Fine level epitope mapping and conservation analysis of two novel linear B-cell epitopes of the avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus nucleocapsid protein.
ABSTRACT: The nucleocapsid (N) protein of the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) may play an essential role in the replication and translation of viral RNA. The N protein can also induce high titers of cross-reactive antibodies and cell-mediated immunity, which protects chickens from acute infection. In this study, we generated two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), designated as 6D10 and 4F10, which were directed against the N protein of IBV using the whole viral particles as immunogens. Both of the mAbs do not cross react with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) and subtype H9 avian influenza virus (AIV). After screening a phage display peptide library and peptide scanning, we identified two linear B-cell epitopes that were recognized by the mAbs 6D10 and 4F10, which corresponded to the amino acid sequences (242)FGPRTK(247) and (195)DLIARAAKI(203), respectively, in the IBV N protein. Alignments of amino acid sequences from a large number of IBV isolates indicated that the two epitopes, especially (242)FGPRTK(247), were well conserved among IBV strains. This conclusion was further confirmed by the relationships of 18 heterologous sequences to the 2 mAbs. The novel mAbs and the epitopes identified will be useful for developing diagnostic assays for IBV infections.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Viral diseases are a matter of great concern for poultry farmers in Pakistan. Multiple common viral respiratory diseases (CVRDs) cause huge economic losses in the poultry industry. The prevalence of CVRDs in many countries, including Pakistan, is not clearly understood. RESULTS:Incidences of 5 chicken respiratory viruses: avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV/AAVV-1), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) were assessed on commercial Pakistani farms with respiratory problems from 2014 through to 2016. While AIV and AAVV-1 were frequently detected (16 to 17% of farms), IBV and aMPV were rarely detected (in 3 to 5% of farms) and ILTV was not detected. We characterized H9 AIV of the G1 lineage, genotype VII AAVV-1, GI-13 IBV, and type B aMPV strains with very little genetic variability in the 2-year study period. Co-infections with AIV and AAVV-1 were common and wild type AAVV-1 was detected despite the use of vaccines. Control measures to limit the virus burden in chicken flocks are discussed. CONCLUSIONS:Our data shows that AIV (H9), AAVV-1, IBV and aMPV are prevalent in commercial poultry in Pakistan. Further studies are necessary to assess circulating strains, economic losses caused by infections and coinfections of these pathogens, and the costs and benefits of countermeasures. Furthermore, veterinarians and farmers should be informed of the pathogens circulating in the field and hence advised on the use of vaccines.
Project description:Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute respiratory disease caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The complete genome sequences of five attenuated ILTV vaccine strains and six virulent ILTV strains as well as two Australian ILTV field strains have been published in Australia and the USA so far. To provide the complete genome sequence information of ILTVs from different geographic regions, the whole genome of ILTV LJS09 isolated in China was sequenced. The genome of ILTV LJS09 was 153,201 bp in length, and contained 79 ORFs. Most of the ORFs had high sequence identity with homologous ORFs of reference strains. There was a large fragment deletion within the noncoding region of unique long region (UL) of ILTV LJS09 compared with SA2 and A20 strains. Though the origin binding protein of ILTV LJS09 existed, there was no AT-rich region in strain LJS09. Alignments of the amino acid sequences revealed seven mutations at amino acids 71 (Arg → Lys), 116 (Ala → Val), 207 (Thr → Ile) and 644 (Thr → Ile) on glycoprotein B, 155 (Phe → Ser) and 376 (Arg → His) on glycoprotein D and 8 (Gln→Pro) on glycoprotein L of ILTV LJS09 compared to those of virulent strain (USDA) as ILTV LJS09 did not grow on chicken embryo fibroblasts, suggesting the role of the key seven amino acids in determination of the cell tropism of ILTV LJS09. This is the first complete genome sequence of the virulent strain of ILTV in Asia using the conventional PCR method, which will help to facilitate the future molecular biological research of ILTVs.
Project description:Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is a gallid herpesvirus type 1, a member of the genus Iltovirus. It causes an infection in the upper respiratory tract mainly trachea which results in significant economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. Vaccination against ILTV produced latent infected carriers' birds, which become a source of virus transmission to nonvaccinated flocks. Thus this study aimed to design safe multiepitopes vaccine against glycoprotein B of ILT virus using immunoinformatic tools. Forty-four sequences of complete envelope glycoprotein B were retrieved from GenBank of National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and aligned for conservancy by multiple sequence alignment (MSA). Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) analysis resources were used to predict and analyze candidate epitopes that could act as a promising peptide vaccine. For B cell epitopes, thirty-one linear epitopes were predicted using Bepipred. However eight epitopes were found to be on both surface and antigenic epitopes using Emini surface accessibility and antigenicity, respectively. Three epitopes ( 190 KKLP 193 , 386 YSSTHVRS 393 , and 317 KESV 320 ) were proposed as B cell epitopes. For T cells several epitopes were interacted with MHC class I with high affinity and specificity, but the best recognized epitopes were 118 YVFNVTLYY 126 , 335 VSYKNSYHF 343 , and 622 YLLYEDYTF 630 . MHC-II binding epitopes, 301 FLTDEQFTI 309 , 277 FLEIANYQV 285 , and 743 IASFLSNPF 751 , were proposed as promising epitopes due to their high affinity for MHC-II molecules. Moreover the docked ligand epitopes from MHC-1 molecule exhibited high binding affinity with the receptors; BF chicken alleles (BF2 2101 and 0401) expressed by the lower global energy of the molecules. In this study nine epitopes were predicted as promising vaccine candidate against ILTV. In vivo and in vitro studies are required to support the effectiveness of these predicted epitopes as a multipeptide vaccine through clinical trials.
Project description:Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute and highly contagious respiratory disease of chickens caused by an alphaherpesvirus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Recently, full genome sequences of wild-type and vaccine strains have been determined worldwide, but none was from Europe. The aim of this study was to determine and analyse the complete genome sequences of five ILTV strains. Sequences were also compared to reveal the similarity of strains across time and to discriminate between wild-type and vaccine strains. Genomes of three ILTV field isolates from outbreaks occurred in Italy in 1980, 2007 and 2011, and two commercial chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines were sequenced using the 454 Life Sciences technology. The comparison with the Serva genome showed that 35 open reading frames (ORFs) differed across the five genomes. Overall, 54 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 27 amino acid differences in 19 ORFs and two insertions in the UL52 and ORFC genes were identified. Similarity among the field strains and between the field and the vaccine strains ranged from 99.96% to 99.99%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship among them, as well. This study generated data on genomic variation among Italian ILTV strains revealing that, even though the genetic variability of the genome is well conserved across time and between wild-type and vaccine strains, some mutations may help in differentiating among them and may be involved in ILTV virulence/attenuation. The results of this study can contribute to the understanding of the molecular bases of ILTV pathogenicity and provide genetic markers to differentiate between wild-type and vaccine strains.
Project description:The spike (S) protein of the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) plays a central role in the pathogenicity, the immune antibody production, serotype and the tissue tropism. In this study, we generate 11 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against S1 subunit of IBV Sczy3 strain, and two mAbs 1D5 and 6A12 were positive in indirect ELISA against both His-S1 protein and the purified whole viral antigen. MAb 6A12 and 1D5 could recognized by other 10 IBV strains (IBVs) from five different genotypes, except that 1D5 had a relatively low reaction with two of the 10 tested IBVs. End-point neutralizing assay performed in chicken embro kidney (CEK) cells revealed that the neutralization titer of 6A12 and 1D5 against Sczy3 reached 1:44.7 and 1:40.6, respectively. After screening a phage display peptide library and peptide scanning, we identified two linear B-cell epitopes that were recognized by the mAbs 1D5 and 6A12, which corresponded to the amino acid sequences (87)PPQGMAW(93) and (412)IQTRTEP(418), respectively, in the IBV S1 subunit. Sequences comparison revealed that epitope (412)IQTRTEP(418) was conserved among IBVs, while the epitope (87)PPQGMAW(93) was relatively variable among IBVs. The novel mAbs and the epitopes identified will be useful for developing diagnostic assays for IBV infections.
Project description:In contrast to the RNA viruses, the genome of large DNA viruses such as herpesviruses have been considered to be relatively stable. Intra-specific recombination has been proposed as an important, but underestimated, driving force in herpesvirus evolution. Recently, two distinct field strains of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) have been shown to have arisen from independent recombination events between different commercial ILTV vaccines. In this study we sequenced the genomes of additional ILTV strains and also utilized other recently updated complete genome sequences of ILTV to confirm the existence of a number of ILTV recombinants in nature. Multiple recombination events were detected in the unique long and repeat regions of the genome, but not in the unique short region. Most recombinants contained a pair of crossover points between two distinct lineages of ILTV, corresponding to the European origin and the Australian origin vaccine strains of ILTV. These results suggest that there are two distinct genotypic lineages of ILTV and that these commonly recombine in the field.
Project description:Given the side effects of vaccination against infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), novel strategies for ILT control and therapy are urgently needed. The modulation of host-virus interactions is a promising strategy to combat the virus; however, the interactions between the host and avian ILT herpesvirus (ILTV) are unclear. Using genome-wide transcriptome studies in combination with a bioinformatic analysis, we identified proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src (Src) to be an important modulator of ILTV infection. Src controls the virulence of ILTV and is phosphorylated upon ILTV infection. Functional studies revealed that Src prolongs the survival of host cells by increasing the threshold of virus-induced cell death. Therefore, Src is essential for viral replication in vitro and in ovo but is not required for ILTV-induced cell death. Furthermore, our results identify a positive-feedback loop between Src and the tyrosine kinase focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which is necessary for the phosphorylation of either Src or FAK and is required for Src to modulate ILTV infection. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to identify a key host regulator controlling host-ILTV interactions. We believe that our findings have revealed a new potential therapeutic target for ILT control and therapy.Despite the extensive administration of live attenuated vaccines starting from the mid-20th century and the administration of recombinant vaccines in recent years, infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) outbreaks due to avian ILT herpesvirus (ILTV) occur worldwide annually. Presently, there are no drugs or control strategies that effectively treat ILT. Targeting of host-virus interactions is considered to be a promising strategy for controlling ILTV infections. However, little is known about the mechanisms governing host-ILTV interactions. The results from our study advance our understanding of host-ILTV interactions on a molecular level and provide experimental evidence that it is possible to control ILT via the manipulation of host-virus interactions.
Project description:To explore the molecular events in LMH cells upon infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) infection, transcriptional profiling of LMH cells infected with ILTV was compared with uninfected control cells. Gene expression in LMH cells with or without virus infection was measured at two day post infection. Four independent experiments were performed.
Project description:Psittacid herpesvirus 1 (PsHV-1) is the causative agent of Pacheco's disease, an acute, highly contagious, and potentially lethal respiratory herpesvirus infection in psittacine birds, while infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is a highly contagious and economically significant avian herpesvirus which is responsible for an acute respiratory disease limited to galliform birds. The complete genome sequence of PsHV-1 has been determined and compared to the ILTV sequence, assembled from published data. The PsHV-1 and ILTV genomes exhibit similar structural characteristics and are 163,025 bp and 148,665 bp in length, respectively. The PsHV-1 genome contains 73 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), while the ILTV genome contains 77 predicted ORFs. Both genomes contain an inversion in the unique long region similar to that observed in pseudorabies virus. PsHV-1 is closely related to ILTV, and it is proposed that it be assigned to the Iltovirus genus. These two avian herpesviruses represent a phylogenetically unique clade of alphaherpesviruses that are distinct from the Marek's disease-like viruses (Mardivirus). The determination of the complete genomic nucleotide sequences of PsHV-1 and ILTV provides a tool for further comparative and functional analysis of this unique class of avian alphaherpesviruses.