Project description:Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignancy arising from the biliary tract epithelial cells with poor prognosis. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL)s and programmed cell death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1) have a prognostic impact in various solid tumors. We aimed to investigate TILs and PD-L1 expression and their clinical relevance in cholangiocarcinoma. Tumor samples from 44 patients with resected and histologically verified extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma were evaluated for CD8, CD45RO and PD-L1 expression, and their correlations with clinicopathological data and survival data were analyzed. Total 44 extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma tissues were evaluated. CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL)s were observed in 30 (68%) tumors. Among them, 14 had CD8+CD45RO+ TILs. PD-L1 was expressed on cancer cells in 10 (22.7%) tumors in 34 evaluable extrahepatic cholangiocarciniomas. The presence of CD8+ TILs or CD8+CD45RO+ TILs was not associated with clinical staging or tumor differentiation. Extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with CD8+CD45RO+ TILs had longer overall survival (OS) on univariate (P = 0.013) and multivariate (P = 0.012) analysis. Neither CD8+TIL nor PD-L1 expression on cancer cells correlated significantly with OS. These results add to the understanding of the clinical features associated with CD8 TILs and PD-L1 expression in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and they support the potential rationale of using PD-1 blockade immunotherapy in cholangiocarcinoma.
Project description:Data describing relationships between the tumor immune microenvironment and patient outcome are limited for esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). The present study investigated the prognostic values of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and CD8+ or forkhead box protein 3+ (FOXP3+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in 133 pathological T3N0M0 stage ESCC patients who underwent radical resection without neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy. CD8+ and FOXP3+ TIL densities as well as PD-L1 levels in tumor cells and lymphocytes, were assessed through immunohistochemical staining. Patient survival was not associated with CD8+ or FOXP3+ TILs alone, but PD-L1 expression and the CD8+/FOXP3+ ratio were independent predictors of both disease-free and overall survival. PD-L1 expression correlated with age (p = 0.029), tumor length (p < 0.001), tumor differentiation status (p = 0.002) and reduced intratumoral CD8+ TIL density (p < 0.001). Our results suggest pT3N0M0 ESCC clinical outcomes correlate with CD8+ and FOXP3+ TIL densities and PD-L1 levels. Moreover, an intrinsic mechanism for induction of PD-L1 overexpression may be occurring during early tumor oncogenesis. This information may be useful for stratifying patients and guide the application of checkpoint blockade therapy in ESCC.
Project description:Adoptive transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) can mediate regression of metastatic melanoma; however, TILs are a heterogeneous population, and there are no effective markers to specifically identify and select the repertoire of tumor-reactive and mutation-specific CD8? lymphocytes. The lack of biomarkers limits the ability to study these cells and develop strategies to enhance clinical efficacy and extend this therapy to other malignancies. Here, we evaluated unique phenotypic traits of CD8? TILs and TCR ? chain (TCR?) clonotypic frequency in melanoma tumors to identify patient-specific repertoires of tumor-reactive CD8? lymphocytes. In all 6 tumors studied, expression of the inhibitory receptors programmed cell death 1 (PD-1; also known as CD279), lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG-3; also known as CD223), and T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (TIM-3) on CD8? TILs identified the autologous tumor-reactive repertoire, including mutated neoantigen-specific CD8? lymphocytes, whereas only a fraction of the tumor-reactive population expressed the costimulatory receptor 4-1BB (also known as CD137). TCR? deep sequencing revealed oligoclonal expansion of specific TCR? clonotypes in CD8?PD-1? compared with CD8?PD-1- TIL populations. Furthermore, the most highly expanded TCR? clonotypes in the CD8? and the CD8?PD-1? populations recognized the autologous tumor and included clonotypes targeting mutated antigens. Thus, in addition to the well-documented negative regulatory role of PD-1 in T cells, our findings demonstrate that PD-1 expression on CD8? TILs also accurately identifies the repertoire of clonally expanded tumor-reactive cells and reveal a dual importance of PD-1 expression in the tumor microenvironment.
Project description:One histopathological characteristic of intracranial germinoma is abundant tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) showing a two-cell pattern with large undifferentiated tumor cells. The programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death 1 ligand (PD-L) axis has recently been recognized as an anti-tumor immune system. To evaluate intratumor immune status in intracranial germinoma, we examined expressions of PD-1 and PD-L1 (clone 28-8) and subtypes of TILs. Expressions of PD-1 and PD-L1 were detected immunohistochemically in 25 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor specimens from 24 patients with intracranial germinoma consisting of 22 primary and 3 recurrent tumors. To evaluate subtypes of TILs, quantification of lymphocytes with CD3, CD8, CD4, and Foxp3 was performed. Statistical analyses were performed among PD-1, PD-L1 and subtypes of TILs. In 25 tumor tissue, expressions of PD-1 in TILs and PD-L1 in tumor cells were identified in 96% (24/25) and 92% (23/25), respectively. Expression of PD-1 was associated with CD3+ TIL density. Expression of PD-1 correlated with Foxp3+ TIL density and CD8+ TIL density, but not with CD4+ TIL density. Furthermore, expression of PD-1 correlated strongly with Foxp3+/CD4+ ratio. Taken together, increase of PD-1+ expression is associated with accumulation of Foxp3+ and CD8+ TILs. These findings intimate that PD-1/PD-L1 axis might shape the immune infiltration suggesting a modulation of the immune response and subsequent tumor growth in intracranial germinoma. Anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 are potential immune therapeutic strategies in intracranial germinoma.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) therapy is a personalized cancer treatment which involves generating ex vivo cultures of tumor-reactive T cells from surgically resected tumors and administering the expanded TILs as a therapeutic infusion. Phase 1 of many TIL production protocols use aldesleukin (IL-2) alone to establish TIL cultures (termed "PreREP" (Pre-Rapid Expansion Protocol)); however, this fails to consistently produce TIL cultures from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in a timely manner. Adding mitogenic stimulation via anti-CD3/anti-CD28 beads along with IL-2 to the fresh tumor digest (FTD) during TIL generation (termed "FTD+ beads") increases successful TIL culture rates; however, T cells produced by this method may be suboptimal for adoptive transfer. We hypothesize that adherent cell depletion (ACD) before TIL expansion will produce a superior TIL product by removing the immunosuppressive signals originating from adherent tumor and stromal cells. Here we investigate if "panning," a technique for ACD prior to TIL expansion, will impact the phenotype, functionality and/or clonality of ex vivo expanded RCC TILs. METHODS:Tumor specimens from 55 patients who underwent radical or partial nephrectomy at the University of Kansas Medical Center (KUMC) were used to develop the panning method and an additional 19 specimens were used to validate the protocol. Next-generation sequencing, immunohistochemistry/immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry were used during method development. The phenotype, functionality and clonality of autologous TILs generated in parallel by panning, PreREP, and FTD+ beads were assessed by flow cytometry, in vitro co-culture assays, and TCRB CDR3 sequencing. RESULTS:TIL cultures were successfully generated using the panning protocol from 15/16 clear cell, 0/1 chromophobe, and 0/2 papillary RCC samples. Significantly fewer regulatory (CD4+/CD25+/FOXP3+) (p=0.049, p=0.005), tissue-resident memory (CD8+/CD103+) (p=0.027, p=0.009), PD-1+/TIM-3+ double-positive (p=0.009, p=0.011) and TIGIT+ T?cells (p=0.049, p=0.026) are generated by panning relative to PreREP and FTD+ beads respectively. Critically, a subset of TILs generated by panning were able to degranulate and/or produce interferon gamma in response to autologous tumor cells and the average tumor-reactive TIL yield was greatest when using the panning protocol. CONCLUSIONS:Removing immunosuppressive adherent cells within an RCC digest prior to TIL expansion allow for the rapid production of tumor-reactive T cells with optimal characteristics for adoptive transfer.
Project description:Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) may represent a viable source of T cells for the biological treatment of patients with gliomas. Glioma tissue was obtained from 16 patients, tumor cell lines were established, and TILs were expanded in 16/16 cases using a combination of IL-2/IL-15/IL-21. Intracellular cytokine staining (ICS, IL-2, IL-17, TNF? and IFN? production) as well as a cytotoxicity assay was used to detect TIL reactivity against autologous tumor cells or shared tumor-associated antigens (TAAs; i.e., NY-ESO-1, Survivin or EGFRvIII). TILs were analyzed by flow cytometry, including T-cell receptor (TCR) V? family composition, exhaustion/activation and T-cell differentiation markers (CD45RA/CCR7). IL-2/IL-15/IL-21 expanded TILs exhibited a mixture of CD4+, CD8+, as well as CD3+ CD4-CD8- T cells with a predominant central memory CD45RA-CCR7+ phenotype. TIL showed low frequencies of T cells testing positive for PD-1, TIM-3 and CTLA-4. LAG3 tested positive in up to 30% of CD8+ TIL, with low (1.25%) frequencies in CD4+ T cells. TIL cultures exhibited preferential usage of V? families and recognition of autologous tumor cells defined by cytokine production and cytotoxicity. IL-2/IL-15/IL-21 expanded TILs represent a viable source for the cellular therapy of patients with gliomas.
Project description:Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is suggested to be a predictive biomarker in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). However, the differential expression of PD-L1 in primary lung tumor vs. synchronous metastases, especially brain metastasis (BM), remains unclear. This study assessed the concordance of PD-L1 expression on tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and CD8+ TIL intensity between primary lung tumors and synchronous BMs from 24 NSCLC patients. PD-L1, CD3, and CD8 positivity was determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). PD-L1 scoring was based on the proportion of tumor cells with membranous expression of PD-L1 and the cutoff values <1%, 1-49%, and ?50%. CD3 and CD8 positivity in TILs was evaluated semi-quantitatively and the proportion of CD3+/CD8+ TILs was determined. PD-L1 expression on tumor cells and TILs was evaluated in relation to CD3+/CD8+ TIL proportions and the intensity of CD8+ TILs between the paired primary lung and BM tissues. In the primary lung tumors, PD-L1 positivity was observed in 25%, 37.5%, and 37.5% cases for the cutoff values <1%, 1-49%, and ?50%, respectively. PD-L1 expression on tumor cells was strongly correlated between the paired primary lung and BM tissues, in all cutoff groups. However, PD-L1 expression on TILs and the proportion of CD3+/CD8+ TILs were not strongly correlated in all three groups between the paired primary lung tumors and BMs. The intensity of CD8+ TILs was concordant in only 54.16% of the paired primary lung tumors and BMs. This study showed a high concordance of PD-L1 expression in neoplastic cells between primary NSCLC and synchronous BMs.
Project description:Adoptive cell transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) can mediate cancer regression in patients with metastatic melanoma, but whether this approach can be applied to common epithelial malignancies remains unclear. In this study, we compared the phenotype and function of TILs derived from liver and lung metastases from patients with gastrointestinal (GI) cancers (n = 14) or melanoma (n = 42). Fewer CD3(+) T cells were found to infiltrate GI compared with melanoma metastases, but the proportions of CD8(+) cells, T cell differentiation stage, and expression of costimulatory molecules were similar for both tumor types. Clinical-scale expansion up to ~50 × 10(9) T cells on average was obtained for all patients with GI cancer and melanoma. From GI tumors, however, TIL outgrowth in high-dose IL-2 yielded 22 ± 1.4% CD3(+)CD8(+) cells compared with 63 ± 2.4% from melanoma (p < 0.001). IFN-γ ELISA demonstrated MHC class I-mediated reactivity of TIL against autologous tumor in 5 of 7 GI cancer patients tested (9% of 188 distinct TIL cultures) and in 9 of 10 melanoma patients (43% of 246 distinct TIL cultures). In these assays, MHC class I-mediated up-regulation of CD137 (4-1BB) expression on CD8(+) cells suggested that 0-3% of TILs expanded from GI cancer metastases were tumor-reactive. This study implies that the main challenge to the development of TIL adoptive cell transfer for metastatic GI cancers may not be the in vitro expansion of bulk TILs, but the ability to select and enrich for tumor-reactive T cells.
Project description:Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) with autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) can induce durable complete tumor regression in patients with advanced melanoma. Efforts are currently underway to expand this treatment modality to other cancer types. In the microenvironment of ovarian cancer, the engagement of co-inhibitory immune checkpoint molecules such as CTLA-4 can lead to the inactivation of TILs. Thus, approaches that directly manipulate co-inhibitory pathways within the tumor microenvironment might improve the expansion of tumor-reactive TILs. The initial expansion of TILs for ACT from tumor fragments provides a window of opportunity to manipulate an intact tumor microenvironment and improve CD8+ T-cell output and TIL tumor reactivity. To exploit this, we used a CTLA-4-blocking antibody, added during the initial TIL culture, and found that the blockade of CTLA-4 favored the propagation of CD8+ TILs from ovarian tumor fragments. Interestingly, adding the CTLA-4 blocking antibody in the initial phase of the TIL culture resulted in more potent anti-tumor TILs in comparison to standard TIL cultures. This phenotype was preserved during the rapid expansion phase. Thus, targeting CTLA-4 within the intact tumor microenvironment of tumor fragments enriches tumor-reactive TILs and may improve clinical outcome of TIL-based ACT in ovarian cancer.
Project description:Upregulation of CD137 (4-1BB) on recently activated CD8(+) T cells has been used to identify rare viral or tumor antigen-specific T cells from peripheral blood. Here, we evaluated the immunobiology of CD137 in human cancer and the utility of a CD137-positive separation methodology for the identification and enrichment of fresh tumor-reactive tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) or tumor-associated lymphocytes (TAL) from ascites for use in adoptive immunotherapy.TILs from resected ovarian cancer or melanoma were measured for surface CD137 expression directly or after overnight incubation in the presence of tumor cells and homeostatic cytokines. CD137(pos) TILs were sorted and evaluated for antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo.Fresh ovarian TILs and TALs naturally expressed higher levels of CD137 than circulating T cells. An HLA-dependent increase in CD137 expression was observed following incubation of fresh enzyme-digested tumor or ascites in IL-7 and IL-15 cytokines, but not IL-2. Enriched CD137(pos) TILs, but not PD-1(pos) or PD-1(neg) CD137(neg) cells, possessed autologous tumor reactivity in vitro and in vivo. In melanoma studies, all MART-1-specific CD8(+) TILs upregulated CD137 expression after incubation with HLA-matched, MART-expressing cancer cells and antigen-specific effector function was restricted to the CD137(pos) subset in vitro. CD137(pos) TILs also mediated superior antitumor effects in vivo, compared with CD137(neg) TILs.Our findings reveal a role for the TNFR-family member CD137 in the immunobiology of human cancer where it is preferentially expressed on tumor-reactive subset of TILs, thus rationalizing its agonistic engagement in vivo and its use in TIL selection for adoptive immunotherapy trials.