Transcriptomic Analysis of Glioma Based on IDH Status Identifies ACAA2 as a Prognostic Factor in Lower Grade Glioma.
ABSTRACT: Background:Glioma is the most common and lethal tumor in the central nervous system (CNS). More than 70% of WHO grade II/III gliomas were found to harbor isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations which generated targetable metabolic vulnerabilities. Focusing on the metabolic vulnerabilities, some targeted therapies, such as NAMPT, have shown significant effects in preclinical and clinical trials. Methods:We explored the TCGA as well as CGGA database and analyzed the RNA-seq data of lower grade gliomas (LGG) with the method of weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA). Differential expressed genes were screened, and coexpression relationships were grouped together by performing average linkage hierarchical clustering on the topological overlap. Clinical data were used to conduct Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results:In this study, we identified ACAA2 as a prognostic factor in IDH mutation lower grade glioma with the method of weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA). The difference of ACAA2 gene expressions between the IDH wild-type (IDH-WT) group and the IDH mutant (IDH-MUT) group suggested that there may be different potential targeted therapies based on the fatty acid metabolic vulnerabilities, which promoted the personalized treatment for LGG patients.
Project description:Background:Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) are targets of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Methods:Forty-three World Health Organization (WHO) grade II/III gliomas (39 IDH-mutant [mut], 4 IDH-wildtype [wt]) and 14 IDH-mut glioblastomas (GBM) were analyzed for TIL (CD3+; PD1+) infiltration and PD-L1 expression. Results were compared with the data of a previously published series of 117 IDH-wt glioblastomas. PD-L1 gene expression levels were evaluated in 677 diffuse gliomas grades II-IV from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Results:TIL and PD-L1 expression were observed in approximately half of WHO grade II/III gliomas. IDH-wt status was associated with significantly higher TIL infiltration and PD-L1 expression among all (grades II-IV) cases (n = 174, P < 0.001) and within the cohort of glioblastomas (n = 131, P < 0.001). In low-grade glioma (LGG) and glioblastoma cohorts of TCGA, significantly higher PD-L1 gene expression levels were evident in IDH-wt compared with IDH-mut samples (LGG: N = 516; P = 1.933e-11, GBM: N = 161; P < 0.009). Lower PD-L1 gene expression was associated with increased promoter methylation (Spearman correlation coefficient -0.36; P < 0.01) in the LGG cohort of TCGA. IDH-mut gliomas had higher PD-L1 gene promoter methylation levels than IDH-wt gliomas (P < 0.01). Conclusions:The immunological tumor microenvironment of diffuse gliomas differs in association with IDH mutation status. IDH-wt gliomas display a more prominent TIL infiltration and higher PD-L1 expression than IDH-mut cases. Mechanistically this may be at least in part due to differential PD-L1 gene promoter methylation levels. Our findings may be relevant for immune modulatory treatment strategies in glioma patients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Abnormal expression of the eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) subunits plays critical roles in tumorigenesis and progression, and also has potential prognostic value in cancers. However, the expression and clinical implications of eIF3 subunits in glioma remain unknown.<h4>Methods</h4>Expression data of eIF3 for patients with gliomas were obtained from the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) (<i>n</i>?=?272) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) (<i>n</i>?=?595). Cox regression, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to study the prognostic value. Gene oncology (GO) and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) were utilized for functional prediction.<h4>Results</h4>In both the CGGA and TCGA datasets, the expression levels of eIF3d, eIF3e, eIF3f, eIF3h and eIF3l highly were associated with the IDH mutant status of gliomas. The expression of eIF3b, eIF3i, eIF3k and eIF3m was increased with the tumor grade, and was associated with poorer overall survival [All Hazard ratio (HR)?>?1 and P?<?0.05]. By contrast, the expression of eIF3a and eIF3l was decreased in higher grade gliomas and was associated with better overall survival (Both HR?<?1 and P?<?0.05). Importantly, the expression of eIF3i (located on chromosome 1p) and eIF3k (Located on chromosome 19q) were the two highest risk factors in both the CGGA [eIF3i HR?=?2.068 (1.425-3.000); eIF3k HR?=?1.737 (1.166-2.588)] and TCGA [eIF3i HR?=?1.841 (1.642-2.064); eIF3k HR?=?1.521 (1.340-1.726)] databases. Among eIF3i, eIF3k alone or in combination, the expression of eIF3i was the more robust in stratifying the survival of glioma in various pathological subgroups. The expression of eIF3i was an independent prognostic factor in IDH-mutant lower grade glioma (LGG) and could also predict the 1p/19q codeletion status of IDH-mutant LGG. Finally, GO and GSEA analysis showed that the elevated expression of eIF3i was significantly correlated with the biological processes of cell proliferation, mRNA processing, translation, T cell receptor signaling, NF-?B signaling and others.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our study reveals the expression alterations during glioma progression, and highlights the prognostic value of eIF3i in IDH-mutant LGG.
Project description:Glioma is a complex disease with limited treatment options. Recent advances have identified isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations in up to 80% lower grade gliomas (LGG) and in 76% secondary glioblastomas (GBM). IDH mutations are also seen in 10%-20% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In AML, it was determined that mutations of IDH and other genes involving epigenetic regulations are early events, emerging in the pre-leukemic stem cells (pre-LSCs) stage, whereas mutations in genes propagating oncogenic signal are late events in leukemia. IDH mutations are also early events in glioma, occurring before TP53 mutation, 1p/19q deletion, etc. Despite these advances in glioma research, studies into other molecular alterations have lagged considerably. In this study, we analyzed currently available databases. We identified EZH2, KMT2C, and CHD4 as important genes in glioma in addition to the known gene IDH1/2. We also showed that genomic alterations of PIK3CA, CDKN2A, CDK4, FIP1L1, or FUBP1 collaborate with IDH mutations to negatively affect patients' survival in LGG. In LGG patients with TP53 mutations or IDH1/2 mutations, additional genomic alterations of EZH2, KMC2C, and CHD4 individually or in combination were associated with a markedly decreased disease-free survival than patients without such alterations. Alterations of EZH2, KMT2C, and CHD4 at genetic level or protein level could perturb epigenetic program, leading to malignant transformation in glioma. By reviewing current literature on both AML and glioma and performing bioinformatics analysis on available datasets, we developed a hypothetical model on the tumorigenesis from premalignant stem cells to glioma.
Project description:Background:Vascular gene expression patterns in lower-grade gliomas (LGGs; diffuse World Health Organization [WHO] grades II-III gliomas) have not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study was to molecularly characterize LGG vessels and determine if tumor isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status affects vascular phenotype. Methods:Gene expression was analyzed using an in-house dataset derived from microdissected vessels and total tumor samples from human glioma in combination with expression data from 289 LGG samples available in the database of The Cancer Genome Atlas. Vascular protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in human brain tumor tissue microarrays (TMAs) representing WHO grades II-IV gliomas and nonmalignant brain samples. Regulation of gene expression was examined in primary endothelial cells in vitro. Results:Gene expression analysis of WHO grade II glioma indicated an intermediate stage of vascular abnormality, less severe than that of glioblastoma vessels but distinct from normal vessels. Enhanced expression of laminin subunit alpha 4 (LAMA4) and angiopoietin 2 (ANGPT2) in WHO grade II glioma was confirmed by staining of human TMAs. IDH wild-type LGGs displayed a specific angiogenic gene expression signature, including upregulation of ANGPT2 and serpin family H (SERPINH1), connected to enhanced endothelial cell migration and matrix remodeling. Transcription factor analysis indicated increased transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) and hypoxia signaling in IDH wild-type LGGs. A subset of genes specifically induced in IDH wild-type LGG vessels was upregulated by stimulation of endothelial cells with TGFβ2, vascular endothelial growth factor, or cobalt chloride in vitro. Conclusion:IDH wild-type LGG vessels are molecularly distinct from the vasculature of IDH-mutated LGGs. TGFβ and hypoxia-related signaling pathways may be potential targets for anti-angiogenic therapy of IDH wild-type LGG.
Project description:Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase genes IDH1 and IDH2 are among the first genetic alterations observed during the development of lower-grade glioma (LGG). LGG-associated IDH mutations confer gain-of-function activity by converting ?-ketoglutarate to the oncometabolite R-2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). Clinical samples and gene expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) demonstrate reduced expression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated genes and IFN-?-inducible chemokines, including CXCL10, in IDH-mutated (IDH-MUT) tumors compared with IDH-WT tumors. Given these findings, we have investigated the impact of IDH mutations on the immunological milieu in LGG. In immortalized normal human astrocytes (NHAs) and syngeneic mouse glioma models, the introduction of mutant IDH1 or treatment with 2HG reduced levels of CXCL10, which was associated with decreased production of STAT1, a regulator of CXCL10. Expression of mutant IDH1 also suppressed the accumulation of T cells in tumor sites. Reductions in CXCL10 and T cell accumulation were reversed by IDH-C35, a specific inhibitor of mutant IDH1. Furthermore, IDH-C35 enhanced the efficacy of vaccine immunotherapy in mice bearing IDH-MUT gliomas. Our findings demonstrate a mechanism of immune evasion in IDH-MUT gliomas and suggest that specific inhibitors of mutant IDH may improve the efficacy of immunotherapy in patients with IDH-MUT gliomas.
Project description:Glioma is the most common of all primary brain tumors with poor prognosis and high mortality. The 2016 World Health Organization classification of the tumors of central nervous system uses molecular parameters in addition to histology to redefine many tumor entities. The new classification scheme divides diffuse gliomas into low-grade glioma (LGG) and glioblastoma (GBM) as per histology. LGGs are further divided into isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) wild type or mutant, which is further classified into either oligodendroglioma that harbors 1p/19q codeletion or diffuse astrocytoma that has an intact 1p/19q loci but enriched for ATRX loss and TP53 mutation. GBMs are divided into IDH wild type that corresponds to primary or de novo GBMs and IDH mutant that corresponds to secondary or progressive GBMs. To make the 2016 WHO subtypes of diffuse gliomas more robust, we carried out Prediction Analysis of Microarrays (PAM) to develop DNA methylation signatures for these subtypes.In this study, we applied PAM on a training set of diffuse gliomas derived from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and identified DNA methylation signatures to classify LGG IDH wild type from LGG IDH mutant, LGG IDH mutant with 1p/19q codeletion from LGG IDH mutant with intact 1p/19q loci and GBM IDH wild type from GBM IDH mutant with an accuracy of 99-100%. The signatures were validated using the test set of diffuse glioma samples derived from TCGA with an accuracy of 96 to 99%. In addition, we also carried out additional validation of all three signatures using independent LGG and GBM cohorts. Further, the methylation signatures identified a fraction of samples as discordant, which were found to have molecular and clinical features typical of the subtype as identified by methylation signatures.Thus, we identified methylation signatures that classified different subtypes of diffuse glioma accurately and propose that these signatures could complement 2016 WHO classification scheme of diffuse glioma.
Project description:Mutations of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and 2 genes occur in ~80% of lower-grade (WHO grade II and grade III) gliomas. Mutant IDH produces (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate, which induces DNA hypermethylation and presumably drives tumorigenesis. Interestingly, IDH mutations are associated with improved survival in glioma patients, but the underlying mechanism for the difference in survival remains unclear. Through comparative analyses of 286 cases of IDH-wildtype and IDH-mutant lower-grade glioma from a TCGA data set, we report that IDH-mutant gliomas have increased expression of tumor-suppressor genes (NF1, PTEN, and PIK3R1) and decreased expression of oncogenes(AKT2, ARAF, ERBB2, FGFR3, and PDGFRB) and glioma progression genes (FOXM1, IGFBP2, and WWTR1) compared with IDH-wildtype gliomas. Furthermore, each of these genes is prognostic in overall gliomas; however, within the IDH-mutant group, none remains prognostic except IGFBP2 (encodinginsulin-like growth factor binding protein 2). Through validation in an independent cohort, we show that patients with low IGFBP2 expressiondisplay a clear advantage in overall and disease-free survival, whereas those with high IGFBP2 expressionhave worse median survival than IDH-wildtype patients. These observations hold true across different histological and molecular subtypes of lower-grade glioma. We propose therefore that an unexpected biological consequence of IDH mutations in glioma is to ameliorate patient survival by promoting tumor-suppressor signaling while inhibiting that of oncogenes, particularly IGFBP2.
Project description:Aggressive neurosurgical resection to achieve sustained local control is essential for prolonging survival in patients with lower-grade glioma. However, progression in many of these patients is characterized by local regrowth. Most lower-grade gliomas harbor isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) or IDH2 mutations, which sensitize to metabolism-altering agents. To improve local control of IDH mutant gliomas while avoiding systemic toxicity associated with metabolic therapies, we developed a precision intraoperative treatment that couples a rapid multiplexed genotyping tool with a sustained release microparticle (MP) drug delivery system containing an IDH-directed nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) inhibitor (GMX-1778). We validated our genetic diagnostic tool on clinically annotated tumor specimens. GMX-1778 MPs showed mutant IDH genotype-specific toxicity in vitro and in vivo, inducing regression of orthotopic IDH mutant glioma murine models. Our strategy enables immediate intraoperative genotyping and local application of a genotype-specific treatment in surgical scenarios where local tumor control is paramount and systemic toxicity is therapeutically limiting.
Project description:The molecular bases for sex differences in cancer remain undefined and how to incorporate them into risk stratification remains undetermined. Given sex differences in metabolism and the inverse correlation between fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake and survival, we hypothesized that glycolytic phenotyping would improve glioma subtyping. Using retrospectively acquired lower-grade glioma (LGG) transcriptome data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we discovered male-specific decreased survival resulting from glycolytic gene overexpression. Patients within this high-glycolytic group showed significant differences in the presence of key genomic alterations (i.e., 1p/19q codeletion, CIC, EGFR, NF1, PTEN, FUBP1, and IDH mutations) compared with the low-glycolytic group. Although glycolytic stratification defined poor prognostic males independent of grade, histology, TP53, and ATRX mutation status, we unexpectedly found that females with high-glycolytic gene expression and wild-type IDH survived longer than all other wild-type patients. Validation with an independent metabolomics dataset from grade 2 gliomas determined that glycolytic metabolites selectively stratified males and also uncovered a potential sexual dimorphism in pyruvate metabolism. These findings identify a potential synergy between patient sex, tumor metabolism, and genomic alterations in determining outcome for glioma patients.
Project description:Tumor-based molecular biomarkers have redefined in the classification gliomas. However, the association of systemic metabolomics with glioma phenotype has not been explored yet.In this study, we conducted two-step (discovery and validation) metabolomic profiling in plasma samples from 87 glioma patients. The metabolomics data were tested for correlation with glioma grade (high vs low), glioblastoma (GBM) versus malignant gliomas, and IDH mutation status.Five metabolites, namely uracil, arginine, lactate, cystamine, and ornithine, significantly differed between high- and low-grade glioma patients in both the discovery and validation cohorts. When the discovery and validation cohorts were combined, we identified 29 significant metabolites with 18 remaining significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Those 18 significant metabolites separated high- from low-grade glioma patients with 91.1% accuracy. In the pathway analysis, a total of 18 significantly metabolic pathways were identified. Similarly, we identified 2 and 6 metabolites that significantly differed between GBM and non-GBM, and IDH mutation positive and negative patients after multiple comparison adjusting. Those 6 significant metabolites separated IDH1 mutation positive from negative glioma patients with 94.4% accuracy. Three pathways were identified to be associated with IDH mutation status. Within arginine and proline metabolism, levels of intermediate metabolites in creatine pathway were all significantly lower in IDH mutation positive than in negative patients, suggesting an increased activity of creatine pathway in IDH mutation positive tumors.Our findings identified metabolites and metabolic pathways that differentiated tumor phenotypes. These may be useful as host biomarker candidates to further help glioma molecular classification.