ABSTRACT: This chapter discusses recent developments in diagnostics for cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), BK virus (BKV), community respiratory viruses (CRVs), parvovirus, hepatitis viruses, HIV, and other viral agents of importance in solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>BK virus (BKV), Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivations are common after kidney transplantation and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Although CMV might be a risk factor for BKV and EBV, the effects of combined reactivations remain unknown. The purpose of this study is to ascertain the interaction and effects on graft function of these reactivations.<h4>Methods</h4>3715 serum samples from 540 kidney transplant recipients were analysed for viral load by qPCR. Measurements were performed throughout eight visits during the first post-transplantation year. Clinical characteristics, including graft function (GFR), were collected in parallel.<h4>Findings</h4>BKV had the highest prevalence and viral loads. BKV or CMV viral loads over 10,000 copies·mL<sup>-1</sup> led to significant GFR impairment. 57 patients had BKV-CMV combined reactivation, both reactivations were significantly associated (p?=?0.005). Combined reactivation was associated with a significant GFR reduction one year post-transplantation of 11.7?mL·min<sup>-1</sup>·1.73?m<sup>-2</sup> (p?=?0.02) at relatively low thresholds (BKV?>?1000 and CMV?>?4000 copies·mL<sup>-1</sup>). For EBV, a significant association was found with CMV reactivation (p?=?0.02), but no GFR reduction was found. Long cold ischaemia times were a further risk factor for high CMV load.<h4>Interpretation</h4>BKV-CMV combined reactivation has a deep impact on renal function one year post-transplantation and therefore most likely on long-term allograft function, even at low viral loads. Frequent viral monitoring and subsequent interventions for low BKV and/or CMV viraemia levels and/or long cold ischaemia time are recommended. FUND: Investigator Initiated Trial; financial support by German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF).
Project description:Background:Improved understanding of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus kinetics after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) would facilitate development of therapeutic strategies. Methods:We tested weekly plasma samples from 404 patients through day 100 after allogeneic HCT for cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpesvirus (HHV) 6A and 6B, BK polyomavirus (BKV), adenovirus (AdV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Episodes lasting ?1 week were defined as blips and >1 week as persistent. We described virus-specific kinetics, analyzed the association of virus area under the curve (AUC) with overall mortality, and identified risk factors for persistent episodes. Results:We identified 428 episodes of CMV, 292 of BKV, 224 of HHV-6B, 46 of AdV, and 53 of EBV. CMV and BKV had the highest proportions of persistent episodes (68% and 80%, respectively). Detection and kinetics varied by virus. HHV-6B episodes reached maximum levels fastest and had the shortest intervals between detection and end-organ disease. End-organ disease occurred within 14 days of viremia in 68% of cases, generally during persistent episodes. For all viruses, higher viral load AUC increased risk for overall mortality through day 365, persistent episodes had higher viral load than blips, and higher first positive viral load significantly increased risk for persistent episodes. First viral load >2 log10 copies/mL (range, 2.04-3.06 per virus) had high specificity for persistent episodes. Conclusions:Persistent high viral load dsDNA viremia episodes after allogeneic HCT predict mortality. Virus-specific kinetics can guide timing and thresholds for early intervention in studies of novel agents.
Project description:It has been hoped that the recent availability of WHO quantitative standards would improve interlaboratory agreement for viral load testing; however, insufficient data are available to evaluate whether this has been the case. Results from 554 laboratories participating in proficiency testing surveys for quantitative PCR assays of cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), BK virus (BKV), adenovirus (ADV), and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) were evaluated to determine overall result variability and then were stratified by assay manufacturer. The impact of calibration to international units/ml (CMV and EBV) on variability was also determined. Viral loads showed a high degree of interlaboratory variability for all tested viruses, with interquartile ranges as high as 1.46 log<sub>10</sub> copies/ml and the overall range for a given sample up to 5.66 log<sub>10</sub> copies/ml. Some improvement in result variability was seen when international units were adopted. This was particularly the case for EBV viral load results. Variability in viral load results remains a challenge across all viruses tested here; introduction of international quantitative standards may help reduce variability and does so more or less markedly for certain viruses.
Project description:Purpose Improvement of cure rates for patients treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) will require efforts to decrease treatment-related mortality from severe viral infections. Adoptively transferred virus-specific T cells (VSTs) generated from eligible, third-party donors could provide broad antiviral protection to recipients of HSCT as an immediately available off-the-shelf product. Patient and Methods We generated a bank of VSTs that recognized five common viral pathogens: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), adenovirus (AdV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), BK virus (BKV), and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). The VSTs were administered to 38 patients with 45 infections in a phase II clinical trial. Results A single infusion produced a cumulative complete or partial response rate of 92% (95% CI, 78.1% to 98.3%) overall and the following rates by virus: 100% for BKV (n = 16), 94% for CMV (n = 17), 71% for AdV (n = 7), 100% for EBV (n = 2), and 67% for HHV-6 (n = 3). Clinical benefit was achieved in 31 patients treated for one infection and in seven patients treated for multiple coincident infections. Thirteen of 14 patients treated for BKV-associated hemorrhagic cystitis experienced complete resolution of gross hematuria by week 6. Infusions were safe, and only two occurrences of de novo graft-versus host disease (grade 1) were observed. VST tracking by epitope profiling revealed persistence of functional VSTs of third-party origin for up to 12 weeks. Conclusion The use of banked VSTs is a feasible, safe, and effective approach to treat severe and drug-refractory infections after HSCT, including infections from two viruses (BKV and HHV-6) that had never been targeted previously with an off-the-shelf product. Furthermore, the multispecificity of the VSTs ensures extensive antiviral coverage, which facilitates the treatment of patients with multiple infections.
Project description:Infections with DNA viruses are frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in transplant recipients. This study describes the analytical and clinical performance characteristics of the Arc Bio Galileo Pathogen Solution, an all-inclusive metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) reagent and bioinformatics pipeline that allows the simultaneous quantitation of 10 transplant-related double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses (adenovirus [ADV], BK virus [BKV], cytomegalovirus [CMV], Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], human herpesvirus 6A [HHV-6A], HHV-6B, herpes simplex virus 1 [HSV-1], HSV-2, JC virus [JCV], and varicella-zoster virus [VZV]). The mNGS 95% limit of detection ranged from 14 copies/ml (HHV-6) to 191 copies/ml (BKV), and the lower limit of quantitation ranged from 442?international units (IU)/ml (EBV) to 661 copies/ml (VZV). An evaluation of 50 residual plasma samples with at least one DNA virus detected in prior clinical testing showed a total percent agreement of mNGS and quantitative PCR (qPCR) of 89.2% (306/343), with a ? statistic of 0.725. The positive percent agreement was 84.9% (73/86), and the negative percent agreement was 90.7% (233/257). Furthermore, mNGS detected seven subsequently confirmed coinfections that were not initially requested by qPCR. Passing-Bablok regression revealed a regression line of y?=?0.953x?+?0.075 (95% confidence interval [CI] of the slope, 0.883 to 1.011; intercept, -0.100 to 0.299), and Bland-Altman analysis (mNGS - qPCR) showed a slight positive bias (0.28 log10 concentration; 95% limits of agreement, -0.62 to 1.18). In conclusion, the mNGS-based Galileo pipeline demonstrates analytical and clinical performance comparable to that of qPCR for transplant-related DNA viruses.
Project description:BK virus (BKV) is an important pathogen and cause of nephropathy in renal transplant recipients, but its significance following hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is less well described. We measured blood and urine BKV in 124 allogeneic HSCT patients (67 had undergone prior HSCT [surveillance cohort]; 57 were monitored from transplant day 0 [prospective cohort]). BK viruria was manifest in 64.8% of the patients; 16.9% developed viremia. In the prospective cohort, the median time from transplantation to BK viremia development (128 days) was longer than for viruria (24 days; P < .0001). Among clinical factors (sex, disease, transplant type, alemtuzumab use, cytomegalovirus [CMV] viremia, graft-versus-host disease [GVHD], donor HLA C7 allele), only CMV viremia was more common in patients with BKV infection (P < or = .04). There was a direct relationship between blood and urine BKV levels and the occurrence, and degree, of hematuria (P < or = .03). Finally, BKV infection was analyzed along with other clinical factors in relation to the development of post-HSCT renal impairment. On multivariate analysis, only BK viremia (P=.000002) and alternative-donor transplantation (P=.002) were independent predictors of development of post-HSCT renal impairment, with BK viremia associated with a median 1.62mg/dL rise in creatinine from the pretransplant baseline. Among 8 patients in the surveillance cohort with BK viremia, 2 developed biopsy-proven BKV nephropathy requiring hemodialysis. Investigation of whether prophylaxis against, or treatment of, BKV in the post-HSCT setting mitigates the associated morbidities, especially kidney injury, warrants prospective evaluation.
Project description:Several different viruses have been proposed to play a role in breast carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of a subset of viruses in breast cancer tissue. We investigated the prevalence of 12 DNA viruses: EBV and CMV from the Herpesviridae family and SV40, BKV, JCV, MCV, WUV, KIV, LPV, HPyV6, HPyV7, and TSV from the Polyomaviridae family in 54 fresh frozen breast tumour specimens. Relevant clinical data and basic lifestyle data were available for all patients. The tissue samples were DNA extracted and real-time PCR assays were used for viral detection.The highest prevalence, 10% (5/54), was found for EBV. MCV, HPyV6, and HPyV7 were detected in single patient samples (2% each), while WUV, KIV, JCV, BKV, LPV, SV40, TSV and CMV were not detected in the 54 breast cancer specimens analysed here. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the potential role of viruses, and particularly EBV, in breast carcinogenesis.
Project description:The most represented histotype of testicular cancer is the testicular germ-cell tumor (TGCT), both seminoma and non-seminoma. The pathogenesis of this cancer is poorly known. A possible causal relationship between viral infections and TGCTs was firstly evoked almost 40 years ago and is still a subject of debate. In the recent past, different authors have argued about a possible role of specific viruses in the development of TGCTs including human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Parvovirus B-19, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The aim of this present review was to summarize, for each virus considered, the available evidence on the impact of viral infections on the risk of developing TGCTs. The review was reported following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We included all observational studies reported in English evaluating the correlations between viral infections (HPV, CMV, EBV, Parvovirus B19, and HIV) and TGCTs. The methodological quality of studies included in the meta-analysis was evaluated using a modified version of the "Newcastle-Ottawa Scale." Meta-analyses were conducted using the "Generic inverse variance" method, where a pooled odds ratio (OR) was determined from the natural logarithm (LN) of the studies' individual OR [LN (OR)] and the 95% CI. A total of 20 studies (on 265,057 patients) were included in the review. Meta-analysis showed an association with TGCTs only for some of the explored viruses. In particular, no association was found for HPV, CMV, and Parvovirus B-19 infection (p = ns). Conversely, EBV and HIV infections were significantly associated with higher risk of developing TGCTs (OR 7.38, 95% CI 1.89-28.75, p = 0.004; OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.51-1.93, p < 0.00001). In conclusion, we found adequate evidence supporting an oncogenic effect of HIV and EBV on the human testis. Conversely, available data on HPV and TGCTs risk are conflicting and further studies are needed to draw firm conclusions. Finally, current evidence does not support an effect of CMV and Parvovirus B-19 on testicular carcinogenesis.
Project description:Recent studies have established that the human urine contains a complex microbiome, including a virome about which little is known. Following immunosuppression in kidney transplant patients, BK polyomavirus (BKV) has been shown to induce nephropathy (BKVN), decreasing graft survival. In this study we investigated the urine virome profile of BKV+ and BKV- kidney transplant recipients. Virus-like particles were stained to confirm the presence of VLP in the urine samples. Metagenomic DNA was purified, and the virome profile was analyzed using metagenomic shotgun sequencing. While the BK virus was predominant in the BKV+ group, it was also found in the BKV- group patients. Additional viruses were also detected in all patients, notably including JC virus (JCV) and Torque teno virus (TTV) and interestingly, we detected multiple subtypes of the BKV, JCV and TTV. Analysis of the BKV subtypes showed that nucleotide polymorphisms were detected in the VP1, VP2 and Large T Antigen proteins, suggesting potential functional effects for enhanced pathogenicity. Our results demonstrate a complex urinary virome in kidney transplant patients with multiple viruses with several distinct subtypes warranting further analysis of virus subtypes in immunosuppressed hosts.