNSCC patients. Silencing of TMSB4X expression in HNSCC cell line reduced the proliferation and invasion ability in vitro, as well as inhibited the cervical lymph node metastasis in vivo. Altogether, our global proteomics analysis identified that TMSB4X is a newly discovered biomarker in HNSCC whose functions resulted in enhanced proliferation and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. TMSB4X may be a potential therapeutic target for treating HNSCC patients.
Project description:Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignant tumor in women. The mechanisms of cervical cancer are intricate and have not been fully understood. Therefore, we employed iTRAQ to obtain novel proteins profile which participates in the tumor oncogenesis of cervical cancer. 3300 proteins were identified aberrantly expressed in cervical cancer, and western bolt was performed to validate the results of iTRAQ. Then, we selected LYN for further study. Immunohistochemistry identified that LYN expression was significantly increased in cervical cancer tissues than that in cancer adjacent normal cervical tissues and normal cervical tissues. The increased LYN expression was significantly correlated with cancer differentiation and FIGO stage. Silencing LYN inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, conversely, overexpression LYN promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion. In terms of mechanism, LYN could also promote cervical cancer cells metastasis through activating IL-6/STAT3 pathway. In vivo study, overexpression LYN promoted tumor growth, meanwhile knockdown LYN inhibited tumor growth. These results indicate that LYN tyrosine kinase is an oncogenic gene and can serve as a novel target for cervical cancer research and therapy.
Project description:As shown in our previous studies, growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer can be regulated by adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs). However, the underlying mechanism has not yet been revealed. In this study, a proteomics analysis was performed to compare protein expression treated with and without ADSCs in ovarian cancer cells. Protein levels were altered in ovarian cancer cells due to the treatment of ADSCs. Thymosin beta 4 X-linked (TMSB4X) levels changed dramatically, and this protein was identified as one of the most important candidate molecules contributing to the tumour-promoting effects of ADSCs. Compared with the cells that are cultured in the normal growth medium, the TMSB4X levels cultured in ADSC-conditioned medium increased significantly in ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, the growth and invasion of cancer cells were decreased, even in the ADSC-conditioned medium treatment group (P < 0.05), by the inhibition of TMSB4X. As shown in the bioluminescence images captured in vivo, increased ovarian cancer's growth and metastasis, along with elevated TMSB4X expression, were observed in the group of ADSC-conditioned medium, and the tumour-promoting effect of ADSCs was attenuated by the inhibition of TMSB4X. Based on our findings, increased TMSB4X expression may play a role in accelerating the ADSC-mediated proliferation, invasion, and migration of ovarian cancers.
Project description:Pirarubicin (THP) is a newer generation anthracycline anticancer drug. In the clinic, THP and THP-based combination therapies have been demonstrated to be effective against various tumors without severe side effects. However, previous clinical studies have shown that most patients with cervical cancer are not sensitive to THP treatment, and the associated mechanisms are not clear. Consistent with the clinical study, we confirmed that cervical cancer cells were resistant to THP in vitro and in vivo. Our data demonstrated that THP induced a protective macroautophagy/autophagy response in cervical cancer cells, and suppression of this autophagy dramatically enhanced the cytotoxicity of THP. By scanning the mRNA level change of autophagy-related genes, we found that the upregulation of ATG4B (autophagy-related 4B cysteine peptidase) plays an important role in THP-induced autophagy. Moreover, THP increased the mRNA level of ATG4B in cervical cancer cells by promoting mRNA stability without influencing its transcription. Furthermore, THP triggered a downregulation of MIR34C-5p, which was associated with the upregulation of ATG4B and autophagy induction. Overexpression of MIR34C-5p significantly decreased the level of ATG4B and attenuated autophagy, accompanied by enhanced cell death and apoptosis in THP-treated cervical cancer cells. These results for the first time reveal the presence of a MIR34C-5p-ATG4B-autophagy signaling axis in THP-treated cervical cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, and the axis, at least partially, accounts for the THP nonsensitivity in cervical cancer patients. This study may provide a new insight for improving the chemotherapeutic effect of THP, which may be beneficial to the further clinical application of THP in cervical cancer treatment.
Project description:Targeting endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is being investigated for its anticancer effect in various cancers, including cervical cancer. However, the molecular pathways whereby ER stress mediates cell death remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, we confirmed that ER stress triggered by compounds such as brefeldin A (BFA), tunicamycin (TM), and thapsigargin (TG) leads to the induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in cervical cancer cell lines, which is characterized by elevated levels of inositol-requiring kinase 1?, glucose-regulated protein-78, and C/EBP homologous protein, and swelling of the ER observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). We found that BFA significantly increased autophagy in tumor cells and induced TC-1 tumor cell death in a dose-dependent manner. BFA increased punctate staining of LC3 and the number of autophagosomes observed by TEM in TC-1 and HeLa cells. The autophagic flux was also assessed. Bafilomycin, which blocked degradation of LC3 in lysosomes, caused both LC3I and LC3II accumulation. BFA initiated apoptosis of TC-1 tumor cells through activation of the caspase-12/caspase-3 pathway. At the same time, BFA enhanced the phosphorylation of I?B? protein and translocation into the nucleus of NF-?B p65. Quinazolinediamine, an NF-?B inhibitor, attenuated both autophagy and apoptosis induced by BFA; meanwhile, it partly enhances survival of cervical cancer cells following BFA treatment. In conclusion, our results indicate that the cross-talk between ER stress, autophagy, apoptosis, and the NF-?B pathways controls the fate of cervical cancer cells. Careful evaluation should be given to the addition of an NF-?B pathway inhibitor to treat cervical cancer in combination with drugs that induce ER stress-mediated cell death.
Project description:Aberrant expression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) is associated with carcinogenesis. Some HDAC inhibitors are widely considered as promising anticancer therapeutics. A major obstacle for development of HDAC inhibitors as highly safe and effective anticancer therapeutics is that our current knowledge on the contributions of different HDACs in various cancer types remains scant. Here we report that the expression level of HDAC10 was significantly lower in patients exhibiting lymph node metastasis compared with that in patients lacking lymph node metastasis in human cervical squamous cell carcinoma. Forced expression of HDAC10 in cervical cancer cells significantly inhibited cell motility and invasiveness in vitro and metastasis in vivo. Mechanistically, HDAC10 suppresses expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and 9 genes, which are known to be critical for cancer cell invasion and metastasis. At the molecular level, HDAC10 binds to MMP2 and -9 promoter regions, reduces the histone acetylation level, and inhibits the binding of RNA polymerase II to these regions. Furthermore, an HDAC10 mutant lacking histone deacetylase activity failed to mimic the functions of full-length protein. These results identify a critical role of HDAC10 in suppression of cervical cancer metastasis, underscoring the importance of developing isoform-specific HDAC inhibitors for treatment of certain cancer types such as cervical squamous cell carcinoma.
Project description:Thymosin ?4 (T?4), a multifunctional 44-amino acid polypeptide and a member of actin-binding proteins (ABPs), plays an important role in developmental processes and wound healing. In recent years an increasing number of data has been published suggesting T?4's involvement in tumorigenesis. However, T?4's role in melanoma tumor development still remains to be elucidated. In our study we demonstrate that T?4 is crucial for melanoma adhesion and invasion. For the purpose of our research we tested melanoma cell lines differing in invasive potential. Moreover, we applied shRNAs to silence TMSB4X (gene encoding T?4) expression in a cell line with high TMSB4X expression. We found out that T?4 is not only a component of focal adhesions (FAs) and interacts with several FAs components but also regulates FAs formation. We demonstrate that T?4 level has an impact on FAs' number and morphology. Moreover, manipulation with TMSB4X expression resulted in changes in cells' motility on non-coated and MatrigelTM (resembling basement membrane composition)-coated surfaces and drastically decreased invasion abilities of the cells. Additionally, a correlation between T?4 expression level and exhibition of mesenchymal-like [epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)] features was discovered. Cells with lowered TMSB4X expression were less EMT-progressed than control cells. Summarizing, obtained results show that T?4 by regulating melanoma cells' adhesion has an impact on motility features and EMT. Our study not only contributes to a better understanding of the processes underlying melanoma cells' capacity to create metastases but also highlights T?4 as a potential target for melanoma management therapy.
Project description:CIGB-552 is a cell-penetrating peptide that exerts in vitro and in vivo antitumor effect on cancer cells. In the present work, the mechanism involved in such anticancer activity was studied using chemical proteomics and expression-based proteomics in culture cancer cell lines. CIGB-552 interacts with at least 55 proteins, as determined by chemical proteomics. A temporal differential proteomics based on iTRAQ quantification method was performed to identify CIGB-552 modulated proteins. The proteomic profile includes 72 differentially expressed proteins in response to CIGB-552 treatment. Proteins related to cell proliferation and apoptosis were identified by both approaches. In line with previous findings, proteomic data revealed that CIGB-552 triggers the inhibition of NF-?B signaling pathway. Furthermore, proteins related to cell invasion were differentially modulated by CIGB-552 treatment suggesting new potentialities of CIGB-552 as anticancer agent. Overall, the current study contributes to a better understanding of the antitumor action mechanism of CIGB-552.
Project description:Cervical cancer is the most common gynecological malignancy in the world; however, the survival rates of advanced-stage and recurrent cervical cancer patients remain poor. The multifaced protein insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R) has various ligands, represented as IGF-2 and mannose-6-phosphate (M6P)-tagged proteins. Regarding its antagonistic activity as an IGF1R signal, IGF2R is currently considered a tumor suppressor gene, whereas its significance as an M6P receptor is still unclear. Here, on the basis of transcriptome analysis of TCGA and GEO open datasets, we show that IGF2R is upregulated and correlated with poor prognosis in cervical cancer. Several experiments using cervical cancer cell lines revealed that IGF2R depletion induced apoptosis, decreased cell viability, and increased vulnerability to certain anticancer drug cisplatin. In contrast to its negligible impact in IGF1R signaling, loss of IGF2R disrupted the Golgi-to-lysosome transport of M6P-tagged cathepsins, resulting in decreased lysosomal activity, with their abnormal accumulation and dysfunction of both autophagy and mitophagy, which cause the accumulation of misfolded proteins and production of reactive oxygen species. Taken together, IGF2R has an oncogenic role through transportation of M6P-tagged cargo in cervical cancer and can be used as a predictive biomarker for prognostic classification.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of single-stranded, non-coding RNAs of about 22 nucleotides in length. Increasing evidence implicates miRNAs may function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Here we showed that miR-107 directly targeted MCL1 and activated ATR/Chk1 pathway to inhibit proliferation, migration and invasiveness of cervical cancer cells. Moreover, we found that MCL1 was frequently up-regulated in cervical cancer, and knockdown of MCL1 markedly inhibited cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion, whereas ectopic expression of MCL1 significantly enhances these properties. The restoration of MCL1 expression can counteract the effect of miR-107 on the cancer cells. Together, miR-107 is a new regulator of MCL1, and both miR-107 and MCL1 play important roles in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. We have therefore identified a mechanism for ATR/Chk1 pathway which involves an increase in miR-107 leading to a decrease in MCL1. Correspondingly, our results revealed that miR-107 affected ATR/Chk1 signalling and gene expression, and implicated miR-107 as a therapeutic target in human cervical cancer. We also demonstrated that taxol attenuated migration and invasion in cervical cancer cells by activating the miR-107, in which miR-107 play an important role in regulating the expression of MCL1. Elucidation of this discovered MCL1 was directly regulated by miR-107 will greatly enhance our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for cervical cancer and will provide an additional arm for the development of anticancer therapies.