ABSTRACT: Outbreaks of infectious diseases during peacetime or in disaster/war-related conditions, may most often need an effective crisis management in the hospital. The emergency preparedness in hospitals may vary within, and between countries, dependent on endemic and epidemic conditions, capacity, knowledge and economy. Lack of preparedness may result in a high risk of disease burden and death and cause a high economic impact on the health care.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To assess hospital emergency nurses' self-reported knowledge, role awareness and skills in disaster response with respect to the Hajj mass gathering in Mecca. DESIGN:Cross-sectional online survey with primary data collection and non-probabilistic purposive sample conducted in late 2014. SETTING:All 4 public hospitals in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. PARTICIPANTS:106 registered nurses in hospital emergency departments. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:Awareness, knowledge, skills and perceptions of emergency nurses in Mecca with regard to mass gathering disaster preparedness. RESULTS:Although emergency nurses' clinical role awareness in disaster response was reported to be high, nurses reported limited knowledge and awareness of the wider emergency and disaster preparedness plans, including key elements of their hospital strategies for managing a mass gathering disaster. Over half of the emergency nurses in Mecca's public hospitals had not thoroughly read the plan, and almost 1 in 10 were not even aware of its existence. Emergency nurses reported seeing their main role as providing timely general clinical assessment and care; however, fewer emergency nurses saw their role as providing surveillance, prevention, leadership or psychological care in a mass gathering disaster, despite all these broader roles being described in the hospitals' emergency disaster response plans. Emergency nurses' responses to topics where there are often misconceptions on appropriate disaster management indicated a significant knowledge deficit with only 1 in 3 nurses at best or 1 in 6 at worst giving correct answers. Respondents identified 3 key training initiatives as opportunities to further develop their professional skills in this area: (1) hospital education sessions, (2) the Emergency Management Saudi Course, (3) bespoke short courses in disaster management. CONCLUSIONS:Recommendations are suggested to help enhance clinical and educational efforts in disaster preparedness.
Project description:This study assessed adults' perceptions toward preparedness to better inform emergency planning efforts for households and communities. The 2016 Styles, an Internet panel survey, was used to assess emergency preparedness competencies. Descriptive analyses were performed to describe the sociodemographic factors by preparedness status. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the association between perceived preparedness and characteristics associated with preparedness attitudes, motivators, and barriers. Approximately 40% of adults surveyed reported that they were prepared for emergencies. The main motivator for those prepared was awareness of local disasters (38.9%), and a leading barrier was confusion about how to plan for the unknown (23.7%). Those prepared were more likely to have the right supplies (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.05, 1.50]), discuss emergency plans (AOR = 1.21, 95% CI = [1.02-1.42]), and act before an emergency occurred (AOR = 1.35, 95% CI = [1.15, 1.59]), compared with adults who did not report being prepared. Results from this research indicate that identifying motivation to prepare for emergencies can contribute to public health disaster planning. Preparation is a critical step that allows the community and its citizens to be more equipped to function during and after a disaster.
Project description:The Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program (TEHIP) of the National Library of Medicine (NLM) works to organize and provide access to a wide range of environmental health and toxicology resources. In recent years, the demand for, and availability of, information on health issues related to natural and man-made emergencies and disasters has increased. Recognizing that access to information is essential in disaster preparedness, a new focus of NLM's 2006-2016 Long Range Plan calls for the establishment of a Disaster Information Management Research Center (DIMRC) that will aid in collecting, disseminating, and sharing information related to health and disasters. This paper introduces several of TEHIP's resources for emergency/disaster preparedness and response, such as the Radiation Event Medical Management Web site (REMM) <http://remm.nlm.gov/> and the Wireless Information System for Emergency Responders (WISER) <http://wiser.nlm.nih.gov>. Several of NLM's other disaster preparedness and response resources will also be reviewed.
Project description:Because effective preparations are required to mitigate disaster impacts before implementing effective interventions, it is important to understand why people do or do not act on disaster preparedness. This study explores factors influencing residents’ intentions and actual behaviors following the 2016 Kaohsiung Meinong earthquake in southern Taiwan. Protection Motivation Theory was used to develop a hypothesized model to test hypotheses regarding residents’ disaster preparedness, and structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the model. Data were comprised of 286 valid responses from seven major administration areas in Tainan, Taiwan. Self-efficacy, response-efficacy, and obstacles were significantly correlated with behavioral intentions and actual disaster preparedness behaviors. SEM results revealed that (a) the model fit the data well, (b) the relationship between risk perception and response-efficacy was fully mediated by behavioral intention, and (c) self-efficacy and obstacles were partially mediated by behavioral intention. Behavioral intent and actual disaster preparedness behavior are related but not equal. The main factors affecting actual disaster preparedness behavior are self-efficacy and obstacles. Therefore, strategies like drills or workshops can improve disaster-preparedness knowledge and capabilities and reduce difficulties of implementing disaster preparedness. To improve health and well-being, healthcare providers should promote disaster preparedness by interventions to increase self-efficacy during disasters.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Virtual tabletop exercises (VTTXs) simulate disaster scenarios to help participants improve their emergency-planning capacity. The objectives of our study were to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of a VTTX in improving preparedness capabilities specific to children's needs among pediatricians and public health practitioners, (2) document follow-up actions, and (3) identify exercise strengths and weaknesses. METHODS:In February 2017, we conducted and evaluated a VTTX facilitated via videoconferencing among 26 pediatricians and public health practitioners from 4 states. Using a mixed-methods design, we assessed participants' knowledge and confidence to fulfill targeted federal preparedness capabilities immediately before and after the exercise. We also evaluated the degree to which participants made progress on actions through surveys 1?month (n = 14) and 6 months (n = 14) after the exercise. RESULTS:Participants reported a greater ability to identify their state's pediatric emergency preparedness strengths and weaknesses after the exercise (16 of 18) compared with before the exercise (10 of 18). We also observed increases in (1) knowledge of and confidence in performing most pediatric emergency preparedness capabilities and (2) most dimensions of interprofessional collaboration. From 1?month to 6 months after the exercise, participants (n = 14) self-reported making progress in increasing awareness for potential preparedness partners and in conducting similar pediatric exercises (from 4-7 for both). CONCLUSIONS:Participants viewed the VTTX positively and indicated increased pediatric emergency preparedness knowledge and confidence. Addressing barriers to improving local pediatric emergency preparedness-particularly long term-is an important target for future tabletop exercises.
Project description:The study of the management of weather-related disaster risks by municipalities has attracted little attention even though these organizations play a key role in protecting the population from extreme meteorological conditions. This article contributes to filling this gap with new evidence on the level and determinants of Quebec municipalities' preparedness for weather hazards and response to related weather warnings. Using survey data from municipal emergency management coordinators and secondary data on the financial and demographic characteristics of municipalities, the study shows that most Quebec municipalities are sufficiently prepared for weather hazards and undertake measures to protect the population when informed of imminent extreme weather events. Significant differences between municipalities were noted though. Specifically, the level of preparedness was positively correlated with the municipalities' capacity and population support for weather-related disaster management policies. In addition, the risk of weather-related disasters increases the preparedness level through its effect on population support. We also found that the response to weather warnings depended on the risk of weather-related disasters, the preparedness level and the quality of weather warnings. These results highlight areas for improvement in the context of increasing frequency and/or severity of such events with current climate change.
Project description:After the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in 2011, there was a strong demand to promote disaster preparedness approaches and health checkups for the prevention of lifestyle diseases. This study examined the yearly change in the percentage of those who prepared for disasters and who utilized health checkups in Fukushima Prefecture, and identified the factors governing disaster preparedness and utilization of health checkups. We used the public opinion survey from 2011 to 2015 (n = 677-779 each year) on prefectural policies that is conducted every year by the Fukushima Prefecture government Public Consultation Unit. We found that the percentage of those who prepare for disasters decreased, while that for health checkups did not significantly change. With regard to disaster preparedness, experiences of disaster enhance disaster preparedness, while bonds with other local people help to maintain preparedness. For health checkups, familiarity with the welfare service was the most important factor governing such consultations. The findings suggest that social capital should be promoted in order to improve disaster preparedness. The findings also suggest that residents' accessibility to medical and welfare services is also important in promoting the utilization of health checkups.
Project description:Considering the unexpected emergence of natural and man-made disasters over the world and Turkey, the importance of preparedness of hospitals, which are the first reference points for people to get healthcare services, becomes clear. Determining the level of disaster preparedness of hospitals is an important and necessary issue. This is because identifying hospitals with low level of preparedness is crucial for disaster preparedness planning. In this study, a hybrid fuzzy decision making model was proposed to evaluate the disaster preparedness of hospitals. This model was developed using fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP)-fuzzy decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (FDEMATEL)-technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solutions (TOPSIS) techniques and aimed to determine a ranking for hospital disaster preparedness. FAHP is used to determine weights of six main criteria (including hospital buildings, equipment, communication, transportation, personnel, flexibility) and a total of thirty-six sub-criteria regarding disaster preparedness. At the same time, FDEMATEL is applied to uncover the interdependence between criteria and sub-criteria. Finally, TOPSIS is used to obtain ranking of hospitals. To provide inputs for TOPSIS implementation, some key performance indicators are established and related data is gathered by the aid of experts from the assessed hospitals. A case study considering 4 hospitals from the Turkish healthcare sector was used to demonstrate the proposed approach. The results evidenced that Personnel is the most important factor (global weight = 0.280) when evaluating the hospital preparedness while Flexibility has the greatest prominence (c + r = 23.09).
Project description:Background:Mass casualty incidents (MCIs) are increasing. Trauma centres play a key role in MCIs due to their readiness and expansive multidisciplinary expertise for injury management. Previous studies have shown deficiencies in trauma centre disaster preparedness. The aim of this study was to describe the current disaster preparedness of Major Trauma Centres (MTCs) in Australia, Canada, England and New Zealand. Methods:A cross-sectional survey of all (n = 82) MTCs was undertaken. The anonymous survey collected data about disaster preparedness in nine key areas. Respondents were encouraged to consult appropriately at their centre to provide an accurate representation of their centre's preparedness. Findings:Responses were received from 69 (84%) centres; 61 completed all questions. 91% had a disaster preparedness committee and 80% had an all-hazards emergency plan. 79% had held an MCI drill in the past 2 years. 54% reported a system in place to calculate maximum capacity, but testing of surge capacity was uncommon. 55% reported the presence of stored resources for an MCI and 58% had a database of staff trained in Emergency Management. 74% had a training and education plan available for staff involved in an MCI and a plan for professional debriefing of staff post-MCI, while 62% had a post-disaster employee assistance programme. Most centres had appropriate back-up communication, safety and security plans. Interpretation:The disaster preparedness of MTCs was high for communication, safety and security but there was clear need for improvement in other areas including surge capacity, human resources and post-disaster recovery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The delivery of emergency, trauma, critical, and intensive care services requires coordination among all members of the care team. Perceived teamwork and role clarity may vary among physicians (MDs) and nurse practitioners (NPs). PURPOSE:To examine differences in perceived roles and responsibilities of NPs and MDs practicing in emergency, trauma, critical, and intensive care. METHODS:Secondary Analysis of the National Survey of Emergency, Intensive, and Critical Care Nurse Practitioners and Physicians, a cross-sectional national survey of clinicians. Mail survey of randomly selected stratified cross-sectional samples of MDs and NPs drawn from national lists of clinicians in eligible specialties working in emergency, trauma, intensive, and critical care units in the United States. 814 clinicians (351 NPs and 463 MDs) were recruited from national by postal mail survey. Our initial sample included n = 2,063 clinicians, n = 1,031 NPs and n = 1,032 MDs in eligible specialties. Of these, 63.5% of NPs and 70.1% of MDs completed and returned the survey excluding those who were ineligible due to lack of current practice in a relevant specialty. FINDINGS:NPs in ICU/CCU are more likely to be female and report working fewer hours than do MDs and provide direct care to more patients. 55% of NPs and 82% of MDs agree that their individual role in their unit is clear (p < .001); 34% of MDs and 42% of NPs agree that their unit is an example of excellent team work among professionals (p = 0.021); 41% of MD and 37% of NP clinicians (p = 0.061) agree that their teams are "prepared to provide outstanding care in a crisis or disaster." Perceived role clarity was significantly associated with increased perceptions of excellent teamwork and disaster preparedness. DISCUSSION:At the time of this survey, and majority of NPs and MDs working in emergency, critical and intensive care did not agree that their teams were prepared for a crisis or disaster. Leaders of health organizations should encourage teamwork and professional role clarity to assist units to perform effectively in emergency and disaster preparedness.