Use of Sequence-Independent, Single-Primer-Amplification (SISPA) for rapid detection, identification, and characterization of avian RNA viruses.
ABSTRACT: Current technologies with next generation sequencing have revolutionized metagenomics analysis of clinical samples. To achieve the non-selective amplification and recovery of low abundance genetic sequences, a simplified Sequence-Independent, Single-Primer Amplification (SISPA) technique in combination with MiSeq platform was applied to target negative- and positive-sense single-stranded RNA viral sequences. This method allowed successful sequence assembly of full or near full length avian influenza virus (AIV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) viral genome. Moreover, SISPA analysis applied to unknown clinical cases of mixed viral infections produced genome assemblies comprising 98% NDV and 99% of IBV genomes. Complete or near complete virus genome sequence was obtained with titers at or above 104.5 EID50/ml (50% embryo infectious dose), and virus identification could be detected with titers at or above 103 EID50/ml. Taken together, these studies demonstrate a simple template enrichment protocol for rapid detection and accurate characterization of avian RNA viruses.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Avian influenza virus (AIV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are important avian pathogens that can cause enormous economic loss on the poultry industry. Different respiratory etiological agents may induce similar clinical signs that make differential diagnosis difficult. Importantly, AIV brings about severe threat to human public health. Therefore, a novel method that can distinguish these viruses quickly and simultaneously is urgently needed. RESULTS:In this study, an oligonucleotide microarray system was developed. AIV, including H5, H7, and H9 subtypes; NDV; and IBV were simultaneously detected and differentiated on a microarray. Three probes specific for AIV, NDV, and IBV, as well as three other probes for differentiating H5, H7, and H9 of AIV, were first designed and jet-printed to predetermined locations of initiator-integrated poly(dimethylsiloxane) for the synchronous detection of the six pathogens. The marked multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were hybridized with the specific probes, and the results of hybridization were read directly with the naked eyes. No cross-reaction was observed with 10 other subtypes of AIV and infectious bursal disease virus, indicating that the oligonucleotide microarray assay was highly specific. The sensitivity of the method was at least 100 times higher than that of the conventional PCR, and the detection limit of NDV, AIV, H5, H7, and H9 can reach 0.1 EID50 (50% egg infective dose), except that of IBV, which was 1 EID50 per reaction. In the validation of 93 field samples, AIV, IBV, and NDV were detected in 53 (56.99%) samples by oligonucleotide microarray and virus isolation and in 50 (53.76%) samples by conventional PCR. CONCLUSIONS:We have successfully developed an approach to differentiate AIV, NDV, IBV, H5, H7, and H9 subtypes of AIV using oligonucleotide microarray. The microarray is an accurate, high-throughput, and relatively simple method for the rapid detection of avian respiratory viral diseases. It can be used for the epidemiological surveillance and diagnosis of AIV, IBV, and NDV.
Project description:Background and Aim:Mixed infections of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are considered the most distressing problem of the poultry industry. The problem arises due to the influence of a hidden virus on the replication of another suspected virus. Consequently, misdiagnosis of the real cause of disease may become a source of infection for other healthy stock by transmission and dissemination of the hidden virus. This study aimed to determine the impact of HPAIV and NDV on each other in a specific pathogen-free embryonated chicken egg (SPF-ECE) model. Materials and Methods:HPAIVs (H5N1 and H5N8) and NDVs [avirulent NDV [avNDV] and velogenic NDV [vNDV]) were inoculated into the allantois cavity of SPF-ECE with graded titers (2, 3, and 4 log10 EID50) at 24 and 48 h of incubation, followed by the collection of allantoic fluid. A quantitative reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the viral RNA copies of both viruses. Results:Obvious interference was reported on the growth of NDVs when co-inoculated with AIVs. NDV RNA titers reduction ranged from <3 to 5 log10 to complete suppression, but slight interference with the growth of AIVs occurred. H5N1 RNA titers showed <1-2 log10 reduction when co-inoculated with vNDV compared with the H5N1 control. The interference impact of H5N8 was more powerful than that of H5N1, while vNDV showed more resistance for interference than the avNDV strain. On the other hand, interference of AIVs was not observed except when vNDV was inoculated before H5N1. The interfering impact was increased after 48 h of inoculation, whereas no titer of avNDV was detectable. Conclusion:AIV strains had a powerful effect on NDV growth, regardless of which infection occurred first.
Project description:The nucleocapsid (N) protein of the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) may play an essential role in the replication and translation of viral RNA. The N protein can also induce high titers of cross-reactive antibodies and cell-mediated immunity, which protects chickens from acute infection. In this study, we generated two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), designated as 6D10 and 4F10, which were directed against the N protein of IBV using the whole viral particles as immunogens. Both of the mAbs do not cross react with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) and subtype H9 avian influenza virus (AIV). After screening a phage display peptide library and peptide scanning, we identified two linear B-cell epitopes that were recognized by the mAbs 6D10 and 4F10, which corresponded to the amino acid sequences (242)FGPRTK(247) and (195)DLIARAAKI(203), respectively, in the IBV N protein. Alignments of amino acid sequences from a large number of IBV isolates indicated that the two epitopes, especially (242)FGPRTK(247), were well conserved among IBV strains. This conclusion was further confirmed by the relationships of 18 heterologous sequences to the 2 mAbs. The novel mAbs and the epitopes identified will be useful for developing diagnostic assays for IBV infections.
Project description:Aim:The aim of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of a trivalent-inactivated oil-emulsion vaccine against challenge by different clades highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses including HPAI-H5N8 and the virulent genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) (vNDV). Materials and Methods:The vaccine studied herein is composed of reassortant AI viruses rgA/Chicken/Egypt/ME1010/2016 (clade 188.8.131.52), H5N1 rgA/Chicken/Egypt/RG-173CAL/2017 (clade 184.108.40.206), and "NDV" (LaSota NDV/CK/Egypt/11478AF/11); all used at a concentration of 108 EID50/bird and mixed with Montanide-ISA70 oil adjuvant. Two-week-old specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were immunized subcutaneously with 0.5 ml of the vaccine, and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers were monitored weekly. The intranasal challenge was conducted 4 weeks post-vaccination (PV) using 106 EID50/0.1 ml of the different virulent HPAI-H5N1 viruses representing clades 2.2.1, 220.127.116.11, 18.104.22.168, 22.214.171.124b-H5N8, and the vNDV. Results:The vaccine induced HI antibody titers of >6log2 against both H5N1 and NDV viruses at 2 weeks PV. Clinical protection against all HPAI H5N1 viruses and vNDV was 100%, except for HPAI H5N1 clade-2.2.1 and HPAI H5N8 clade-126.96.36.199b viruses that showed 93.3% protection. Challenged SPF chickens showed significant decreases in the virus shedding titers up to <3log10 compared to challenge control chickens. No virus shedding was detected 6 "days post-challenge" in all vaccinated challenged groups. Conclusion:Our results indicate that the trivalent H5ND vaccine provides significant clinical protection against different clades of the HPAI viruses including the newly emerging H5N8 HPAI virus. Availability of such potent multivalent oil-emulsion vaccine offers an effective tool against HPAI control in endemic countries and promises simpler vaccination programs.
Project description:Avian infectious bronchitis virus is one of the most important gammacoronaviruses, which causes a highly contagious disease. In this study, we investigated changes in the proteome of kidney tissue of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens that were infected with an isolate of the nephrotropic variant 2 genotype (IS/1494/06) of avian coronavirus. Twenty 1-day-old SPF White Leghorn chickens were randomly divided into two groups, each comprising 10 chickens, which were kept in separate positive-pressure isolators. Chickens in group A served as a virus-free control group up to the end of the experiment, whereas chickens in group B were inoculated with 0.1 ml of 104.5 EID50 of the IBV/chicken/Iran/UTIVO-C/2014 isolate of IBV, and kidney tissue samples were collected at 2 and 7 days post-inoculation (dpi) from both groups. Sequencing of five protein spots at 2 dpi and 22 spots at 7 dpi that showed differential expression by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) along with fold change greater than 2 was done by MS-MALDI/TOF/TOF. Furthermore, the corresponding protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks at 2 and 7 dpi were identified to develop a detailed understanding of the mechanism of molecular pathogenesis. Topological graph analysis of this undirected PPI network revealed the effect of 10 genes in the 2 dpi PPI network and nine genes in the 7 dpi PPI network during virus pathogenesis. Proteins that were found by 2DE analysis and MS/TOF-TOF mass spectrometry to be down- or upregulated were subjected to PPI network analysis to identify interactions with other cellular components. The results show that cellular metabolism was altered due to viral infection. Additionally, multifunctional heat shock proteins with a significant role in host cell survival may be employed circuitously by the virus to reach its target. The data from this study suggest that the process of pathogenesis that occurs during avian coronavirus infection involves the regulation of vital cellular processes and the gradual disruption of critical cellular functions.
Project description:Infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and avian influenza virus (AIV) H9 subtype are major pathogens of chickens causing serious respiratory tract disease and heavy economic losses. To better understand the replication features of these viruses in their target organs and molecular pathogenesis of these different viruses, comparative proteomic analysis was performed to investigate the proteome changes of primary target organ during IBV, NDV, and AIV H9 infections, using 2D-DIGE followed MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. In total, 44, 39, 41, 48, and 38 proteins were identified in the tracheal tissues of the chickens inoculated with IBV (ck/CH/LDL/97I, H120), NDV (La Sota), and AIV H9, and between ck/CH/LDL/97I and H120, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that IBV, NDV, and AIV H9 induced similar core host responses involved in biosynthetic, catabolic, metabolic, signal transduction, transport, cytoskeleton organization, macromolecular complex assembly, cell death, response to stress, and immune system process. Comparative analysis of host response induced by different viruses indicated differences in protein expression changes induced by IBV, NDV, and AIV H9 may be responsible for the specific pathogenesis of these different viruses. Our result reveals specific host response to IBV, NDV, and AIVH9 infections and provides insights into the distinct pathogenic mechanisms of these avian respiratory viruses.
Project description:Infectious bronchitis (IB) and Newcastle disease (ND) are two major infectious diseases that are a threat to the domestic poultry industry. In this study, we successfully generated a recombinant LaSota candidate vaccine strain, rNDV-IBV-T/B, which expresses a short, synthetic, previously identified IBV S1 multi-epitope cassette using the reverse genetic system. The recombinant virus was propagated in nine-day-old embryonated chicken eggs for 20 passages and genetic stability was confirmed by whole genome DNA sequencing. The recombinant virus had a hemagglutination (HA) titer of 210, mean death time (MDT) of 118 hours, and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) of 0.05. None of these were significantly different from the parental Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota strain (p > 0.05). Vaccination of white leghorn chickens at one day of age with 106 EID50 rNDV-IBV-T/B provided 90% protection against virulent IBV M41 challenge at three weeks of age, which was significantly higher than the protection of the control group vaccinated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (p < 0.05). The ciliostasis scores of rNDV-IBV-T/B-vaccinated and LaSota-vaccinated groups were 4.2 and 37.6, respectively, which indicated that rNDV-IBV-T/B vaccination reduced the pathogenicity of IBV toward the trachea. Furthermore, real-time RT-PCR assay showed that the rNDV-IBV-T/B vaccination resulted in low levels of viral load (647.80 ± 49.65 RNA copies) in the trachea four days post-challenge, which is significantly lower than groups vaccinated with PBS (8591.25 ± 311.10 RNA copies) or LaSota (7742.60 ± 298.50 RNA copies) (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the same dose of rNDV-IBV-T/B vaccination provided complete protection against velogenic NDV F48E9 challenge. These results demonstrate that the rNDV-IBV-T/B strain is a promising vaccine candidate to control both IB and ND simultaneously. Furthermore, epitope-based live vector vaccines provide an alternative strategy for the development of cost-effective and, broadly, cross-protective vaccines.
Project description:Currently, next generation sequencing (NGS) is the mainly used approach for identification and monitorization of viruses with a potential public health threat in clinical and environmental samples. To facilitate detection in NGS, the sequence-independent, single-primer-amplification (SISPA) is an effective tool for enriching virus sequences. We performed a preliminary assessment of SISPA-nanopore sequencing as a potential approach for screening tick-borne viruses in six specimens with detectable Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and Jingmen tick virus (JMTV) sequences. A comparison of unbiased NGS and SISPA followed by nanopore sequencing was carried out in 4 specimens with single and pooled ticks. The approach was further used for genome sequencing in culture-grown viruses. Overall, total/virus-specific read counts were significantly elevated in cell culture supernatants in comparison to single or pooled ticks. Virus genomes could be successfully characterized by SISPA with identities over 99%. Genome coverage varied according to the segment and total read count. Base calling errors were mainly observed in tick specimens and more frequent in lower viral loads. Culture-grown viruses were phylogenetically-related to previously-reported local viruses. In conclusion, the SISPA + nanopore sequencing was successful in generating data comparable to NGS and will provide an effective tool for broad-range virus detection in ticks.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Viral diseases are a matter of great concern for poultry farmers in Pakistan. Multiple common viral respiratory diseases (CVRDs) cause huge economic losses in the poultry industry. The prevalence of CVRDs in many countries, including Pakistan, is not clearly understood. RESULTS:Incidences of 5 chicken respiratory viruses: avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV/AAVV-1), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) were assessed on commercial Pakistani farms with respiratory problems from 2014 through to 2016. While AIV and AAVV-1 were frequently detected (16 to 17% of farms), IBV and aMPV were rarely detected (in 3 to 5% of farms) and ILTV was not detected. We characterized H9 AIV of the G1 lineage, genotype VII AAVV-1, GI-13 IBV, and type B aMPV strains with very little genetic variability in the 2-year study period. Co-infections with AIV and AAVV-1 were common and wild type AAVV-1 was detected despite the use of vaccines. Control measures to limit the virus burden in chicken flocks are discussed. CONCLUSIONS:Our data shows that AIV (H9), AAVV-1, IBV and aMPV are prevalent in commercial poultry in Pakistan. Further studies are necessary to assess circulating strains, economic losses caused by infections and coinfections of these pathogens, and the costs and benefits of countermeasures. Furthermore, veterinarians and farmers should be informed of the pathogens circulating in the field and hence advised on the use of vaccines.
Project description:This study was conducted on 100 one-day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the effect of Poulvac E. coli vaccine in reduction of clinical signs and complications after concurrent infectious bronchitis virus (variant 02) and virulent E. coli O78 challenges. The birds were evaluated for clinical signs, mortality for 7?days post-infection, PM lesion score, average body weight and serological evaluation. Re-isolation and RT-PCR for the challenging infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) variant 02 were conducted thereafter. The results showed that the Poulvac E. coli at one-day old chicks in the presence of co-infection with virulent E. coli and IBV variant 02 provides better body weight gain at 35?days than the other groups. The challenge with IBV variant 02 alone in non-vaccinated birds doesn't give any mortality; this indicated that the severity of IBV variant 02 increased by the presence of co-infection with Avian Pathogenic E. coli (APEc). The mortality percentage associated with both E. coli and IBV variant 02 infections in the none vaccinated group by Poulvac E. coli was 25% while this percentage was 10% of the vaccinated group. The Poulvac E. coli is not negatively affecting the immune response against different concurrent viral vaccines like Infectious bursal disease (IBD), and moreover, it improves the immune response against some others like Newcastle disease virus (NDV), Avian Influenza (AI) H5 and IBV.