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Antiviral activity of Sambucus FormosanaNakai ethanol extract and related phenolic acid constituents against human coronavirus NL63.

ABSTRACT: Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63), one of the main circulating HCoVs worldwide, causes respiratory tract illnesses like runny nose, cough, bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Recently, a severe respiratory illness outbreak of HCoV-NL63?has been reported in a long-term care facility. Sambucus FormosanaNakai, a species of elderberry, is a traditional medicinal herb with anti-inflammatory and antiviral potential. The study investigated the antiviral activity of Sambucus FormosanaNakai stem ethanol extract and some phenolic acid constituents against HCoV-NL63. The extract was less cytotoxic and concentration-dependently increased anti-HCoV-NL63 activities, including cytopathicity, sub-G1 fraction, virus yield (IC50?=?1.17??g/ml), plaque formation (IC50?=?4.67??g/ml) and virus attachment (IC50?=?15.75??g/ml). Among the phenolic acid constituents in Sambucus FormosanaNakai extract, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and gallic acid sustained the anti-HCoV-NL63 activity that was ranked in the following order of virus yield reduction: caffeic acid (IC50?=?3.54??M)?>?chlorogenic acid (IC50?=?43.45??M)?>?coumaric acid (IC50?=?71.48??M). Caffeic acid significantly inhibited the replication of HCoV-NL63 in a cell-type independent manner, and specifically blocked virus attachment (IC50?=?8.1??M). Therefore, the results revealed that Sambucus Formosana Nakai stem ethanol extract displayed the strong anti-HCoV-NL63 potential; caffeic acid could be the vital component with anti-HCoV-NL63 activity. The finding could be helpful for developing antivirals against HCoV-NL63.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC7114872 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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